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18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells | viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs co in the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal mueThe body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus nutritious portions cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and 2 of our food, and effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are be-is in the form of low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a very small globmeasure, for their actions. ules, or little round balls: a representation of which is here presented as scen through a microscope, magnified one thousand
three or four
minutes, as a general rule, the blood flows thro'out the whole body; and, of course, through the lungs, where
it undergoes a purification: hence may be seen the importance of an upright position, and perfect inflation of the lungs; no one can live out his days without them.
19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and standing, passive and active. Beware of too much
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing that is improper: such as trying how much you can lift with one hand, &c.
and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 20. Here follows a representation of the position auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e; engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great- it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence est descent, when we draw in our breath: 2, mus-into both lungs, where it is purified; after which cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, vian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body: the muscles of the abdomen in action, foreing the returning every three or four minutes.
24. Here is a front view of the Vocal Organs:
42. This engraving represents the larynx, or vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2;e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a the bronchial little above d is the larynx, or vocal box, where tubes, branches of the trachea, 3, 4, going to each lung; the left lung is whole; the substance of
the right one removed, to Show the ra-2 mifications of the bronchial twigs, terminating in the air-cells, 7, 7, 8, like leaves on the trees. The bronchial tubes are? the three branches of the wind
pipe, and enter the lungs about one third of the distance from the upper end: hence, how foolish for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to suppose they have the bronchitis; which consists in a diseased state of the bronchia; generally brought on by an improper mode of breathing, or speaking, &c., with exposure. The remedy may be found in the practice here recommended, with a free use of cold soft water over the whole body, and bandages wet with the same, placed about the chest and neck, to be removed every few hours, as they become dry.
23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis : N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordæ vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage: these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, to favor the latter: there are a greet many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications of voice in speech and song