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178. Orthography or Right Spelling. As Proverbs. 1. As we act towards others, wa we have two kinds of language, written and may expect others to act towards us. 2. A good spoken, so, there are two modes of spelling; orator is pointed, and vehement. 3. Idleness-is one addressed to the eye, and exhibited by the rust of the mind, and the blight of genius. 4. naming the letters; the other addressed to Assist yourself, and heaven will assist you. 5. the ear, and spelled by giving the sounds, We should estimate man's character, by his goodwhich the letters represent: the former meth-ness; not by his wealth. 6. Knowledge-is as es
sential to the mind, as food is to the body. 7. A
od, which is the common one, tends to the predominant use of the throat, and lungs, and is one of the fruitful sources of consumption; the latter, which is the new one, serves to keep up the natural use of the appropriate muscles, and tends to prevent, as well as cure, dyspepsia, liver and lung complaints, and diseases of the throat.
good word is as soon said, as an ill one. 8. No temptation of emolument, can induce an honest man to do wrong. 9. Virtue-is the best, and safest helmet we can wear. 10. Against the fickleness of fortune, oppose a bold heart. 11. Never profess-what you do not practice. 12. Treat every one with kindness.
Anecdote. Keeping Time-from Eter. nity. Chief Justice Parsons, of Massachu setts, having been shown a watch, that was looked on as wellworthy of notice, as it had saved a man's life, in a duel, remarked,
179. Classification of the Consonants. The first natural division of the consonants is into Vocal and Aspirate. Of the Vocal there are, as they stand in the alphabet, and their combinations, twenty-six; but deduct-It is, indeed, a very astonishing watch, ing the duplicates, there are but seventeen; that has kept time-from eternity. viz: b, as in bib; c, as in suffice; d, as in dead; f, as in of; g, as in gem, go, rouge; 1, as in ill; m, as me; n, as in none, bank;
The Difference. Why is it, that many have the reading of the Bible, as well as professors of religion are so reluctant, to speaking and singing, conducted in a cor
r, as in err, pride; w, as in wo; x, as in er-rect and proper manner? Should not the
ist; y, as in yet; and th as in this; all of which should be given separately, as well as combined, and their differences observed.
greatest and most glorious truths-be delivered in an appropriate style? Do they think to exalt religious truth, in the eyes of the well-informed, by communicating it it a way that is not only repulsive to correo taste, but slovenly, and absolutely wrongt Is it calculated to recommend devotional ex ercises to their consideration, by offering up Prayer in a language and manner, unbecom ing man when addressing man; and per forming the singing, regardless of prope
180. After the pupil has become familiar with reading by vowel sounds and spelling, as above recommended, let him be exercised in reading by the vowel and consonant Bounds: i. e. by giving a perfect analysis of all the sounds, found in any of the words of the sentence before him; which involves every thing relating to sounds, whether sin-time and tune? Will they present their of gle, double, or triple; and to articulation, ferings in a maimed, halt and blind manner accent, pronunciation, and emphasis. No upon the altar of religion; while they have one should wish to be excused from these it in their power, to provide a way in acvery useful and important exercises; for they cordance with the subject and object of their are direrctly calculated to improve the voice, devotion? Is it well-to despise a good the ear, and the manner, while they impart style and manner-of elocution and music, that kind of knowledge of this subject, which because we have not the ability, and are too will be felt to be power, and give one confi-selves and others? indolent to labor for it. to do justice to ourWhat course does true
dence in his own abilities.
Notes. 1. It is not a little amusing and instructive too, to examine the great variety of names, used by different authors, to designate the sounds of our letters, their classifications, &c. against which the charge of simplicity cannot be brought: in every thing, let us guard against learned and unlearned ignorance. 2. There are those, who ought, from their position before the world, to be standard authorities in the pronunciation of letters and words, and in general delivery; but, unfortunately, on account of their sad defects and inaccuracies, in all those particulars, they constitute a court selves upon the first principles and our own resources; using, how. ever, such true lights as a kind Providence has vouchsafed us for
of Errors, instead of Appeal: consequently, we must throw our.
To him, who, in the love of nature, holds
Varieties. 1. Men-will never feel like women, nor women-think, like men. 2. In too eager disputation, the truth is often lost sight of. 3. Woman-is not degraded, but elevated, by an earnest, daily applica tion-to her domestic concerns. 4. How wretched is his condition, who depends for his daily support, on the hospitality of others. 5. An evil-speaker-differs from an evildoer, only in opportunity. 6. The use of hnowledge is to communicate to others, that they may be the better for it. 7. They who deny a God, either in theory, or practice, de stroy man's nobility.
Till youth's delirious dream is o'er,
In age, when error charms no more,
Do not spend your words to no purpose; but come to the facts. 6. Great things-cannot be the consequences of our actions—both here, and accomplished without proper means. 7. We reap hereafter. 8. God gives to all, the power of becoming what they ought to be. 9. Infringe on no one's rights. 10. If we are determined to succeed, we shall succeed. 11. Better do well, than say well. 12. Better be happy than rich.
181. Orthography, being to the Elocution- Proverbs. 1. Estimate persons more by ist, especially, a subject of incalcuable im-their hearts, than by their heads. 2. A people portance, it is presumed a few observations, who have no amusements, have no manners. 3. illustrated by examples, will not be out of All are not saints, who go to church; all is not place. The author introduces an entirely gold that glitters. 4. Advice-is soldom welcome; new mode of learning the letters, by the use those who need it most, generally like it least. of sounds, before the characters are exhib-5. ited; also, a new way of spelling, in which the words are spelt by giving the different sounds of the letters, instead of their names: and finally, a new method of teaching children to read, by dictation; instead of by the book: i. e. to read without a book, the same as we all learn to speak our mother tongue; and afterwards, with a book: thus making the book talk just as we should, when speak-conversation to such subjects as they underAnecdote. If men would confine their ing on the same subject. stand, how much better it would be for both 182. Aspirates. There are, according to speaker and hearer. Hally, the great matheir representatives, 21 aspirate, or breath thematician, dabbled not a little in infidelity; sounds: omitting the duplicates, (or letters he was rather too fond of introducing this having the same sound,) there are only elev-subject in his social intercourse; and once, en; viz: c, as in cent, clock, ocean; d, as in when he had descanted somewhat freely on fac'd; f, as in fife; h, as in hoe; p, as in pipe; it, in the presence of his friend, Sir Isaac x, as in mix, ch, as in church; th, as in thin; Newton, the latter cut him short with this and wh, as in where whence it appears, by observation. I always attend to you, Dr. actual analysis, that we have sixteen vowel ally, with the greatest deference, when sounds, and twenty-eight consonant sounds;nomy, or the mathematics; because. these you do us the honor to converse on astromaking in all FORTY-FOUR; Some authors, are subjects that you have industriously inhowever, give only thirty-eight. vestigated, and which you well understand: but religion-is a subject on which I hear you with great pain; for this is a subject which you have not seriously examined, and do not understand; you despise it, because you have not studied it; and you will not study it, because you despise it.
183. The common mode of teaching all three, is no better policy, (setting every thing else aside,) than to go from America to China to get to England: in other words, perfectly ridiculous: and were we not so much accustomed to this unnatural and dementing process, we should consider it one of the most self-evident humbugs, not of the age
Laconics. In the scale of pleasure, the lowest are sensual delights, which are suc
only, but of the world. Examples of the old ceeded by the more enlarged views and gay mode: p, (pe,) h, (aytch,) i, (eye,) s, (ess,) these give way to the sublimer pleasures of portraitures of a lively imagination; and TIS, i, (eye,) c, (see,) k, (kay,) ICK, TISICK; reason, which discover the causes and defifteen sounds: of the new; t,i,z, tis, i, k, ik, signs, the form, connection, and symmetry tis-ik; giving nothing but the five sounds: of things, and fill the mind with the contemthe old g, (je,) e, (e,) w, (doubleyou,) GU, plation of intellectual beauty, order, and g, (je,) a, (a,) w, (doubleyou,) GAW, GEW-truth.
GAW; eighteen sounds, and not one sound in Varieties. 1. The greatest learning-is spelling is found in the word after it is spelt: to be seen in the greatest simplicity. 2 the new mode; g, u,g, aw, GEW-CAW, giv- Prefer the happiness and independence of a ing only the four sounds of the letters, in- private station, to the trouble and vexation stead of their names.
Notes. 1. We never can succeed in accomplishing one half of the glorious purposes of language, so long as we apply ourselves to what is written, and neglect what is spoken. 2. A new field presents itself; and when we shall have entered it, in the nght place and manner, a new era will dawn upon us, leading us more to the cultivation of the living language and the living voice: the compass and harmony of the best instrument can never be perseivel, by touching the keys at random, or playing a few simple
unes upon it, learned by the ear.
When sailing-on this troubled sea
All farewells-should be sudden, when forever.
184. In teaching spelling to children, exercise them on the forty-four sounds of the letters; then in speaking in concert, after the preceptor, and also individually, interspersing the exercises with analyzing words, by giving the various sounds of which they are composed. At first, let them give each sound in a syllable by itself, (after you;) then let them give all the sounds in a syllable before pronouncing it; and finally, let them give all the sounds in a word, and then pronounce it: thus, there are three modes of spelling by ear; easy, difficult, and more difcult. Those, however, taught in the old way, must expect that their younger pupils, especially, will soon get ahead of them; unless they apply themselves very closely to their
185. The second division of the Consonants is into SIMPLE, and COMPOUND; or single and double: of the former, there are twenty, including the duplicates: viz: c, in city; c, cab; d, do; d, pip'd; ƒ, fifty; gull; h, hope; k, make; l, bill; m, mile; n, no; p, pop; q, quote; r, corn; s, see; t, tune; ch, chyle; gh, tough; gh, ghastly; and ph, epha: omitting the duplicate representatives, there are but eleven; viz: c, (cypress;) c, (ac-me;) d, (day;) d, (tripp'd;)
then their shapes, and names, together with their uses; the mant course should be pursued in teaching music, the ear, alwayn
dominating; and then there will be case, grace, and power Proverbs. 1. Virtue-grows under every weight imposed on it. 2. He, who envies the lot of another, must be discontented with his own. 3. When fortune fails us, the supposed friends of our prosperous days-vanish. 4. The love of ruling-is the most powerful affection of the human mind. 5. A quarrelsome man-must expect many wounds. 6. Many condemn, whai they do not understand. 7. Property, dishonestly tion. 3. He, who has well begun, has half dona acquired, seldom descends to the third generahis task. 9. The difference between hypocrisy and sincerity is infinite. 10. When our attention is directed to two objects, we rarely succeed in either. 11. Recompence every one for his labor. 12. Zealously pursue the right path.
Anecdote. Patience. The priest of a certain village, observing a man, (who had just lost his wife,) very much oppressed with grief, told him, he must have Pa I have been trying her sir, but she will tience;" whereupon, the mourner replied, not consent to have me."
into three classes, corresponding to the scienThe range of knowledge-is divided tific, rational and affectuous faculties of man. The first, is knowledge of the outward creation,-involving every thing material,
n, (nine;) p, ssed;) r, (more) compare, and see.
f, (foe;) g, (give;)l, (lay;) m, (mote;)—all that is addressed to our five senses; the second, is knowledge of human existences, as it respects man's spiritual, or imthe Divine Being, including his nature, and mortal nature: and the third, knowledge of laws, and their modes of operation. There
a certain point where matter-ends, and spirit-begins: i. e. a boundary, where they come in contact, where spirit-operates on matter: there is a state, where finite spirit: existences-receive life and light-from the Infinite, who is the Lord of all; that Spirit,
186. Origin of Language. Plato says, that language-is of Divine institution; that human reason, from a defect in the knowl-is edge of natures and qualities, which are indicated by names, could not determine the cog-nom-i-na of things. He also maintains that names are the vehicles of substances:ual that a fixed analogy, or correspondence, exists between the name and thing; that language, therefore, is not arbitrary in its origin, but fixed by the laws of analogy; and that God alone, who knows the nature of things, originally imposed names, strictly expressive of their qualities. Zeno, Cle-anthes, Chry-sip-pus, and others, were of the same opinion.
"That warms-in the sun; refreshes--in the breeze;
The omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent
"Lives-through all life, extends thro' all extent,
Whose body nature is,-and God-the roul."
Varieties. 1. Are monopolies-consistent with republican institutions? 2. Love often makes the most clever persons act like fools, and the most foolish, act like wise
Notes. 1. This work is not designed to exnibit the whole subject of Oratory; which is as boundless and profound as are the
thoughts and feelings of the human mind; but to present in a plain and familiar form, the essentials of this God-like art; in the hopes ones. 3. Patience is the surest remedy
of being useful in this day and generation. In the course of another twelve years, there may be a nearer approach to truth and nature. 2. Observe the difference between the sounds, heard in spel
ling the following words, by the names of the letters, and those sounds, beard in the words after being spelt: age; if the sounds heard in calling the letters by name, are pronounced, the word in ay-je-ce; i,-9, in like manner, spell eye-ess; corn, spell, see o-ar-en; 00,-2,-e, spell doub-le-o-ze-ee; a,-1,-m-,, spell, a,-el-em-ess; 0,-n, spell—ow-en; &c. 3. The common arrange ment of works in columns, without meaning, seems at variance with common sense; but this mode is perfectly mathematical, as well as philosophical; and of course, in accordance with nature,
science, and the structure of mind. 4. The proper formation of words, out of letters, or sounds, is word-making. 5. Abcdari-ans should first be taught the sounds of letters, and then their uses, and
against calumny: time, sooner or later, will
Guard well thy thoughts;—our thoughts are bear' in heaven.
tion to these important considerations, there will be an immense amount of time and expense saved, and the young prevented from contracting the common bad habits of reading unnaturally; which not only obstructs the proper development of body and mind, but sows the seeds of sickness and premature death. Our motto should be, "cease to do evil, and learn to do well."
187. The method, here recommended, of | that a, in far, is the original element of all giving the sounds, of spelling, and of teach- the vowel and vocal consonant sounds, and ing children to read uithout a book, and then the aspirate h, is the original element, out with a book, will save three-fourths of the la- which all the aspirate consonant sounds are bor of both teacher and pupil; and, in addi-made, as well as the vocal sounds; thus, that which the letter h represents, seems to involve something of infinity in variety, s0 far as sounds, and their corresponding affections are concerned; for breath-is air: and without air, there can be no sound. Why was the letter h, added to the names of Abram and Sarai?
duces the worst. 5. We must not judge of persons
188. Modes of Spelling. In the old, or common mode of spelling, there are many more sounds introduced, than the words contain: this always perplexes new beginners, whose ear has had much more practice, in reference to language, than their eye. The great difficulty seems to be--to dispose of the parts, which amount to more than the whole for, in philosophy, it is an acknowledged principle, that the parts-are only equal to the whole. Hence, spelling by sounds of letters, instead of by names is vastly preferable: the former being perfectly philosophical, | involving orderly, analysis and synthesis, and it is also mathematical, because the parts are just equal to the whole while the latter Anecdote. Finishing our Studies. Sevmode is the very reverse of all this; and in-eral young physicians were conversing, in stead of aiding, essentially, in the develop- the hearing of Dr. Rush, and one of them observed, When I have finished my stument of body and mind, tends directly to dies," "When you have finished your prevent both. studies!" said the doctor, abruptly; "why, you must be a happy man, to have finished them so young: I do not expect to finish mine while I live."
Proverbs. 1. He, who reckons without his host, must reckon again. 2. When we despise 3. danger, it often overtakes us the sooner. but their minds are still the same. 4. The corThey, who cross the ocean, may change climate, ruption, or perversion of the best things — proby their clothing, or by the sanctity of their appearance. 6. If we indulge our passions, they will daily become more violent. 7. Light griefmay find utterance; but deeper sorrow can find none. 8. The difference is great-between words and deeds. 9. Poverty wants many things; avarice-every thing. 10. Let us avoid having too many irons in the fire. 11. Faithfully perform every duty, small and great. 12. Govern your thoughts, when alone, and your tongue, when in company. 13. Ill got,-ill spent.
189. Of the compound, or diphthongal and triphthongal consonants, we have twentythree; viz: c, (z,) discern; c, (sh,) social; f, (v,) thereof; g, (dg,) gibe; g, (zh,) badinage; j, (dg,) judge; n, (ng,) bank; r, (burr'd,) trill; s, (z.) was 8, (sh,) sure; s, (zh,) leisure; t, (sh,) rațional; v, vivacity; w, wist; x, (ks,) ox; x, (z,) Xenia; y, youth; z, zigzag; ch, (tch,) such; ch, (sh,) chagrin; ph, (v,) nephew; th, thick; th, tho'; wh, why: deducting the duplicates, we have but twelve; c, (z) c, (sh,) ƒ, (v,) g, (zh,) n, (ng,) r, (trill'd,) x, (ks,) x, (gz,) ch, (tch,) th, (think,) th, (that,) and wh, (when:) let them be exemplified.
Laconics. The kindnesses, which most men receive from others, are like traces drawn in the sand. The breath of every passion sweeps them away, and they are reinscriptions on monuments of brass, or pilmembered no more. But injuries are like lars of marble, which endure, unimpaired, the revolutions of time.
Varieties. 1. We rarely regret-having spoken too little; but often-of saying too much. 2. Which is the more extensively useful,-fire, or water? 3. A speaker, who expresses himself with fluency and discretion, will always have attentive lieners. 4. The spirit of party, sometimes leads even the greatest men-to descend to the mean
190. It has previously been remarked, that, strictly speaking, a, in far, is the only natural vowel sound in our language; and that the other fifteen are modifications of it;ness of the vulgar. 5. Without virtue, hapalso, that on the same principle, the aspirate, 6. When we are convinced that our opinions piness -can never be real, or permanent. or breath sound, heard in pronouncing the sound of h, (huh, in a whisper,) is the mate-ledge it, and exchange them for truths. 7. are erroneous, it is always right to acknowrial, out of which all sounds are made; for Every love-contains its own truth. it is by condensing the breath, in the larynx, Serve God before the world let him not go, through the agency of the vocal chords, that Until thou hast a blessing; then, resign the voice sound, of grave a is made; and, by The whole unto him, and remember who the peculiar modification, at certain points Prevailed by wrestling-ere the sun did shine of interception, that any aspirate consonant Pour oil upon the stones, weep for thy sin, sound is produced; hence, it may be said, Then journey on, and have an eye to heaven.
191. Here a new field is open for the clas- [ sification of our letters, involving the structure of all languages, and presenting us with an infinite variety, terminating in unity, all languages being merely dialects of the original one; but in this work, nothing more is attempted, than an abridgment of the subject. As every effect must have an adequate cause, and as in material things, such as we see, hear, taste, smell, and feel, there can be no primary, but only secondary causes, we must look to the mind for the feelings and thoughts, that have given rise to all the peculiarities and modifications of language; being assured, that in the original Anecdote Mathematical Honor. A stu. language, each state of the will and the un-dent-of a certain college, gave his fellow derstanding, had its external sign, as a medi-student the lie; and a challenge followed. um of manifestation. The mathematical tutor-heard of the diffi192. Uses of Spelling. The object of spel-culty, and sent for the young man that gave ling, in the manner here recommended, is the challenge, who insisted, that he must Why," said two-fold; to spell by sound, in order to be fight-to shield his honor. the tutor? Pecause he gave me the lie.' able to distinguish the sounds, of which Very well; let nim prove it: if he prove words are composed, and to pronounce it,-you did he but if he does not prove it, them correctly: thus developing and train-then he ties. Why should you shoot one ing the voice and ear to the highest pitch another? Will that make a lie-any more of perfection. The use of spelling by the honorable?" names of letters is, to make us acquainted with them, and the order in which they are placed in the words, so as to be able, not only to read, but to write the language: hence, we must become acquainted with both our spoken and written language, if we would avail ourselves of their wonderful capabilities, and the treasures of which they are possessed.
Proverbs. 1. Do as much good us you can and make but little noise about it. 2. The Bible, is a book of laws, to show us what is right, and what is wrong. 3. What maintains one vice, would bring up two children. 4. A little wrong
done to another, is a great wrong done to our selves. 5. Sermons-should be steeped in the
CICERO savs, the poet-is born such; the orator is made such. But reading books of rhetoric, and eloquent extracts-choice morsels of poetry and eloquence will never make one an orator: these are only the effects of oratory. The cause of eloquence human mind-the true philosophy of man, and is to be sought for, only in the depths of the the practice of unadulterated goodness and truth. You must feel rightly, think wisely, 193. In partially applying this doctrine, and act accordingly: then gracefulness of we may say, B, (bib,) represents a gutteral style and eloquence will fit you; otherwise, labial sound; 1st. c, (cent,) a dental aspi- you will be like the ass, clothed with the rate: 24. c, (clock,) a gulteral aspirate: 3d. lion's skin. Accomplishment should not be Seek, then, for the c, (sacrifice,) a dental rocal consonant: 4th. an end, but a means. c, (ocean,) a dental aspirate : 1st f, (if,) a sub-philosophy of oratory, where it is to be found, in the study of geometry, language, physics, labial and super-dental aspirate: 2d f, (of) a theology, and the human mind profound, if sub-labial super-dental, vocal: 1st g, (gem,) you would attain that suavity of graceful a posterior lingual dental vocal, terminating periods, engaging looks and gestures, which in an aspirate; 24 g, (go,) a glottal vocal steal from men their hearts, and reason. and consonant: 3d g, (rouge,) a vocal dental as- make them, for the time being, your willing pirate: h, a pure aspirate, with open mouth captives. and throat; 7, a lingual dental; and so on to the end of our sounds, of analysis and syn-marcation between temperance and intemthesis, of which a volume might be written; perance? 2. We rarely repent of eating and although the writer has practiced on too little; but often-of eating too much. them many thousands of times, he never has 3. Truth-is clothed in white; but a lie done it once, without learning something comes forth in all the colors of a rainbow. 4. St. Augustin says, "Love God; and then do what you wish." 5. We must not do evil, that good may come of it; the means must answer, and correspond to the end. 6. Assumed qualities-may catch the fancy of some, but we must possess those that are good, to fix the heart. 7. When a thing is doubtful, refer it to the Word in sincerity; it it is not clear to you, let it alone, for the pre sent, at least, till it is made so.
Varieties. 1. Is there any line of de
Mind, not money-makes the man
Notes. 1. Don't forget to understand and master every thing that relates to the subject of study and practice: the only
royal highway to truth is the straight way. 2. Become as familiar
with the sounds of our language as you are with the alphabet. 3. As you proceed, acquire more ease and grace in reading and
An honest man-is still an unmoved rock,
heart-before they are delivered. 6. A life of attractive industry is always a happy one. 7. Drive your business before you, and it will ge easily. 8. Good fences-make good neighbors, 9. Pride wishes not to owe; self-love-wishes not to pay. 10. The rotten apple injures its compan ion. 11. Make a virtue of necessity. 12. You can't make an auger hole with a gimblet.