142. Many persons take great pains in Proverbs. 1. He, who resolves to amend, their dress, to appear well and receive atten- has God on his side. 2. Honest men are soon tion; and so far as personal appearance can bound; but you can never bind a knave. 3. If exert an influence, they attain their end: but the best man's faults were written on his foreif they would cultivate their language, and head, it would make him pull his hat over his the proper way of using it, so as not to de-eyes. 4. Life is half spent, before we know what it is. 5. Of the two evils, choose the least. 6. One bad example spoils many good precepts 7. Patience is a plaster for all sores. 8. He who serves well-need not be afraid to ask his wages.

form themselves in reading and conversation, they might accomplish the object at which they aim. 143. The second sound of R, is rough, 9. If you will not hear reason, she will rap you

over your knuckles. 10. Prayer should be the key of the day, and the lock of the right. 11. Foul water will quench fire. 12. From acthing -nothing can come.

Anecdote. Spinster. Formerly, it was a maxim, that a young woman should never

trilled, or barred; when it comes before vowel sounds in the same syllable: RAIL ROAD; the roa-ring rep-ro-bate re-verbe-rates his ran-cor-ous rib-ald- [R in RAIL.] ry and re-treats from his re-gal throne, to his ri-val rec-re-a-tion in the rook-e-ry: the op-be married, till she had spun, herself, a full pro-bri-ous li-bra-ri-an, rec-re-ant-ly threw set of linen. Hence, all unmarried women the great grid-i-ron among the crock-e-ry with have been called spinsters: an appellation ir-re-proach-a-ble ef-front-e-ry; the re-sults they still retain in certain deeds, and law of which were, ro-man-tic dreams, bro-ken proceedings; though many are not entitled ribs, and a hun-dred prime cit-rons for the to it. throng of cry-ing chil-dren: round and round the rug-ged rock the rag-ged ras-cal drags the strong rhi-noc-e-ros, while a rat in a ral-trap ran through the rain on a rail, with a raw lump of red liv-er in its mouth. 144. Written language-is used for com-bers and magnitude. Feeling and thought, municating information respecting persons though they vary immensely, cannot be distant from each other, and for transmitting, measured: we cannot say, with strict proto succeeding ages, knowledge, that might priety, that we love one-exactly twice as otherwise be lost, or handed down by erring much as another; nor, that one-is three tradition. Spoken language-is used to con- times as wise as another: because love and vey the thoughts and feelings of those who wisdom are not mathematical quantities: are present, and are speaking, or conversing but we can measure time by seconds, mintogether: the former is, of course, addressed utes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, and to our eyes, and the latter, to our ears; each centuries; space by inches, feet, yards, rods, kind having its own particular alphabet, and miles; and motion, by the space passed over in a given time.

which must be mastered.

Mathematics-includes the study of numbers and magnitudes: hence, it is called the science of gravity; and is applicable to all quantities, that can be measured-by a standard unit, and thus expressed by num

Didst ever see Two gentle vines, each-round the other twined, So fondly, closely, that they had become,

Ere their growth, blended together

Into one single tree?

Notes. 1. This vocal trilled diphthonga) sound, consists of the aspirate sound of A, modified between the end of the tongue

and the roof of the mouth, combined with a vocal. 2. Or, make the name sound of r, and mix it with the aspirate, by clapping the tongue against the roof of the mouth; practice prolonging her, or purr in a whisper, trilling the r, then add the voice sound; af terwards prefix the i, and exercise as above. 3. Demosthenes, in the early part of his career, was reproached for not being able to

pronounce, correctly, the first letter of his favorite art-Rhetoric: i.e. he could not trill it for some time. 4. Give only one trill or

Rise-brothers, rise! etc. pares,"

clap of the tongue, unless the sentiment be very animating; as-tive of real pleasure to either party. 5.
"Strike! till the last armed for ex- Where grace cannot enter, sin increases
and abounds. 6. The spontaneous gifts of
145. Another. The riven rocks are heaven, are of high value; but perseverance
rudely rent asunder, and the rifted trees-gains the prize. 7. When the will-be-
rush along the river, while hoa-ry bo-re-as comes duly resigned to God, in small things,
rends the robes of spring, and rat-tling thun- as well as great ones, all the affections will
der roars around the rock-y re-gions: Robert be reduced into their proper state, in their
Rowley rolled a round roll round; a round proper season.
roll, Robert Rowley rolled round; here roll-
ed the round roll, Robert Rowley rolled

The wretch, condemn'd with life to part,
Still, still on Aope relies,

And every pang, that rends his heart,
Bids expectation rise.

Hope, like the glimmering taper's light,
Adorns-and cheers his way,
And still, as darker grows the might
Emits a brighter ray.

Varieties. 1. Was the world created out of nothing? 2. Fools-draw false conclusions, from just principles: and madmen draw just conclusions, from false principles. 3. The discovery of what is true, and the practice of what is good, are the two most important objects of life. 4. Associa tions-between persons of opposite temperaments, can neither be durable, nor produc

146. Keep a watchful and jealous eye Proverbs. 1. It is easier to praise poverty, over common opinions, prejudices and bad than to bear it. 2. Prevention-is better than cure. 3. Learn wisdom by the follies of others. school instruction, until the influence of reason, nature and truth, is so far established over the ear and taste, as to obviate the danger of adopting or following, unquestionable errors, and vicious habits of reading and speaking: extended views, a narrow mind extend. To judge righteously of all things, preserve the mind in a state of perfect equilibrium, and let a love of truth and goodness govern all its decisions and actions.

4. Knowledge, without practice, makes but half an artist. 5. When you want any thing, always ask the price of it. 6. To cure idleness, count the tickings of a clock. 7. It costs more to revenge injuries, than to endure them. 8. Conceited men think nothing can be done without them. 9. He, that kills a man, when he is drunk, must be hung when he is sober. 10. An idle man's head, is the devil's work-shop. 11. God makes, and apparel shapes. 12. Good watch prevents karm.

The Difference. Two teachers apply for a school; one-is ignorant, but offers to teach for twelve dollars a month; the other -is well qualified for the station, and asks twenty-five dollars a month. The fathersweigh the souls of their children against money, and the twelve dollar teacher is employed. A man in search of work asks a farmer, if he does not want to hire a hand?

147. W, has but one consonant sound, and one vowel sound; WOO; a wan-ton wag, with woful words, be-wail-ed the well wish-er of the wig-wam; the dwarf dwells in the wea-ry west, [W in WOO.] where wom-en weave well the warp of life, and win-ter winds wan-der in the wild swamps, that wail and weep: the wa-terwitch, al-ways war-worn in the war-works," If I can find one to suit me," the farmer war-bles her watch-word to the weath-er- replies: and then he puts a variety of questions to him; such as,-"Can you mow? wise, and re-wards the wick-ed with weep-reap? chop? cradle? hoe? dress flax ? &c." ing, wail-ing and worm-wood. Soon after, another stranger calls, and asks whether they wish to hire a teacher in their district? But the principal question in this case, is- How much do you ask a month?" Now, just observe the difference in the catechising of the two applicants. Again, the father-will superintend the hired man, and have things so arranged-as not to lose a moment's time, — and see that nothing goes to waste; but the same watchful parent will employ a teacher, and put him into the school, and never go near him.

148. By separating these elements of language, and practicing on them, each by itself, the exact position and effort of the vocal organs, may be distinctly observed; and in this way, the true means of increasing and improving the force and quality of every one ascertained. Be not discouraged at the parent mechanical, artificial and constrained modes of giving the sounds, and pronouncing the words: acquire accuracy, and ease and gracefulness will inevitably follow.


149. Irregulars. U has this sound in certain words: the an-guish of the an-ti-quary is as-sua-ged with lan-guid man-sue-tude, for the con-quest over his dis-tin-guish-ed per-sua-sion: the guide dis-gui-ses his assue-tude of per-sua-ding the dis-sua-der.

Notes. 1. To produce this sound, shape the mouth and lips an for whistling, and make a voice sound; or, pronounce the word do, and when the o is about to vauish, commence this vocal consoBant, thus, do—was. 2. When u is initial, i, e. begins a word or

syllable, it is a consonant; but when it ends one, it is equivalent to 21 o in ooze; new, how, now, pow-er, etc. 3. In noord, two, answer, it is silent: w also before 7, wrap, wrack, wreath, wrist, eorong, etc. blow, who, knowledge, whom, whose, whole, whoop, etc. 4. Practice changes on w and v, as found under 21 f. 5. He who a watch would wear, two things must do, pocket his watch, and watch his pocket too.

Anecdote. A Scold. Foote, a celebrated comic actor, being scolded by a woman, said, -and in reply, "I have heard of tartarbrimstone ;-you are the CREAM of the one, and the FLOWER of the OTHER.


"Ask for what end-the heavenly bodies shine?
Earth-for whose ure ?—Man answers, "Tis for mine ;
For me-kind nature wakes her genial power,
Suckles each herb, and spreads out every flower;
Annual for me-the grape, the rose renew
The juice bectareous, and the balmy dew:
For me-health-gushes from a thousand springs;
For me-the mine-a thousand treasures brings,
Sens roll--to wast me, ruins—to light me rise,
My footstool-earth, my canopy-the skice.”

Varieties. 1. If a man begin a fool, he cumstantial evidence to be admitted in criis not obliged to persevere. 2. Ought cirminal cases ? 3. Suspicion-is always worse than fact. 4. No duty, imposed by necessity, should be considered a burthen. 5. To act from order, is to act from heaven. 6. Truth, however little, does the mind good. 7. True love always gives forth true light, false light agrees not with the truth, but lightly esteems it; and also, seems to itself,

to be better than truth.

Great were the hearts, and strong the minds,
Of those, who framed, in high debate,
The immortal league of love, that binds

Our fair, broad Empire, State with State
And deep the gladness of the hour,

When, as the auspicious task was done,
In solemn trust, the sword of power,
Was giv'n to glory's unspoil'd son.
That noble race is gone; the suns

Of fifty years have risen, and set;
But the bright links, those chosen ones
So strongly forged, are brighter yet.
Wide-as our own free race increase-
Wide shall extend the elastic chain,
And bind, in everlasting peace,

State after State, a mighty train.

150. Two grand objects are to be accomplished by these lessons and exercises: the acquiring a knowledge of the vowel and consonant sounds, and a facility in pronoun-be cing them by means of which, the voice is partially broken, and rendered flexible, as well as controllable, and the obstacles to a clear and distinct articulation removed: therefore, practice much, and dwell on every elementary sound, taking the letters separately, and then combining them into syllables,

words and sentences.

Proverbs. . If better were within, etter would come out. 2. Jests, like sweetmeats, have often sour sauce. 3. Keep aloof from quarrels ; neither a witness, nor a party. 4. Least said, the soonest mended. 5 Little boats should keep near shore; greater ones may venture more. 6 Some are more nice than wise. 7. Make a wrong step, and down you go. 8. We all live and learn. 9. Riches, (like manure,) do no good, till they are

spread. 19. Silks and satins often put out the they had authority for it. 12. Love virtue, and kitchen fire. 11. Some-would go to the devil, if abhor vice. 13. Good counsel has no price.

151. Two of the three sounds of X: first, name sound; or ks, when at the end of accented syllables, and often when it precedes them; if followed by an abrupt consonant. AXE: the cox-comb ex- [X in AXE.] pe-ri-en-ces the lux-u-ry of ex-pa-ti-a-ting on the ex-plo-sion of his ex-ces-sive ex-al-ta-tion of the bux-om fair sex; being anx-ious to ex-plain the or-tho-dox-y and het-o-dox-y of Ex-ag-o-nus, the ex-pos-i-ter ex-po-ses the ex-ploit, of ex-pect-ing to ex-plain how to ex-crete ex-cel-lent texts by ex-cru-ci-a-ting the wax of the ex-cheq-uer.

152. A good articulation-consists in giving to every letter in a syllable, its due proportion of sound, according to the best pronunciation; and, in making such a distinction between the syllables, of which words are composed, as that the ear, without difficulty, shall acknowledge their number, and perceive, at once, to which syllable each letter belongs. When these things are not observed, the articulation is in that proportion, defective: the great object is to articulate so well, that the hearer can perfectly understand what is read or spoken, without being obliged to have recourse to a painful attention. A good articulation is the foundation of good delivery: as the sounding of the musical notes with exactness, is the foundation of

good singing.

153. Play upon Xes. Charles X. x-king

[blocks in formation]

Boundaries of Knowledge. Human reason-very properly refuses to give its assent to any thing, but in proportion as it sees how that thing is, or is done. Now, there are three directions-in natural science, The astronomer-sees—and feels a diffiwhich are attended with their difficulties. culty-in getting from the solar system—to the universe; the chemist, in proceeding from matter- to its mysterious essence; and the physiologist, in advancing from the body-to the soul; three kingdoms of knowledge-bordering on kingdoms-unknown to natural science. Without reason, man could never become elevated above his senses, and,

consequently, could not become a rational and intellectual being, and, of course, not MAN, in the true sense of the term. But our minds are so constituted, that after having traversed the material creation, and perceived, scientifically, the very boundaries of matter, where it is adjoined by spirit, it can elevate itself, by a power, constantly given by God, to the lower boundaries of spirit, where it touches upon matter, and then, by its derived powers, ascend step by step, to the great AM; whom to know aright, and whom to love supremely, is the chief good of man.

Varieties. 1. When man sins, angels WEEP, and devils REJOICE. 2. True polite

of France, was xtravagantly xtolled, but is xceedingly xecrated. He xperienced xtraordinary xcellence in xigencies; he was xcel-ness, springs from the heart. 3. What is lent in xternals, but xtrinsic in xtacy; he was that, which makes every body sick, except xtatic in xpression, xtreme in xcitement, and those who swallow it? Flattery. 4. Science xtraordinary in xtempore xpression. He was has no enemy, but ignorance. 5. Be not too xpatriated for his xcesses, and, to xpiate his brief in conversation, lest you be not underxtravagance, was xcluded, and xpired in stood; nor too diffuse, lest you be troublexpulsion. 6. Simplicity, and modesty, are Notes. 1. To produce this diphthongal aspirate sound, among the most engaging qualities of every whisper the word kiss, and then repeat it, and leave out the i; k's: superior mind. 7. We live in two worlds, a natural and a spiritual one.


one of the most unpleasant sounds in our language. 2. Since the word diphthong merely signifies a double sound, there is no impropriety in calling double consonants, diphthongs, as we do certain vowels. 3. All critical skil! 'n the sound of language, has its foun. dation in the practical knowledge of the nature and properties of these elements: remember this and apply yourself accordingly.

In all cases, get the propet sounds of letters, as given in the keywords, or first examples.

To err-is human, to forgive-divine.

I would never kneel at a gilded shrine,
To worship the idol-gold;

I would never fetter this heart of mine,

As a thing-for fortune sold:

But I'd bow-to the light th't God hath given,

The nobler light-of mind;

The only light, save that of Heaven,

That should free-will homage find.

154. Reading-should be a perfect facsimile of correct speaking; and both exact copies of real life: hence, read just as you would naturally speak on the same subject, and under similar circumstances: so, that if any one should hear you, without seeing you, he could not tell whether you were reading or speaking. Remember that nothing is denied to industry and perseverance; and that rothing valuable can be obtained without


155. The second sound of X is that of gz, generally, when it immediately precedes the accent, and is followed by a vowel sound, or the letter h, in words of two or

more syllables; EXIST; the ex- [X in EXIST.] hor-ter is ex-haust-ed by his ex-u-ber-ant exor-di-um, and desires to be ex-on-er-a-ted from ex-am-in-ing the ux-o-ri-ous ex-ec-utive; an ex-act ex-am-in-a-tion into the ex-agger-a-tions of the aux-il-li-a-ries ex-hib-its a lux-u-ri-ant ex-ile, who ex-ist-ed an ex-ot-ic in ex-em-pla-ry ex-al-ta-tion.


156. The letters o, and e, in to and the, are long, before vowels, but abbreviated before consonants, (unless emphatic,) to prevent a hiatus. Th' man took the instrument and began t' play th' tune, when th' guests were ready to eat. I have written to Obadiah t' send me some of th' wheat, that was brought in th' ship Omar, and which grew on th' land belonging t' th' family of the Ashlands. Are you going from town? No I am going to town. Th' vessel is insured to, at and from London.

Proverbs. 1. If you would lend a man money, and make him your enemy, ask him för åt again. 2. He that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing. 3. The innocent-often suffer through the indolence and negligence of others. 4. Two o a trade seldom agree. 5. When the Lord revives his work, the Devil revives hi?. swells in prosperity, will shrink in adversity. 7. It is human to err; but diabolical to persevere in error. 8. For a cure of ambition, go in the churchyard, and read the gravestones. 9. Better get in

6. He that

the right path late, than never. 10. A real friend is discerned in a trying case. 11. Every one can acquire a right character. 12. Two wrongs— don't make a right.


Anecdote. Zeno-was told, that it was disreputable for a philosopher to be in love. If that were true," said the wise man, the fair sex are indeed to be pitied; for they would then receive the attention of fools alone."

Notes. 1. To make this diphthongal vocal sound, close teeth as if to give the sound of C, and then bring into contact the

posteriors, or the roots of the tongue, and back parts of the throat, and pronounce the imaginary word guz, several times; then omit the u, and pronounce the g, z, by themselves: 8-2. 2. For the 3d

sound of X, see the third sound of C. 3. These elemental sounds was the favorite study among the ancients, of the greatest ability.

157. Sight Reading. To become a good reader, and a reader at sight, one must always let the eyes precede the voice a number of words; so that the mind shall have time, clearly, and distinctly, to conceive the ideas to be communicated; and also feel their influence: this will give full play to the thoughts, as well as impart power from the affectuous part of the mind, to the body, for producing the action, and co-operation, of the right muscles and organs to manufacture the sounds and words. In walking, it is always best to see where we are about to step; it is equally so in reading, when the voice walks. Indeed, by practice, a person will be able to take in a line or two, in anticipation of the vocal effort: always look before you leap.

The high, the mountain-majesty-of worth-
Should be, and shall, survive its woe;
And, from its immortality,-look forth-
In the sun's face,-like yonder Alpine snow,
Imperishably pure-beyond all things below.


Varieties. 1. Washington-was born Feb. 22d, 1732, and died Dec. 14th, 1799; how old was he? 2. We cannot love those, whom we do not respect. 3. Order is the same in the world, in man, and in the church; and man is an epitome of all the principles of order. 4. In factions, the most ignorant are always the most violent. 5. The good man has God in his heart, when he is not in his mouth: but the hypocrite has God in his mouth, without having him in his heart. 6. It is some hope of goodtheness, not to grow worse; but it is a part of badness, not to grow better. 7. Why should we seek that love, that cannot profit us, or fear-that malice, that cannot hurt us?


STAND! the ground's your own, my braves
Will ye give it up to slaves?
Will ye look for greener graves }

Hope ye mercy still?

What's the mercy despots feel!
Hear it-in that battle peal!
Read it-on yon bristling steel!

tends to discompose or agitate the mind, Mental Violence. Everything which whether it be excessive sorrow, rage or fear, envy, or revenge, love or despair-in short, whatever acts violently on our mental faculties-tends to injure the health.

Ask it-ye who will.
Fear ye foes who kill for hire?
Will ye to your homes retire?
Look behind you! they're afire!

And before you, see
Who have done it!-From the vale--
On they come !—and will ye quail ?
Leaden rain and iron hail
Let their welcome be!
In the God of battles trust!
Die we may-and die we must :—
But, O! where-can dust-to dust
Be consigned so well,

As where heaven--its dews shall shea
On the martyr'd patriot's bed,
And the rocks shall raise their head,
Of his deeds to tell!


158. An accurate knowledge of these ele- Proverbs. 1. The shorter answer-is doing mentary sounds, which constitute our vocal the thing. 2. You cannot quench fire with tow. alphabet, and the exact co-operation of the 3. There is no general rule without exceptions. appropriate organs to give them truly, are 4. Happiness-is not in a cottage, nor in a palace, essential to the attainment of a good and ef- nor in riches, nor in poverty, nor in learning, nor ficient elocution. Therefore, be resolved to in ignorance, nor in active, nor in passive life; understand them thoroughly; and, in your but in doing right, from right motives. 5. Good various efforts to accomplish this important intention-is not reformation. 6. It is self-conceit, object, give precision and full force to every that makes a man obstinate. 7. To cure a fit of sound, and practice faithfully, and often, the passion, walk out in the open air. 8. Idle men difficult and rapid changes of the vocal pow-know the value of money, earn it. 10. Hearts are dead, all their lives long. 9. If you would ers, required by the enunciation of a quick succession of the muscle-breakers.

may agree, tho' heads-differ. 11. Beware of flirting and coquetry. 12. There is no place like home. 13. He that is warm, thinks others so.

The Poor. How few, even of professing christians, are aware of the pleasure, arising from contributing to the support of the poor! Is it not more blessed to give-than to re

159. The sound of Y, when a consonant; YE: the year-ling youngster, yelled for the yel-low yolk, yes-ter-night, and yearn-ed in the yard o-ver the year-book till he yex'd: the yoke yields to your [Y in YE.] yeur-ling, which yearns for the yar-row in the yawls; you yerk'd your yeast from the yawn-ing yeo-man yes-ter-day, and yet your self, of yore, yea, tho' young, yearn-ed o-ver the yes-ty yawn: Mr. Yew, did you say, or did you not say, what I said you said? be-ceive? But there are alms for the mind-as cause Mr. Yewyaw said you never said what well as for the body. If we duly considered I said you said: now, if you say that you our relations, and our destinies, instead of did not say, what I said you said, then pray giving grudgingly, or wanting to be called what did you say? upon, we should go out in search of the destitute and ignorant, and feel that we were permost acceptable service to God, while sharing the gifts of his providence with our fellow-beings, who are as precious in his sight-as we fancy ourselves to be: for he does not regard any from their external situation, but altogether from their internal state.

161. Irregulars. E, I, J, and U, occasionally have this sound; Eu-rope al-ien-ates the con-spic-u-ous cull-ure of her na-iads, like a dis-guised creat-ure, eu-lo-gi-ses her ju-nior court-iers for their brilliant genius: the virt-u-ous christ-ian sold-ier, in spirits foundation in experience. 7. Happy are it-u-al un-ion with the mill-ions of Nat-ure, the miseries that end in joy; and blessed are shouts with eu-cha-ris-tic grand-eur, eu-pho- the joys, that have no end. ni-ous hal-le-lu-jahs, which are fa-mil-iar-ly read, throughout the vol-ume of the U-ni


Varieties. 1. American independencewas acknowledged by Great Britain, Jan. 19, 1783; and the treaty of Ghent signed, Dec. 24, 1814. 2. Never do an act, of which you doubt the justice. 3. Nothing can be a real blessing, or curse, to the soul, that is not made its own by appropriation. 4. Let every man be the champion of right. to have a thankless child. 6. All science has 5. How sharper-than a serpent's tooth it is

Ay, I have planned full many a sanguine scheme of earthly happiness; *


Anecdote. A Vain Mother. As a lady -was viewing herself in a looking-glass, she said to her daughter: "What would you give-to as handsome as I am?"

Just as much, (replied the daughter,) as you would, to be as young as I am."

160. The first step to improvement is, to awaken the desire of improvement: whatev-forming er interests the heart, and excites the imagination, will do this. The second is a clear and distinct classification of the principles, on which an art is based, and an exact expression of them, in accordance with this classification; indeed, all the arts and sciences should be seen in definite delineations, thro' a language which cannot well be misunderstood.

And it is hard
To feel the hand of death-arrest one's steps,
Throw a chill blight-on all one's budding hopes
And hurl one's soul, untimely, to the shades,
Lost in the gaping gulf of blank oblivion.

Notes. To give this vocal sound, nearly close the teeth, . the lips turned out as in making long e, (see engraving,) and drawlingly pronounce the word yet, protracting the sound of the y thus, yet; yon. 2. For the two other sounds of y, see the two sounds of i; rhyme, kymn; isle, ile. 3. Yis a consonant at the beginning of a word or syllable, except in y-clad, (e-clad,) y-Fifty years hence, and who will think of Henry? clept, (e-clopt) "ye- (it-ri-a,) Yp-si-lan-ti, (Ip-si-lan-ti,) the name of a town in Michigan, 4. In prod-uce, u has its name sound; aud .n volume, it has this cm-so-nant sound of y preceding it; la the first, it is preceded by an abrupt element: in the recond, by

Oh, none!-another busy brood of beings
Will shoot up in the interim, and none
Will hold him in remembrance.-

Lupen one.

If I could find some cave unknown,
Where human feet have never trod,
Even there I could not be alone,

On every side-there would be God.

I shall sink,
As sinks a stranger-in the crowded streets
Of busy London :-some short bustle's caused,
A few inquiries, and the crowd close in,
And all's forgotten.

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