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observationibus. Et hic error inferior to those glittering observvalde cruciavit pias conscientias, ances. And this error did greatly quæ dolebant se teneri imper- torment pious consciences, which

fecto vito genere, in conjugio, in were grieved that they were held magistratibus, aut aliis functio- by an imperfect kind of life, in marnibus civilibus, mirabantur mo- riage, in magistracy, or in other civnachos et similes, et falso puta- il functions. They had the monks, bant illorum observationes Deo and such like, in admiration, and gratiores esse.

falsely imagined that the observances of these men were more grate

ful to God than their own. Tertio, traditiones attulerunt Thirdly, traditions brought great magna pericula conscientiis, quia danger to men's consciences, beimpossibile erat omnes traditio- cause it was impossible to keep all nes servare, et tamen homines traditions, and yet men thought the arbitrabantur has observationes observation of them to be necesnecessarios esse cultus. Gerson sary services. Gerson writeth that scribit, "multos incidisse in de- 'many fell into despair, and some sperationem, quosdam etiam sibi murdered themselves, because they mortem conscivisse, quia sense- perceived that they could not keep rant, se non posse satisfacere the traditions; and all this while traditionibus, et interim consola- they never heard the comfort of the tionem nullam de justitia fidei righteousness of faith, or of grace. et de gratia audierant. Vide- We see the Summists and Divines mus Summistas et Theologos gather together the traditions, and colligere traditiones, et quærere seek qualifications of them, to unŠmleikelas, ut levent conscientias, burden men's consciences; and yet non satis tamen expediunt, sed all will not serve, but meantime they interdum magis injiciunt la- bring more snares upon the conqueos conscientiis.

Et in colli- science. The schools and pulpits gendis traditionibus ita fuerunt have been so busied in gathering occupato scholæ et conciones, ut together the traditions, that they non vacaverit attingere Scriptu- had not leisure to touch the Scripram, et quærere utiliorem doc- ture, and to seek out a more profittrinam de fide, de cruce, de spe, able doctrine—of faith, of the cross, de dignitate civilium rerum, de of hope, of the dignity of civil af

consolatione conscientiarum in ar-fairs, of the comfort of conscience duis tentationibus. Itaque Gerson in arduous trials. Wherefore Geret alii quidam Theologi graviter son and some other Divines have questi sunt, se his rixis traditio- inade grievous complaints, that they num impediri, quo minus ver- were hindered by these strifes about sari possent in meliore genere traditions, so that they could not be doctrinae. Et Augustinus vetat occupied in some better kind of doconerare conscientias hujusmodi trine. And Augustine forbiddeth observationibus, et prudenter ad- that men's consciences should be monet Januarium, ut sciat eas burdened with observations of this indifferenter observandas esse ; sic kind, and doth very prudently warn enim loquitur.

Januarius to know that they are to be observed as things indifferent;

for he so speaketh. Quare nostri non debent vi Wherefore our ministers must deri hanc causam temere atti- not be thought to have touched gisse, aut odio episcoporum, this matter rashly, or from hatred ut quidam falso

falso suspicantur. of the bishops, as some do falsely Magna necessitas fuit, de illis surmise There was great need erroribus, qui nati erant ex tra- to admonish the churches of those ditionibus male intellectis, ad errors, which did arise from mismonere ecclesias. Nam Evange- taking of traditions; for the Goslium cogit urgere doctrinam in pel compelleth men to urge the docecclesiis de gratia et justitia trine of grace and of the righteousfidei, quæ tamen intelligi non ness of faith in the Church; which potest, si putent homines se me- yet can never be understood if men reri gratiam per observationes ab suppose that they can merit remisipsis electas. Sic igitur docue- sion of sins and justification by obrunt, quod per observationem servances of their own choice. Thus, traditionum humanarum non therefore, they teach us that we can possimus gratiam mereri, aut not merit grace or justification by justificari, quare non est sen- the observation of man's traditions; tiendum, quod hujusmodi obser- and therefore we must not think vationes sint necessarius cultus. that such observations are neces

sary service.

Addunt testimonia ex Scriptu

Hereunto they add testimonies

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ra. Christus (Matt. xv. 3) exou- out of the Scriptures. Christ exsat Apostolos, qui non servaverant cuseth his Apostles who kept not usitatam traditionem, quce tamen the received tradition (which yet videbatur de re non illicita, seemed to be about a matter not sed media esse, et habere cogna- unlawful, but indifferent, and to tionem cum baptismatibus legis ; have some affinity with the bapet dicit (ver. 9): Frustra colunt tisms of the law), and saith, “ They me mandatis hominum.' Igitur worship me in vain with the comnon exigit cultum inutilem. Et mandments of men' (Matt. xv. 9). paulo post addit (ver. 11): Om- Christ, therefore, exacteth no unne quod intrat in 08, non inqui- profitable service. And a little nat hominem.' Item (Rom. xiv. after, he addeth : Whatsoever en17): Regnum Dei non est esca tereth in at the mouth defileth not aut potus.' Col. ii. 16: 'Nemo ju- the man' (ver. 11). So also (Paul): dicet vos in cibo, potu, sabbato | The kingdom of God is not meat aut die festo. Item (ver. 20 sq.): and drink' (Rom. xv. 17). “Let no Si mortui estis cum Christo ab man judge you in meat or drink, elementis mundi, quare tanquam or in respect of the Sabbath-days, viventes in mundo decreta faci- or of a holiday' (Col. ii. 16). Again: tis : Ne attingas, ne gustes, ne 'If ye be dead with Christ from contrectes?

the rudiments of the world, why, as though ye lived in the world, are ye subject to traditions: Touch not,

taste not, handle not ?' (ver. 20, 21). Ait Petrus (Acts xv. 10, 11): Peter saith, 'Why tempt ye God, Quare tentatis Deum, impo- laying a yoke upon the necks of nentes jugum super cervices di- the disciples, which neither we nor scipulorum, quod neque nos ne- our fathers were able to bear? But que patres nostri portare potui- we believe that through the grace mus, sed per gratiam Domini of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall nostri Jesu Christi credimus sal- be saved, even as they' (Acts xv. vari, quemadmodum et illi.' Hic 10,11). Here Peter forbiddeth to vetat Petrus onerare. conscien- burden the consciences with many tias pluribus ritibus sive Mosi, rites, whether they be of Moses' or sive aliis. Et (1 Tim. iv. 1-3) vo- of any others' appointing. And he cat prohibitionem ciborum doc- (Paul) calleth the forbidding of

our

trinam dæmoniorum, quia pu- | meats' a doctrine of devils' (1 Tim. gnat cum Evangelio, talia opera iv. 1), because that it is against the instituere aut facere, ut per ea Gospel to appoiņt or do such works, mereamur gratiam, aut quod to the end that by them we may non possit existere Christiani- merit grace or justification, or as Smus sine tali cultu.

though Christianity could not exist

without such service. Hic objiciunt adversarii, quod Here adversaries object nostri prohibeant disciplinam et against us, that our ministers hinmortificationem carnis, sicut Jo- der all good discipline and mortivinianus. Verum aliud depro- fication of the flesh, as Jovinian did. hendetur ex scriptis nostrorum. But the contrary may be seen by our Semper enim docuerunt de cruce, men's writings. For they have alquod Christianos oporteat tol-, ways taught, touching the cross, that lerare afflictiones. Hæc est, vera, Christians ought to bear afflictions. seria et non simulata mortifica- This is the true, earnest, and untio, variis afflictionibus exerceri feigned mortification, to be exeret crucifigi cum Christo. Insu- cised with divers afflictions, and to per docent, quod quilibet Christi- be crucified with Christ. Moreanus debeat se corporali disci- over they teach that every Chrisplina aut corporalibus exercitiis tian must so by bodily discipline, et laboribus sic exercere et coer- or bodily exercises and labor, exercere, ne saturitas aut desidia cise and keep himself under, that extimulet ad peccandum, non ut plenty and sloth do not stimulate per illa exercitia mereamur gra: him to sin; not that he may by tiam, aut satis faciamus pro such exercises merit grace, or satispeccatis. Et hanc corporalem fy for sins. And this corporal discidisciplinam oportet semper ur- pline should be used always, not gere, non solum paucis et con-only on a few and set days; accordstitutis diebus. Sicut Christus ing to the commandment of Christ: præcipit (Luke xxi. 34):. 'Cavete, "Take heed lest your hearts be overne corpora vestra graventur cra- charged with surfeiting' (Luke xxi. pula. Item (Matt. xvii. 21): 'Hoc 34). Again : “This kind (of devgenus dæmoniorum non ejicitur ils) goeth not ont but by prayer nisi jejunio et oratione.' Et and fasting' (Matt. xvii. 21). And Paulus ait (1 Cor. ix. 27): · Cas- Paul saith, “I keep under my body,

tigo corpus meum, et redigo in and bring it into subjection' (1 Cor. servitutem. Ubi clare ostendit, ix. 27), where he plainly showeth se ideo castigare corpus, non ut that he did therefore chastise his per eam disciplinam mereatur body; not that by that discipline remissionem peccatorum, sed ut he might merit remission of sins, corpus habeat obnoxium et ido- but that his body might be apt neum ad res spirituales et ad and fit for spiritual things, and to

faciendum officium juxta voca- do his duty according to his calltionem suam. Itaque non dam- ing. Therefore we do not connantur ipsa jejunia, sed tradi- demn fasts themselves, but the tiones, quæ certos dies, certos ci- traditions which prescribe certain bos præscribunt, cum periculo days and certain meats, with danconscientiæ, tanquam istiusmodi ger to the conscience, as though opera sint necessarius cultus. such works as these were a neces

sary service.

Servantur tamen apud nos ple Yet most of the traditions are ræque traditiones, quæ conducunt observed among us which tend unad hoc, ut res ordine geratur in to this end, that things may be done Ecclesia; ut ordo lectionum in orderly in the Church; as, namely, Missa et præcipuæ feriæ. Sed the order of Lessons in the Mass interim homines admonentur, and the chiefest holidays. But, in quod talis cultus non justificet the mean time, men are admonished coram Deo, et quod non sit po- that such a service doth not justify nendum peccatum in talibus re- before God, and that it is not to be bus, si omittantur sine scandalo. supposed there is sin in such things, Hæc libertas in ritibus humanis if they be left undone, without scan non fuit ignota Patribus. Nam dal. This liberty in human rites in Oriente alio tempore servave- and ceremonies was not unknown runt Pascha quam Romæ, et to the Fathers. For in the East cum Romani propter hanc dis- they kept Easter at another time similitudinem accusarent Orien- than they did in Rome; and when tem schismatis, admoniti sunt ab they of Rome accused the East of aliis, tales mores non oportere schism for this diversity, they were ubique similes esse. Et Irenæus admonished by others that such cusinquit: 'Dissonantia jejunii fidei toms need not be alike every where. consonantiam non solvit;' sicut And Irenæus saith : ‘The disagree

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