63. Elocution and Music being inseparable in their nature, every one, of common organization, whether aware of it, or not, uses all the elements of Music in his daily intercourse with society. When we call to one at a distance, we raise the voice to the upper pitches: when to one near by, we drop it to the lower pitches; and when at a medium distance, we raise it to the middle pitches: that is, in the first case, the voice

Anecdote. Musical Pun. A young Musician, remarkable fo his modesty and sincerity, on his first appearance before the pub lic, finding that he could not give the trills, is on, or about the eighth note: in the sec-effectively, assured the audience, by way of apology, "that he trembled so, that he could not shake.

Proverbs. 1. A word-is enough to the wise.

ond, on, or about the first note: and in the
last place, on, or about the third or fifth
note. In commencing to read or speak in
public, one should never commence above
his fifth note, or below his third note: and, 2. It is easier to resist our bad passions at first,
to ascertain on what particular pitch the than afte indulgence. 3. Jokes-are bad coin
lowest natural note of the voice is, pro-to all but the jocular. 4. You may find your
nounce the word awe, by prolonging it, worst enemy, or best friend-in yourself. 5. Eo-
without feeling; and to get the upper one, cry one has his hobby. 6. Fools-have liberty to
sound eel, strongly.
say what they please. 7. Give every one his due.
8. He who wants content, cannot find it in an

64. Vocal Music. In the vowel sounds
of our language, are involved all the ele-easy chair. 9. Ill-will never spoke well. 10.
ments of music; hence, every one who Lawyer's gowns are lined with the wilfulness of
wishes, can learn to sing. These eight their clients. 11. Hunger-is an excellent sauce.
vowels, when naturally sounded, by a de- 12. I confide, and am at rest.
veloped voice, will give the intonations of
the notes in the scale, as follows, com-
mencing at the bottom.
1ste in eel, 8 C note 0-8-la-High.
Half tone.
1st i in Isle, 7-0-B note-
O-A note-

2do in ooze, 6

1st o in old, 5

4th a in at, 4 data in ale, 3

2d a in ar, 2

given them of growing wise, but not equalTrue Wisdom. All have the faculty ly wise by which faculty is not meant the ability to reason about truth and goodness from the sciences, and thus of confirming whatever any one pleases; but that of dis cerning what is true, choosing what is suitable, and applying it to the various uses of life. He is not the richest man, who is able to comprehend all about making money, and can count millions of dollars; but he, who -O-Gnote O-5-la-Medium. is in possession of millions, and makes a

proper use of them.

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F note

Varieties. 1. Does not life-beget life, and death-generate death? 2. The man, who is always complaining, and bewailing

Half tone.

O-Enote O-3-la-Medium. his misfortunes, not only feeds his own mis


D note-


ery, but wearies and disgusts others. 3.
We are apt to regulate our mode of living-
more by the example of others, than by the
dictates of reason and common sense.
Frequent recourse to artifice and cunning-
is a proof of a want of capacity, as well as
does not grow better, as he grows older, is a
of an illiberal mind. 5. Every one, who
spendthrift of that time, which is more pre-
cious than gold. 6. Do what you know,
and you will know what to do. 7. As is
the reception of truths, such is the
tion of them in all minds. 8. Do you see
more than your brother? then be more
humble and thankful; hurt not him with
thy meat, and strong food: when a man, he
will be as able
perhaps, more so.
eat it as yourself, and,



Notes. 1. In Song, as well as in Speech, the Articulation,
Pitch, Force, and Time, must be attended to; i. e. in both arts, mas-

ter the right form of the elements, the degree of elevation and de
pression of the voice, the kind and degree of loudness of sounds,

and their duration: there is nothing in singing that may not be
found in speaking.

3d a in all, 1 -O-C note 0-1-la-Low.

65. This Diatonic Scale of eight notes, (though there are but seven, the eighth being a repetition of the first,) comprehends five whole tones, and two semi, or half tones. An erect ladder, with seven rounds, is a good representation of it; it stands on the ground, or floor, which is the tonic, or first note; the first round is the second note, or supertonic; the second round is the third note, or mediant; the third round, is the fourth note, or subdominant; between which, and the second round, there is a semitone; the fourth round is the fifth note, or dominant; the fifth round is the sixth note, or submediant; the sixth round is the seventh note, or subtonic; and the seventh round is the eighth note, or octave.

Keep one consistent plan--from end-to end.

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Proverbs. 1. Gentility, sent to market, will
not buy even a peck of corn. 2 He, that is
warm, thinks others so. 3. A true friend-should
venture, sometimes, to be a little offensive. 4. It
5. Misfortunes-seldom come
is easy to take a man's part; but the difficulty is
to maintain it.
alone. 6. Never quit certainty-for hope. 7. One
8. Plough, or not plough,-you must pay your
beats the bush, and another-catches the bird.
till you find, and you will not lose your labor.
rent. 9. Rome-was not built in a day. 10. Seek
An oak-is not felled by one stroke. 12. A
display of courage-often causes real cowardice.


66. The twenty-eight consonant sounds. For the purpose of still farther developing and training the voice, and ear, for reading, speaking, and singing, a systematic, and thorough practice, on the twentyeight consonants, is absolutely essential: in which exercises, it is of the first importance, to make the effort properly, and observe the exact positions of the organs. These consonants are either single, double, or triple; and some of them are rocal sounds, (sub-ton-11. ics, or sub-vowels,) others, merely aspirates,

breath sounds or atonics: let them be analyzed and presented according to their natures, and uses.

Party Spirit. The spirit of party-unquestionably, has its source in some of the 67. B has but one sound, which is native passions of the heart; and free gov its name sound: BA; baa, ball, bat; be, beg; bide, bid;

ernments naturally furnish more of its aliment, than those under which liberty of speech, and of the press is restrained, by the bode, boon, boss; bute, buss, strong arm of power. But so naturally does brute; boil, bound; a rob-in imparty run into extremes; so unjust, cruel, bibed blub-bers from a bob-bin, [B in BA.] and gob-bled for cab-bage; the rob-ber blab-and remorseless is it in its excess; so ruthless bed bar-ba-rous-ly, and bam-boo-zled the tab-by na-bob; Ja-cob dab-bled in rib-is the war which it wages against private bons, and played hob-nob with a cob-ler; character; so unscrupulous in the choice the bab-oon ba-by gab-bled its gib-ber-ish, of means for the attainment of selfish ends; and made a hubub for its bib and black- so sure is it, eventually, to dig the grave of ber-ries; the rab-ble's hob-by is, to brow- those free institutions of which it pretends beat the bram-ble bushes for bil-ber-ries, and to be the necessary accompaniments; so inev bribe the boo-by of his bom-has-tic black-itably does it end in military despotism, and bird.

68. By obtaining correct ideas of the sounds of our letters, and their influences over each other; of the meaning and pronunciation of words, and their power over the understanding and will of man, when properly arranged into sentences, teeming with correct thought and genuine feeling, I may, with proper application and exercise, become a good reader, speaker, and writer.

Notes. 1. To get the vocal sound of b, speak its name, be, and then make a strong effort to pronounce it again, compress ing the lips closely; and the moment you give the sound of be, when you get to e, stop, and you will have the right sound; or, pronounce uk, in the usual way, then, with the teeth shut, and the lips very close, prolonging the last sound; and, in both cases, let none of the sound of b, come into the mouth, or pass through the nose. 2. It was in analyzing and practicing the sounds of the letters, and the different pitches and qualities of voice, that the author became acquainted with the principles of VENTRILOQUISM, (or vocal modulation, as it should be called,) which art is perfectly simple, and can be acquired and practiced by almost any one of common organization. Begin by swallowing the sound, suppress ing and depressing it. 3. B is silent in delt, subt-le, doubt, lamb, comb, dumb, thumb, limb, crumb, subt-le-ty, suc-cumb, bdell-ium. Anecdote. A beautiful English countess said, that the most agreeable compliment she ever had paid her, was from a sailor in the street; who looked at her, as if fascinated, and exclaimed, "Bless me! let me light my pipe at your eyes."

unmitigated tyrany; that I do not know
how the voice and influence of a good man
could, with more propriety, be exerted, than
in the effort to assuage its violence.

The true, and only friend-is he,
Who, like the Arbor-vite true,
Will bear our image-on his heart.
Whatever is excellent, in art, proceeds
From laber and endurance.

Varieties. 1. Are our ideas innate, or ac-
quired? 2. The mind that is conscious of
its own rectitude, disregards the lies of com-
mon report. 3. Some-are very liberal,
even to profuseness, when they can be so at
the expense of others. 4. There are pure
loves, else, there were no white lilies. 5. The
glory of wealth and external beauty-is
transitory; but virtue-is everlasting. 6.
We soon acquire the habits and practices, of
those we live with; hence the importance of
associating with the best company, and of
carefully avoiding such as may corrupt and
debase us. 7. The present state is totally
different from what men suppose, and make,
of it; the reason of our existence-is our
growth in the life of heaven; and all things
are moved and conspire unto it; and great
might be the produce, if we were faithful to
the ordinances of heaven.

We rise-in glory, as we sink—in pride ;
Where boasting—ends, there dignity—begins.

In eastern lands, they talk in flower's,
And they tell, in a garland, their love and cares ;
Each blossom, th't blooms in their garden bow-


On its leaves, a mystic language bears;
Then gather a wreath from the garden bowers,
And tell the wish of thy heart-in flowers.
Praise, from a friend, or censure, from a FOB,
Is lost-on hearers that our merits know.

As full as an egg is of meat.

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69. These arts, like all others, are made up of many little things; if I look well to them, all difficulties will vanish, or be easily overcome. Every youth ought to blush at the thought, of REMAINING ignorant, of the first principles of his native language. I can do almost ANY thing, if I only think so, and try; therefore, let me not say I CAN'T; but I WILL.

70. C has four regular sounds: first, name sound, or that of s, before e, i, and y; cede, ci-on, cypress; rec-i-pe for cel-i-ba-cy in the city of Cin-cin-na-ti is a fas-ci-nat-ing sol-ace for civ-il [c in CEDE.] 80-ci-e-ty; Cic-e-ro and Ce-cil-i-as, with tac-it re-ci-proc-i-ty di-lac-er-ate the a-cid Anecdote. The Psalter. The Rev. Mr. pum-ice with the fa-cile pin-cers of the M-, paid his devoirs to a lady, who was previce-ge-rency; the a-ces-cen-cy of the cit-possessed in favor of a Mr. Psalter: her parrons in the pla-cid cel-lar, and the im-bec-ile tiality being very evident, the former took lic-o-rice on the cor-nice of the prec-i-pice occasion to ask, (in a room full of company,) ex-cite the dis-ci-pline of the doc-ile di-oc-"Pray Miss, how far have you got in your


Psalter ?" The lady archly replied,-As far as "Blessed is the man.”

71. Lisping is caused by permitting the tongue to come against, or between the front teeth, when it should not; thus, substituting the breath sound of TH for that of s or SH. This bad habit may be avoided or overcome by practicing the above and similar combinations, with the teeth closely and firmly set; not allowing the tongue to press against the teeth, nor making the effort too near the front part of the mouth. The object to be attained is worthy of great efforts: many can be taught to do a thing, in a proper manner, which they would never find out of themselves.

72. Irregulars. Soften has this sound; rise and pro-gress. The pre-cise Sal-lust, starts on stilts, and assists the earths in the u-ni-verse for con-science' sake: he spits base brass and subsists on stripes; the ma-gis-trates sought; So-lus boasts he twists the texts and suits the several sects; the strong masts stood still in the finest streets of Syr-a-cuse; Se-sos-tris, still strutting, persists the Swiss ship is sunk, while sweetness sits smiling on the lips. Swan swam over the sea; well swum swan; swan swam back again; well swum swan. Sam Slick sawed six sleek slim slippery saplings. Amidst the mists he thrusts his fists against the posts, and insists he sees the ghosts in Sixth street.

Notes. 1. S has the above sound, at the beginning of

words, and other situations, when preceded or followed by an Buript, or a breath consonant. 2 To make this aspirate, place

the organs as in the engraving, and begin to whisper the word see; But give none of the sound of e. Never permit sounds to coalesce, that ought to be heard distinctly; hosts, costs, &c. 4. Don't let the teeth remain together an instant, after the sound is made;

rather not bring them quite together. 5. C is silent in the follow. Ing: Czar, arbuscles, victuals, Czarina, (i long e,) muscle, indicta

ble, and second e in Connecticut.

Proverbs. 1. Building-Is a sweet impooerishing. 2. Unmanliness-is not so impolite, as over-politeness. 3. Death-is deaf, and hears no denial. 4. Every good scholar is not a good schoolmaster. 5. Fair words break no bones; but foul words many a one. 6. He, who has not bread to spare, should not keep a dog. 7. If you had fewer pretended friends, and more onemies, you would have been a better man. 8. Lean liberty-is better than fat slavery. 9. Much coin-much care; much meat-much malady. 10. The submitting to one wrong-often brings another. 11. Consult your purse, before you do fancy. 12. Do what you ought, come what will

Hear, then, my argument; confess we must,
A God thers-supremely just;

If so, however things affect our sight,
(As sings the bard, ) “whatever is-is right."
As the wind blows, you must set your sail.
Good measure, pressed down and running over.

Book Keeping-is the art of keeping accounts by the way of debt and credit. It teaches us all business transactions, in an state of our dealings may be easily known. exact manner, so that, at any time, the truc Its principles are simple, its conclusions natural and certain, and the proportion of its parts complete. The person, who buys or receives, is Dr. (Debtor,) the one who sells, or parts with any thing, is Cr. (Creditor :) that is, Dr. means your charges against the pe son; and Cr. his against you; therefore, when you sell an article, in charging it, say, “To so and so," (mentioning the article, weight, quantity, number, amount, &c.) “so much :”” but when you buy, or receive any thing, in giving credit for it, say, By so and so; mentioning particulars as before. A knowledge of Book-keeping is important to every one who is engaged in any kind of business; and it must be evident, that for the want of it-many losses have been sustained, great injustice done, and many law-suits entailed.

Varieties. 1. Ought lotteries to be abol ished? 2. Carking cares, and anxious apprehensions are injurious to body and mind. 3. A good education-is a young man's best capital. 4. He, that is slow to wrath, is better than the mighty. 5. Three difficult things are to keep a secret, to forget an injury, and make good use of leisure hours. 6. If one speaks from an evil affection, he may influence, but not enlighten; he may cause blind acquiescence, but not action from a conscious sense of right. 7. Men have just so much of life in them, as they have of pure truth and its good-implanted and growing in them.

Would you live'an angel's days ↑
Be honest, just, and wise, always.


root of the tongue being pressed against the uvula, or veil of the

Notes. 1. To produce this gutteral aspirate, whisper the
imaginary word huh, (u short;) or the word book, in a whisper
ing voice, and the last sound is the one required: the posterior, or
palate. 2. Observe the difference between the names of letters,
and their peculiar sounds. In giving the names of consonants,
we use one, or more vowels, which make no part of the consonaut
sound; thus, we call the letter C by the name see; but the es
make no part of its sound, which is simply a hiss, made by fore-
Iing the air from the lungs, through the teeth, when they are shut,

as indicated by the engraving; similar facts attend the other conso
pants. 3. H, is silent before n-as the knavish knight knuckled

Gh have this sound in lough, (lock, a lake; Irish ;) hough, (hock
joint of a hind leg of a beast.)

74. The second sound of C, is hard, and kneeled to the knit knobs of the Anees' knick-knacks, &c. ;
or like k, before a, o, u, k, l, r,
t; and generally at the end of
words and syllables. Came, car,
call, cap; cove, coon, cot; cute
cut, crude; coil, cloud; Clark
comes to catch clams, crabs and [C in CAR.]
craw-fish to cram his cow; the croak-ing
scep-tic, in rac-coon moc-a-sins, suc-cumbs
to the arc-tic spec-ta-cle, and ac-com-mo- as she lies on the stocks. 6. Let them laugh
dates his ac-counts to the oc-cult stuc-co of that win. 7. No great loss but there is some
the e-clip-tic; the crowd claims the clocks,small gain. 8. Never too old to learn. 9. No
and climbs the cliffs to clutch the crows that condition so low, but may have hopes; and none
craunched the bu-col-ics of the mi-cro-cosm. so high, but may have fears. 10. The wise mar

Proverbs. 1. Every dog has his day, and every man his hour. 2. Forbid a fool a thing, and he'll do it. 3. He must rise betimes, that would please every body. 4. It is a long lane that has no turning. 5. Judge not of a ship,

73. A perfect knowledge of these elementary and combined sounds, is essential to my becoming a good elocutionist, and is an excellent preparation for studying any of the modern languages: I must master them, or I cannot succeed in acquiring a distinct, appropriate, graceful and effective enunciation; but resolution, self-exertion and perseverance are almost omnipotent: will try them and see.

Anecdote. William Penn-and Thomas

75. The chest should be comparatively thinks he knows but little; the fool-thinks he quiescent, in breathing, speaking and sing-knows all. 11. Idleness—is the mother of vice. ing; and the dorsal and abdominal muscles12. When liquor is in, sense—is out. be principally used for these purposes. All children are naturally right, in this particu- Story, on the approach of a shower, took lar; but they become perverted, during shelter in a tobacco -house; the owner of their primary education : "hence, the author introduces an entirely new mode of learning which-happened to be within: he said to the letters, of spelling, and of teaching to the traveler,-"You enter without leave;read without a book, and then with a book; do you know who I am? I am a Justice of the same as we learn to talk. The effort the Peace." To which Mr. Story replied— to produce sounds, and to breathe, must be "My friend here-makes such things as made from the lower muscles, above alluded thee;-he is Governor of Pennsylvania.” to: thus by the practice of expelling, (not exploding) the vowel sounds, we return to truth and nature.

Eternal Progress. It is not only comforting, but encouraging, to think that mind-is awaking; that there is universal progress. Men are borne onward,-whether they will or not. It does not matter, whether they believe that it is an impulse from within, or above, that impels them for

Ch often have this 76. Irregulars. sound; (the h is silent;) also q and k-always when not silent; the queer co-quette kicks the chi-mer-i-cal ar-chi-tect, for cat-e-chising the crit-i-cal choir about the char-ward; or, whether they acknowledge that ac-ter of the chro-mat-ic cho-rus; Tich-i- it is the onward tendency of things, concus Schenck, the quid-nunc me-chan-ic of trolled by Divine Providence: onward they Mu-nich, qui-et-ly quits the ar-chieves must go; and, in time, they will be blessed of the Tus-can mosque, on ac-count of the with a clearness of vision, that will leave ca-cher-y of cac-o-tech-ny; the piq-uant them at no loss for the whys and the where crit-ic quaked at the quilt-ing, and asked fores. ques-tions of the quorum of quil-ters.

Varieties. 1. To pay great attention to

7. The expression of affection is the

legitimate function of sound, which is an el-trifles, is a sure sign of a little mind. 2.
ement prior to, and within language. The
affections produce the varieties of sound,
whether of joy or of grief; and sound, in
speech, manifests both the quality and quan-
tity of the affection: hence, all the music is
in the vowel sounds: because, all music is
from the affectuous part of the mind, and
wowels are its only mediums of manifesta-
tion. As music proceeds from affection and
is addressed to the affection, a person does tage-to either church, state or individual.
not truly sing, unless he sings from affec-7. True and sound reason—must ever ac-
tion; nor does a person truly listen, and cord with scripture: he who appeals to one,
derive the greatest enjoyment from the mu- must appeal to the other; for the word
sic, unless he yields himself fully to the af- within us, and the word without us—are
one, and bear testimony to each other.
fection, which the music inspires.

Which is worse, a bad education, or no edu-
cation? 3. The mind must be occasionally
indulged with relaxation, that it may return
to study and reflection with increased vigor.
4. Love, and love only, is the loan for love.
6. Sudden and violent
5. To reform measures, there must be a
change of men.

changes are not often productive of advan

78. These principles must be faithfully 82. The perfection of music, as well as studied and practiced, with a particular refer- of speech, depends upon giving the full and ence to the expulsion of the short vowel free expression of our thoughts and affecsounds, and the prolongation of the long tions, so as to produce corresponding ones in ones; which exhibit quantity in its elementa- the minds of others. This is not the work of ry state. I must exercise my voice and mind, a day, a month, or a year; but of a life; for in every useful way, and labor to attain an it implies the full development of mind and intimate knowledge of my vocal and mental body. The present age presents only a fain capacity; then I shall be able to see any de-idea, of what music and oratory are capable fects, and govern myself accordingly. of becoming; for we are surrounded, and 79. The third sound of C, is like that loaded, with almost as many bad habits of Z: suffice; the discerner at (which prevent the perfect cultivation of husice, dis-cern-i-bly dis-cerns dismanity,) as an Egyptian mummy is of folds cern-i-ble things with dis-cern-ing of linen. Let the axe of truth, of principle, be laid at the root of every tree that does not dis-cern-ment, and dis-cern-i-bleness; the sac-ri-fi-cer, in sac-ri-fi- [C in SICE.] bring forth good fruit. Which do we like cing, sac-ri-fi-ces the sac-ri-fice on the altar better-error, or truth? of sac-ri-fice, and suf-fi-ceth the law of sacri-fice. These are nearly all the words in our language, in which c, sounds like z.

Proverbs. 1. A man may be strong, and not mow well. 2. It is easier to keep out a bad associate, than to get rid of him, after he has been admitted. 3. Consider well what you do, 80. Vowels are the mediums of convey- whence you come, and whither you go. 4. Eving the affections, which impart life and ery fool can find faults, that a great many wise warmth to speech; and consonants, of the men cannot mend. 5. He who follows his own thoughts, which give light and form to it; advice, must take the consequences. 6. In givhence, all letters that are not silent, shoulding, and taking, it is easy mistaking. 7. Letters be given fully and distinctly. The reason-do not blush. 8. Murder-will out. 9. Nothing why the brute creation cannot speak, is, be- that is violent-is permanent. 10. Old foxes want cause they have no understanding, as men no tutors. 11. The first chapter of fools is, to have; consequently, no thoughts, and of esteem themselves wise. 12. God-tempers the course, no articulating organs: therefore, wind-to the shorn lamb. they merely sound their affections, instead of speaking them; being guided and influenced by instinct, which is a power given them for their preservation and continuance.

Varieties. 1. Which has caused most evil, intemperance, war, or famine? 2. Power, acquired by guilty means, never was, and never will be exercised-to promote good ends. 3. By applying ourselves diligently to any art, science, trade, or pro

81. Irregulars. S, Z, and X, sometimes are thus pronounced; as, the pres-i-dent resigns his is-o-la-ted hou-ses, and ab-solves the grea-sy hus-sars of Is-lam-ism; the puz-zler puz-zles his brains with na-sal pains, buz-zes about the trees as much as he plea-ses, and re-sumes the zig-zag giz-zards of Xerx-es with dis-sol-ving huz-zas; Xan-thus and Xen-o-phon dis-band the pis-mires, which dis-dain to dis-guise their dis-mal phiz-es with their gris-ly beards; Zion's zeal breathes fession, we become expert in it. 4. To be zeph-yrs upon the paths of truths, where re-fond of a great variety of dishes—is a sure sides the soul, which loves the tones of mu- proof of a perverted stomach. 5. Prosperity sic coming up from Nat-ure's res-o-nant-often leads persons to give way to their tem-ples. passions, and causes them to forget whence they came, what they are, and whither they are going. 6. Evil persons-asperse the characters of the good, by malicious tales 7. Every man and woman have a goodproper to them, which they are to perfect and fill up. To do this-is all that is re quired of them; they need not seek to be in the state of another.

Notes. 1. This vocal diphthongal sound is made by clos

ing the teeth, as in making the name sound of C, and producing the 24 sound of a in the larynx, ending with a hissing sound; or it may be made by drawing out the sound of z in zest. 2. 8, tollowing a vocal consonant, generally sounds like Z: tubs, adds;

eggs ; needs; pens; cars, &c. ; but following an aspirate, or breath

consonant, it sounds like e in cent, facts, tips, muff's, cracks, &c.
Would you taste the tranquil scene }
Be sure your bosom be serene :
Devoid of hate, devoid of strife,
Devoid of all, th't poisons life.
And much it 'vails you-in their place,

To graft the love of human race.

Be always as merry as ever you can,

Anecdote. Doctor-'em. A physician, having been out gaming, but without success, his servant said, he would go into the next field, and if the birds were there, he would doctor-'em." "Doctor-'em,-what do you mean by that?" inquired his master: "Why, kill 'em, to be-sure,"-replied the servant.

one delights in a sorrowful man.

In pleasure's dream, or sorrow's hour,
In crowded hall, or lonely bow'r,
The business of my soul-shall be→
Forever to remember thee.

Who more than he is worth doth spend,
Ev'n makes a rope-his life to end.

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