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the chamber. The common hunt's '.house used to be at the Dog-house bar in the City-road.
the third squire is Mr. Common Crier, whose duty it is to attend his lordship with the mace to the courts of aldermen and common council, common halls, and courts of hustings: he is in waiting every Tuesday and Thursday; and whenever the lord mayor wears his scarlet robes, attends him with the mace. His dress is a damask gown and counsellor's wig: he had apartments at Aldersgate. Formerly this place was purchased, but not within the memory of man.
The fourth squire is the water-bailiff, who is empowered by the lord mayor to act as sub-conservator of the Thames and Medway. He is in waiting every Friday and Saturday, every third Sunday, and all public days. Dress, damask gown. Had apartments at Cripplegate. This is now likewise a gift place.
The four attornies used to attend his lordship in turn, weekly, to advise him in his magisterial capacity; but this part of their duty has now become obsolete, and has devolved to Mr. Hobler.
To the lord mayor's household also properly belong three serjeant carvers, three Serjeants of the chamber, one Serjeant of the channel, one yeoman of the chamber, two marshals, four yeomen of the water-side, one yeoman of the channel, one under water-bailiff, six young men.
The members of the household, with the exception of the four squires, attornies, and marshals, had the privilege of alienating their places on payment of 50/. to the corporation; but if they died without paying this fine, their places lapsed to the city, and the value of them was consequently lost to their family. But let the one who sold hold what situation he might in this little republic, the purchaser was admitted to only (the lowest rank, that of junior young man, that all below the one who sold might rise a step.
The gentlemen were in waiting on Ixed days; sometimes the whole num* >er, at others only a part, and at these imes were entitled to a dinner, and on my extra occasion when the sword was arried: there was a bill of fare for each lay. At table, the marshals were the awest above the salt. This was formerly iade of pewter, but in the year , carver presented the table with one of
silver, nearly similar in form. The pewter one was used in the servants' hall until it was rendered useless by the intro duction of board wages. Except the squires, attornies, and marshals, the household now all wear black gowns, id form like those of the livery, made of prince's stuff faced with velvet, though formerly they were curious enough. Divided as if by a herald into two parts, dexter and sinister, one side was formed of the colours distinguishing the lord mayor's livery, and the other those of the two sheriffs.
On Plough Sunday his lordship goes to church to qualify, when two of the yeomen of the water-side attend, that they may depose to this fact at the next sessions. On the Monday his lordship keeps wassail with his household, and with his lady presides at the head of their table. This used indeed to be a gala day; but elegance now takes place of profusion and hilarity. Formerly they could scarcely see their opposite neighbour for the piles of sweetmeats; but these have disappeared to make way for the city plate and artificial flowers. The lady mayoress is generally accompanied by^two or three ladies, to obviate the unpleasantness of finding herself the only female among so many strangers : the chaplain on that day takes the lower end of the table. The yeoman of the cellar is stationed behind his lordship, and at the conclusion of the dinner produces two silver cups filled with negus, and giving them to his lord and lady, proclaims with a loud voice, "Mr. Sword-bearer, squires, and gentlemen all! my lord mayor and lady mayoress drink to you in a loving cup, and bid you all heartily welcome! After drinking, they pass the cups down each side of the table, for all to partake and drink their healths. When the ladies retire the chaplain leads her ladyship, and after a few songs his lordship follows. Then a mighty silver bowl of punch was introduced, and a collection amounting to nearly 151. used to be made for the servants. They were all introduced, from the stately housekeeper to the kitchen girl, in merry procession to accept the largess, taste the punch, and perhaps the cook or a pretty housemaid did not escape without a kiss. This was not the only day on which the servants partook of the bounty of the gentlemen. Every Saturday there was a collection of three shillings and sixpence from the sword. bearer and the other squire, and one shilling and sixpence from the other individuals. This was termed cellarage, and was divided between the yeoman of the cellar and the butler. But these golden days are over. Since the days of the Fitzaleyns and Whiltmgtons, it has been found expedient to make the lord mayors an allowance to enable them, or rather assist them, to maintain the hospitality and splendour of their station; but such is the perverseness of human nature, that as this has from time to time been increased, the gorgeousness of the display seems to have decreased. The following are the receipts and expenses of Mr. Wilkes during his mayoralty:
Payments from the chain- £. t. d. berlain's office - - 23T2 8 4
Cockct office - - 702 5 6J
Gauger - 250 0 0
Annual present of plate
from the Jews - 50 0 0
Lessees of Smithfield-mar
ket - • 10 0 0
Licenses - - 4 10 0
From the bridge-house towards the feast - 50 0 0
Alienation of a young
man's place - 40 0 0
Sale of ayoungman's place 1000 0 0
Presentation of the sheriffs 13 6 8
For keeping the mansionhouse in order - - 100 0 0
Six freedoms to the lord
mayor - - - 150 0 0
In lieu of buckets - COO
Licensing the sessions
paper - - - 130 0 0
From Mr. Roberts, comptroller, for the importation fee - - 10 10 0
The rant was first discontinued by sir Brooke Watson, because it was always customary to have it in passion week. The allowance has since had an increase of 3000/. This liberality on the part of the corporation, instead of exciting a corresponding feeling on the part of their magistrates, seems rather to have raised in them a spirit of cupidity, and of late years, on many occasions, the office seems to have been undertaken on a kind el speculation for saving money. Thouji allowed 1500/. a year for the swordbearer's table, every chicken and bottle of wine began to be grudged; and after repeated appeals by the household to the court of common council, on account of the shabby reductions successively made, and which were considered as unjust, they had purchased their places with the usual privileges, the corporation enscluded a treaty with them a short time ag°i by which a specified sum of morar was secured to each individual, either cc giving up his place, or at his death to be paid to his family. They have of course given up the right of alienating thee places, and thus perpetuating the system The corporation have thus gained an extensive increase of patronage; though At number of officers is to be reduced as tfc places fall in. But some of the nkf. ;<• below the chair were rather disagreeah; surprised at the result; for the ooromrf council very justly deducted the 1 500J. a which the expense of the table was generally" calculated, from his lordship' allowance. I am, &c.
The lord mayor's household, scarcely known in its constitution by the citizens whom the lord mayor selects for his visitors, is well set forth by the preceding letter of a valuable correspondent. It concerns all who are interested in the maintenance of civic splendour, and especially those who are authorized to regulate it. Such papers, and indeed any thing regarding the customs of London, will always be acceptable to the readers of this work, who have not until now been indulged with information by those who have the power to give it. The EveryDay Book is a collection of ancient and present usages and manners, wherein such contributions are properly respected, and by the Editor they are always thankfully received.
On Michaelmas-day the sheriffs of London, previously chosen, are solemnly sworn into office, and the lord mayor is elected for the year ensuing.
Pennant speaking of the mercers' company, which by no means implied originally a dealer in silks, (for mercery included all sorts of small wares, toys, and haberdashery,) says, "This company is the first of the twelve, or such who are honoured with the privilege of the lord mayor's being elected out of one of them." If the lord mayor did not belong to either of the twelve, it was the practice for him to be translated to one of the favoured companies. The custom was discontinued in- the mayoralty of Sir Brook Watson, in 1796, and has not been revived. E. I. C.
The "Gentleman's Magazine" notices a singular custom at Kidderminster—" On the election of a bailiff the inhabitants assemble in the principal streets to throw cabbage stalks at each other. The town-house bell gives signal for the affray. This is called lawless hour. This done, (for it lasts an hour,) the bailiff elect and corporation, in their robes, preceded by drums and fifes, (for they have no waits,) visit the old and new bailiff, constables, &c. &c. attended by the mob. In the mean time the most respectable families in the neighbourhood are invited, to meet and fling apples at them on their entrance. I have known forty pots of apples expended at one house."
'» Michaelmas Goose.
"September, when by custom (right divine) i Geese are ordain'd to bleed at Michael's shrine.", Churchill.
Mr. Brand notices the English custom of having a roast goose to dinner on Michaelmas-day. He cites Blount as felling us that" goose-intentos" is a word used in Lancashire, where " the husbandmen claim it as a due to have a goose intentos on the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost; which custom took origin from the last word of the old church-prayer of that day: 'Tua, nos quaesumus, domine, gratia semper praveniat et sequitur; ac bonis openbus jugiter prsestet esse intentos.' The common people very humourously mistake it for a goose with ten toes." To this Mr. Brand objects, on the authority of Beckwith, in his new edition of the Jocular Tenures: that "besides that the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost, or after Trinity rather, being movable, and seldom falling upon Michaelmas-day, which is an immovable feast, the service for that day could very rarely be used at Michaelmas, there does not appear to be the most distant allusion to a goose in the words of that prayer. Probably no other reason can be given for this custom, but that Michaelmas-day was a great festival, and geese at that time most plentiful. In Denmark, where the harvest is later, every family has a roasted goose for supper on St. Martin's Eve."/it'Jfcnry
Mr. Douce is quoted by Mr. Brand, as saying, " I have somewhere seen the following reason for eating goose on Michaelmas-day, viz. that queen Elizabeth received the news of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, whilst she was eating a goose on Michaelmas-day, and that in commemoration of that event she ever afterwards on that day dined on a goose." This Mr. Brand regards as strong proof that the custom prevailed even at court in queen Elizabeth's time; and observing that it was in use in the tenth year of king Edward the Fourth, as will be shown presently, he represents it to have been a practice in queen Elizabeth's reign, before the event of the Spanish defeat, from the Posies of Gascoigne, published in 1575.
"And when the tenauntes come
At Christm&sse a ctpon,
at Michaelmaise A GOOSE;
So also the periodical paper called "The World," represents that "When the reformation of the calendar was in agitation, to the great disgust of many worthy persons who urged how great the harmony was in the old establishment between the holidays and their attributes (if I may call them so,) and what confusion would follow if Michaelmas-day, for instance, was not to be celebrated when stubble -geese are- in their highest perfection i it was replied, that such a propriety was merely imaginary, and would be lost of itself, even without any alteration of the calendar by authority: for if the errors in it were suffered to go on, they would in a certain number of years produce such a variation, that we should be mourning for a good king Charles on a false thirtieth of January, at a time of year when our ancestors used to be tumbling over head and heels in Greenwichpark in honour of Whitsuntide: and at length be choosing king and queen for Twelfth Night, when we ought to be admiring the London prentice at Bartholomew-fair."
According to Brand, geese are eaten by ploughmen at the harvest-home; and it is a popular saying, "If you eat goose on Michaelmas-day you will never want money all the year round."
In 1470, John de la Hay took of William Barnaby, lord of Lastres, in the county of Hereford, one parcel of the land of that demesne, rendering twenty-pence a year, and one goose fit for the lord's dinner on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, with suit of court and other
St. Michael's cake, and all .'strangers,'together with those of the family, must eat the bread that night." We read too, in Macauley's History, that "It was, till of late, a universal custom among the islanders, on Michaelmas-day, to prepare in every family a loaf or cake of bread, enormously large, and compounded of different ingredients. This cake belonged to the Archangel, and had its name from him. Every one in each family, whether strangers or domestics, had his portion of this kind of shew-bread, and had, of course, some title to the friendship and protection of Michael."
Macauley, in the History of St. Kilih. says, that "In Ireland a sheep was killed in every family that could afford one, as' the same anniversary; and it was ordained by law that a part of it should be given to the poor. This, and a great deal mors was done in that kingdom, to perpetnitt the memory of a miracle wrought there by St. Patrick through the assistance or the Archangel. In commemoration of this, Michaelmas was instituted a festival day of joy, plenty, and universal beneTolence."
According to Martin, in his Description of the Western Islands of Scotland, the protestant inhabitants of Skie, observe the festivals of Christmas, Easter, Good Friday, and that of St. Michael, on which latter day they have a cavalcade in each parish, and several families bake the cake called St. Michael's bannock. So also, "They have likewise a general cavalcade on St. Michael's day in Kilbar village, and do then also take a turn round their
church. Every family, as soon as the
solemnity is ended, is accustomed to bake where else;
Ganging Day. Mr. Brand found in a London news- paper of October 18, 1787, the following extraordinary septennial custom * Bishops Stortford, in Hertfordshire, and in the adjacent neighbourhood, on ca Michaelmas-day: "On the morning <s this day, called Ganging day, a gre£ number of young men assemble in Uw fields, when a very active fellow is nominated the leader. This person they are bound to follow, who, for the sake of diversion, generally chooses the rout throng ponds, ditches, and places of difficult pas sage. Every person they meet is boiuped, male or female; which is perfonneby two other persons taking them up If their arms, and swinging them again each other. The women in general ksr at home at this period, except those less scrupulous character, who, for sake of partaking of a gallon of ale an;: plnmb-cake, which every landlord or pelican is obliged to furnish the revcttr with, generally spend the best part of unight in the fields, if the weather is tm it being strictly according to ac t not to partake of the cheer B
M. Stevenson, in" u The Twelve Moneths, Lond. 1661, 4to." mentions the following superstition; I," They say, so many dayes old the moon is on Michaelmass-day, so many floods after." (
Anecdote of a Goose.
An amusing account of a Canada goose once the property of Mr. Sharpe, at Little Grove, near East Barnet, was inserted by that gentleman in his copy of " Willughby's Ornithology." He says:—
The following account of a Canada goose is so extraordinary, that I am aware it would with difficulty gain credit, were not a whole parish able to vouch for the truth of it. The Canada geese are not fond of a poultry-yard, but are rather of a rambling disposition. One of these birds, however, was observed to attach itself, in the strongest and most affectionate manner, to the house-dog; and would never quit the kennel, except for the purpose of feeding, when it would return again immediately. It always sat by the dog; but never presumed to go into the kennel, except in rainy weather. Whenever [the dog barked, the goose would cackle and run at the person she supposed the dog barked at, and try to bite him by the heels. Sometimes she would attempt to feed with the dog; but this the dog, who treated his faithful companion rather with indifference, would not suffer.
This bird would not go to roost with the others at night, unless driven by main force; and when, m the morning, she was turned into the field, she would never stir from the yard gate, but sit there the whole day, in sight of the dog. At last, orders
were given that she should be no longer molested, but suffered to accompany the dog as she liked: being thus left to herself, she ran about the yard with him all the night; and what is particularly extraordinary, and can be attested by the whole parish, whenever the dog went out of the yard and ran into the village, the goose always accompanied him, contriving to keep up with him by the assistance of her wings; and in this way of running and flying, followed him all over the parish.
This extraordinary affection of the goose towards the dog, which continued till his death, two years after it was first observed, is supposed to have originated from his having accidentally saved her from a fox in the very moment of distress. While the dog was ill, the goose never quitted him day or night, not even to feed; and it was apprehended that she would have been starved to death, had not orders been given for a pan of corn to be set every day close to the kennel. At this time the goose generally sat in the kennel, and would not suffer any one to approach it,except the person who brought the dog's or her own food. The end of this faithful bird was melancholy; for, when the dog died, she would still keep possession of the kennel; and a new house-dog being introduced, which in size and colour resembled that lately lost, the poor goose was unhappily deceived; and going into the kennel as usual, the new inhabitant seized her by the throat, and killed her.
J Michaelmas-day is one of the "four usual quarter days, or days for payment of rent in the year.",
Notice to quit.
To All gad-flies and gnats, famed for even-tide hum,
Whereas, on complaint lodged before me this day,'