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46. By ANALYSIS-Sounds, syllables, | words, and sentences are resolved into their constituent parts; to each is given its own peculiar sound, force, quality, and meaning; and thus, every shade of vocal coloring, of thought and feeling, may be seen and felt. By SYNTHESIS, these parts are again re-united, and presented in all their beautiful and harmonious combinations, exhibiting all the varieties of perception, thought, and emotion, that can be produced by the human mind.
Proverbs. 1. Like the dog in the manger, he will neither do, nor let do. 2. Many a slip between the cup and lip. 3. No great loss, bu there is some small gain. 4. Nothing venture, nothing have. 5. One half the world knows not how the other half lives. 6. One story is good till another is told. 7. Pride-goes before, and shame-follows after. 8. Saying and doing, are two things. 9. Some-are wise, and some-are is full of other folk's money. 11. Common famu otherwise. 10. That is but an empty purse, that is generally considered a liar. 12. No weapon, but truth; no law, but love.
47. The second sound of U is short: UP; an ul-tra numb-skull is a Anecdote. Lawyer's Mistake. When the mur-ky scul-lion; she urged her cour-te-ous hus-band to regulations of West Boston bridge were drawn coup-le himself to a tre-menup, by two famous lawyers,-one section, it dous tur-tle; the coun-try uris said, was written, accepted, and now stands chin pur-chased a bunch of thus: "And the said proprietors shall meet mush and tur-nips, with an ef-ful-gent duc-annually, on the first Tues-day of June; at, and burst with the bulk of fun, because the um-pire de-murr-ed at the suc-co-tash.
[U in UP.]
48. Lord Mansfield, when quite young, used to recite the orations of Demosthenes, on his native mountains; he also practised before Mr. Pope, the poet, for the benefit of his criticisms; and the consequence was, his melodious voice and graceful diction, made as deep an impression, as the beauties of his style and the excellence of his matter; which obtained for him the appellation of "the silver-toned Murray."
provided, the same does not fall on Sunday."
Habits. If parents-only exercised the same forethought, and judgment, about the education of their children, as they do in reference to their shoemaker, carpenter, joiner, or even gardener, it would be much bet ter for these precious ones. In all cases, what is learned, should be learned well: to do which, good teachers should be preferred to cheap ones. Bad habits, once learned, are not easily corrected: it is better to learn one thing well, and thoroughly, than many things wrong, or imperfectly.
Varieties. 1. Is pride-an indication of talent? 2. A handsome woman-pleases the eye; but a good woman the heart: the former-is a jewel; the latter—a living trea sure. 3. An ass-is the gravest beast; an owl-the gravest bird. 4. What a pity it is, when we are speaking of one who is beautiful and gifted, that we cannot add, that he or she is good, happy, and innocent! 5. Don't rely too much on the torches of others; light one of your own. 6. Ignorance is like a blank sheet of paper, on which we may write; but error-is like a scribbled one. 7. All that the natural sun is to the natural
49. Irregulars. A, E, I, O, and Y, occasionally have this sound: the wo-man's hus-band's clerk whirled his com-rade into a bloody flood for mirth and mon-ey; sir squirrel does noth-ing but shove on-ions up the col-lan-der; the sov-reign monk has just come to the colored mon-key, quoth my won-dering mother; this sur-geon bumbs the hor-ror-stricken bed-lam-ites, and covets the com-pa-ny of mar-tyrs and rob-bers, to plun-der some tons of cous-ins of their gloves, com-fort, and hon-ey; the bird envel-ops some worms and pome-gran-ates in its stom-ach, a-bove the myr-tle, in front of the tavern, thus, tres-pass-ing on the cov-er-ed vi-ands; the wan-ton sex-ton encom-pass-es the earth with gi-ant whirl. winds, and plun-ges its sons into the bot-world, that-is the Lord-to his spiritual tom-less o-cean with his shov-el.
Notes. 1. E and U, final, are silent in such words as,
bogue, vague, eclogue, symgogue, plague, catalogue, rogue, dema.
Could we-with ink-the ocean fill,
Each man-a scribe by trade;
To write the tricks-of half the sex,
Would drink the ocean dry :
Gallants, beware, look sharp, take care,
creation and world, in which are our minds-
Our birth-is but a sleep, and a forgetting;
But trailing clouds of glory-do we come
And 'tis remarkable, that they
Talk most, that have the least to say.
Pity is the virtue of the law,
And none but tyrants--use it cruelly.
'Tis the first sanction, nature gave to man Each other to assist, in what they can.
50. It is not the quantity read, but the Proverbs. 1. Away goes the devil, when the manner of reading, and the acquisition of door is shut against him. 2. A liar is not to be correct and efficient rules, with the ability believed when he speaks the truth. 3. Never to apply them, accurately, gracefully, and speak ill of your neighbors. 4. Constant occu involuntarily, that indicate progress in these pation, prevents temptation. 5. Courage-ought arts: therefore, take one principle, or com- to have eyes, as well as ears. 6. Experiencebination of principles, at a time, and prac-keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no tice it till the object is accomplished: in this other. 7. Follow the wise few, rather than the way, you may obtain a perfect mastery over foolish many. 8. Good actions are the best sacriyour vocal powers, and all the elements office. 9. He who avoids the temptation, avoids language.
51. The third sound of U is Full PULL; cru-el Bru-tus rued the crude fruit bruised for the pudding; the pru-dent ru-ler wounded this youth-ful cuck-oo, because he would, could, or should not im-brue his hands in Ruth's gru-el, pre-par'd for a faith-ful (U in FULL] dru-id; the butch-er's bul-let push-ed poor puss on the sin-ful cush-ion, and graceful-ly put this tru-ant Prus-sian into the pul-pit for cru-ci-fix-ion.
the sin. 10. Knowledge-directs practice, yet practice increases knowledge.
Duties. Never cease to aval yourself of information: you must observe closelyread attentively, and digest what you read,— converse extensively with high and low, rich and poor, noble and ignoble, bond and free,meditate closely and intensely on all the knowledge you acquire, and have it at perfect command. Obtain just conceptions of all you utter-and communicate every thing in its proper order, and clothe it in the most 52. Avoid rapidity and indistinctness agreeable and effective language. Avoid all of utterance; also, a drawling, mincing, redundancy of expression; be neither too harsh, mouthing, artificial, rumbling, mo- close, nor too diffuse,-and, especially, be as notonous, whining, stately, pompous, un- perfect as possible, in that branch of oratory, varied, wavering, sleepy, boisterous, labor-which Demosthenes declared to be the first, ed, formal, faltering, trembling, heavy, theatrical, affected, and self-complacent manner; and read, speak, sing, in such a clear, strong, melodious, flexible, winning, bold, sonorous, forcible, round, full, open, brilliant, natural, agreeable, or mellow tone, as the sentiment requires; which contains in itself so sweet a charm, that it almost atones for the absence of argument, sense, and fancy.
53. Irregulars. Ew, O, and Oo, occasionally have this sound: the shrewd woman es-chewed the wolf, which stood pulling Ruth's wol-sey, and shook Tru-man Wor-ces-ter's crook, while the brew-er and his bul-ly crew huz-za'd for all; you say it is your truth, and I say it is my truth; you may take care of your-self, and I will take care of my-self.
Notes. 1. Beware of omitting vowels occurring between
ensonants in unaccented syllables: as hist'ry, for his-to-ry; litral for lit-e-ral; vot'ry, for vo-ta-ry; past'ral, for pas-to-ral; numb'ring, for num-ber-ing; corp'ral, for cor-po-ral; gen'ral, for gen-e-ral; mem'ry, for mem-o-ry, &c. Do not pronounce this sound of u like oo in loon, nor like u in mute; but like u in full: as, chew, not choo, &c. 2. The design of the practice on the forty-four sounds of our letters, each in its turn, is, besides developing and training the voice and ear for all their duties, to exhibit the general laws
second, and third parts of the science,-ac tion,-god-like ACTION,-which relates to every thing seen and heard in the orator. Elocution,-enables you, at all times, to command attention: its effect will be electric, and strike from heart to heart; and he must be a mere declaimer, who does not feel himself inspired-by the fostering meed of such approbation as mute attention,-and the re turn of his sentiments, fraught with the sym pathy of his audience.
Varieties. 1. Have steamboats-been the occasion of more evil, than good? 2. Those that are idle, are generally troublesome to such as are industrious. 3. Plato saysGod is truth, and light—is his shadow. 4.
Mal-information-is more hopeless than noninformation; for error-is always more difticult to overcome than ignorance. 5. He, that will not reason, is a bigot; he, that can not reason, is a fool; and he, who dares not reason, is a slave. 6. There is a great differ ence between a well-spoken man and an ora for. 7. The Word of God—is divine, and, in its principles, infinite: no part can really contradict another part, or have a meaning Anecdote. Stupidity. Said a testy law-opposite-to what it asserts as true; although yer,—“I believe the jury have been inocula- it may appear so in the letter: for the letter ted for stupidity." "That may be," replied killeth; but the spirit—giveth life.
and analogies of pronunciation, showing how a large number of words should be pronounced, which are often spoken incorrectly.
us opponent; "but the bar, and the court,
O there are hours, aye moments, that contain
They are sleeping! Who are sleeping ↑
One remains, that slumber deep,
Proverbs. 1. Home is hoine, if it be ever so
54. A Diphthong, or double sound, is the union of two vowel sounds in one syllable, homely. 2. It is too late to complain when a thing pronounced by a single continuous effort of is done. 3. In a thousand pounds of law, there is the voice. There are four diphthongal not an ounce of love. 4. Many a true word is sounds, in our language; long i as in isle; spoken in jest. 5. One man's meat is another oi, in oil; the pure, or long sound of u in man's paison. 6. Pride, perceiving humility lure, and ou in our; which include the same HONORABLE. often borrows her cloke. 7. Saysounds under the forms of long y in rhyme; well-is good; but do-well-is better. 8. The of oy in coy; of ew in pew; and ow in how. eye, that sees all things, sees not itself. 9 The These diphthongs are called pure, because crow-thinks her own birds the whitest. 10. The they are all heard; and in speaking and tears of the congregation are the praises of the singing, only the radical, (or opening full-minister. 11. Evil to him that evil thinks. ness of the sound,) should be prolonged, or Do good, if you expect to receive good.
Our Food. The laws of man's constitu
55. Diphthongs. Oi and Oy: OIL;tion and relation evidently show us, that the
broil the joint of join in poi-son
[OI in OIL.]
56. The late Mr. Pitt, (Lord Chatham,) was taught to declaim, when a mere boy; and was, even then, much admired for his talent in recitation: the result of which was, that his ease, grace, power, self-possession, and imposing dignity, on his first appearance in the British Parliament, "drew audience and attention, still as night;" and the irresistible force of his action, and the power of his eye, carrried conviction with nis arguments.
Notes. 1. The radical, or root of this diphthong, commences nearly with 31 a, as in all, and its vanish, or terminating point, with the name sound of e, as in cel; the first of which is indicated by the engraving above. 2. Avoid the vulgar pronunciation of ile, for oil; jice, for joist; pint, for point; bile, for boil; jint, for joint; hist, for hoist; spile, for spoil; quate, for quoit; pur-line, for pur-loin; pi-zen, for poi-son; brile, for breil; clyde, for cloyed, &c.: this sound, especially, when given with the jaw
much dropped, and rounded lips, has in it a captivating nobleness; but beware of extremes. 3. The general rule for pronouncing the vowels is-they are open, continuous, or long, when final in ac
cented words and syllables; as a-ble, father, aw-ful, me-tre, bi-ble, are shut, discrete, or short, when followed in the same syllable by a consonant; as, ap-ple, sev-er, lit-tle, pot-ter, but-ton, sym-pa-thy. Examples of exceptions--ale, are, all, file, note, tune, &c. 4. Auother general rule is a vowel followed by two consonants, that are repeated in the pronunciation, is short: as, mat-ter, ped-lar,
no-ble, moo-ted, tu-mult, bu-tal, poi-son, ou-ter-most; but they
plainer, simpler and more natural our food is, the more pefectly these laws will be fulfilled, and the more healthy, vigorous, and long-lived our bodies will be, and consequently the more perfect our senses will be, and the more active and powerful may the intelLectual and moral faculties be rendered by should eat grass, like the ox, or confine ourcultivation. By this, is not meant that we selves to any one article of food: by simple food, is meant that which is not compounded, and complicated, and dressed with pungent stimulants, seasoning, or condiments; such kind of food as the Creator designed for us, and in such condition as is best adapted to our anatomical and physiological powers. Some kinds of food are better than others, and adapted to sustain us in every condition; and such, whatever they may be, (and we should ascertain what they are,) should constitute our sustenance: thus shall we the more perfectly fulfil the laws of our being, and secure our best interests.
Varieties. 1. Was Eve, literally, made out of Adam's rib? 2. IIe-is doubly a conqueror, who, when a conqueror, can conquer himself. 3. People may be borne down by oppression for a time; but, in the end, vengeance will surely overtake their oppressors. 4. It is a great misfortune-not to be able to speak well; and a still greater one, not to know when to be silent. 5. In the hours of study, acquire knowledge that will be useful in after life. 6. Nature-reflects Anecdote. The king's evil. A student the light of revelation, as the moon does of medicine, while attending medical lec- that of the sun. 7. Religion-is to be as tures in London, and the subject of this evil much like God, as men can be like him: being on hand, observed that the king's hence, there is nothing more contrary to vil had been but little known in the Unit-religion, than angry disputes and conten ed States, since the Revolution.
ter, but-ler, &c.
They are sleeping! Who are sleeping }
Gems and pearls-of price untold.
tions about it.
The pilgrim fathers-where are they?
By reason, man-a Godhead can discern:
57. There are no impure diphthongs or Proverbs. 1. As you make your bed, so must triphthongs, in which two or three vowels you lie in it. 2. Be the character you would be represent, or unite, in one sound; for all are called. 3. Choose a calling, th❜t is adapted to your silent except one; as in air, aunt, awl, piard, inclination, and natural abilities. 4. Live-and steal, lead, curtain, soar, good, your, cough, let live; i. e. do as you would be done by. 5. feu-dal, dun-geon, beau-ty, a-dieu, view-ing. Character-is the measure of the man. 6. ZealThese silent letters, in connection with the ously keep down little expenses, and you will vocals, should be called di-graphs and tri- not be likely to incur large ones. 7. Every one graphs; that is, doubly and triply written: knows how to find fault. 8. Fair words and they sometimes merely indicate the sound foul play cheat both young and old. 9. Give a of the accompanying vowel, and the deriva-dog an ill name, and he will soon be shot 10. He tion of the word. Let me beware of believ-knows best what is good, who has endured evil. ing anything, unless I can see that it is true: 11. Great pains and little gains, soon make mao and for the evidence of truth, I will look at
the truth itself.
58. Diphthongs; Ou, and Ow: OUR; afflict the country, are the joint productions
Mr. Brown wound an ounce of sound a-round a cloud, and drowned a mouse in pound of / sour chow-der; a row-sy
mouse de-vour'd a house and howl'd a pow-wow a-bou the
moun-tains; the gou-ty 61 [OU in OUR] crouched in his tow-er, and the scowl-ing cow bowed down de-vout-ly in her bow-er; the giour (jower) en-shroud-ed in pow-er, en-dow-ed the count's prow-ess with a renown'd trow-el, and found him with a stout gown in the coun-ty town.
weary. 12. The fairest rose will wither at last. Cause and Effect. The evils, which of all parties and all classes. They have been produced by over-banking, over-trad ing, over-spending, over-dashing, over-dri ving, over-reaching, over-borrowing, overcating, over-drinking, over-thinking, overplaying, over-riding, and over-acting of every kind and description, except over working. Industry is the foundation of so ciety, and the corner-stone of civilization.
Recipients. We receive according to our states of mind and life: if we are in the love and practice of goodness and truth, we be59. Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, come the receivers of them in that propor paid many thousands to a teacher in Elocution; but if otherwise, we form receptacles tion; and Cicero, the Roman orator, after of their opposites,-falsity and evil. When having completed his education, in other we are under heavenly influences, we know respects, spent two whole years in recitation, under one of the most celebrated tragedi that all things shall work together for our ans of antiquity. Brutus declared, that he happiness; and when under infernal influ would prefer the honor, of being esteemedences, they will work together for our mis the master of Roman eloquence, to the glo-ery. Let us then choose, this day, whom we ry of many triumphs. will serve; and then shall we know-where in consists the art of happiness, and the art of misery.
60. Notes. 1. Ou and ow are the only representatives of this dipththongal sound; the former generally in the middle
of words, and the latter at the end: in blow, show, and low, w is silent. 2. There are 12 mono-thongal vowels, or single voice sounds, and 4 diphthongal vowels, or double voice sounds: these are heard in isle, tune, oil and out. 5. There is a very incorrect and offensive sound given by some to this diphthong, particularly
in the Northern states, in consequence of drawing the corners of the mouth back, and keeping the teeth too close, while pronouncing it; it may be called a flat, nasal sound: in song it is worse than in speech. It may be represented as follows-keou, neou, gun, peur, deoun, keounty, sheower, &c. Good natured, laughing people, living in cold climates, where they wish to keep the mouth nearly closed, when talking, are often guilty of this vul. rarity. It may be avoided by opening the mouth wide, projecting
the under jaw and making the sound deep in the throat.
Anecdote. Woman as she should be. A young woman went into a public library, in a certain town, and asked for "Man as he is." "That is ou!, Miss," said the librarian; "but we have 'Woman as she should be." She
took the book and the hint too.
Where are the heroes of the ages past:
Where the brave chieftains-where the mighty
Who flourish'd in the infancy of days?
Varieties. 1. Is not the single fact, that the human mind has thought of another world, good proof that there is one? 2. Toleration-is good for all, or it is good for none. 3. He who swallows up the substance of the poor, will, in the end, find that it contains a bone, which will choke him. 4. The greatest share of happiness is enjoyed by those, who possess affluence, without su perfluity, and can command the comforts of life, without plunging into its luxuries. 5. Do not suppose that every thing is gold, which glitters; build not your hopes on a sandy foundation. 6. The world seems divided into two great classes, agitators and the non
agitators: why should those, who are estab
lished on the immutable rock of truth, fear
The only prison, th't enslaves the soul,
59. Reading-by vowel sounds only, is | analagous to singing by note, instead of by word. This is an exceedingly interesting and important exercise: it is done, simply, by omitting the consonants, and pronouncing the vowels, the same as in their respective words. First, pronounce one or more words, and then re-pronounce them, and leave off the consonants. The VOWELS constitute the ESSENCE of words, and the CONSO NANTS give that material the proper FORM.
60 All the vowel sounds, thrice told, James Parr; Hall Mann; Eve Prest; Ike Sill; Old Pool Forbs; Luke Munn Bull; Hoyle Prout-ate palms walnuts apples, peaches melons, ripe figs, cocoas goosberries hops, cucumbers prunes, and boiled sour-crout, to their entire satisfaction. Ale, ah, all, at; eel, ell; isle, ill; old, ooze, on; mute, up, full; oil, ounce. Now repeat all these vowel sounds consecutively,: A, A, A, A; E, E; I, I; 0, 0, 0; U, U, U; Oi. Ou.
Proverbs. 1. A man is no better for liking himself, if nobody else likes him. 2. A white glove often conceals a dirty hand. 3. Better pass at once, than to be always in danger. 4. Misunderstandings-are often best prevented, by pen and ink. 5. Knowledge is treasure, and memory is the treasury. 6. Crosses are ladders, leading to heaven. 7. Faint praise, is disparagement 8. Deliver me from a person, who can talk only on one subject. 9. He who peeps throgh alleyhole may see what will vez him. 10. If shrewd men play the fosi, they do it with a vengeance. 11. Physicians rarely take medicines. 12. Curses, like chickens, generally come home to roost.
was instigated to propose war against the Anecdote. A get-off. Henry the Fourth Protestants, by the importunity of his Parliament; whereupon, he declared that he would make every member a captain of a company in the army: the proposal was then unanimously negatived.
Contrasts. Our fair ladies laugh at the Chinese ladies, for depriving themselves of the use of their feet, by tight shoes and bandages, and whose character would be ruined in the estimation of their associates, if they were even suspected of being able to walk :—while they, by the more danger. ous and destructive habits of tight-lacing, destroy functions of the body far more im.
61. Elocution-comprehends Expulsion of Sound, Articulation, Force, Time, Pronunciation, Accent, Pauses, Measure and Melody of Speech, Rhythm, Emphasis, the Eight Notes, Intonation, Pitch, Inflexions, Circumflexes. Cadences, Dynamics, Modulation, Style, the Passions, and Rhetorical Action. Reading and Speaking are inseparably con-portant, not only to themselves, but to their nected with music; hence, every step taken in the former, according to this system, will advance one equally in the latter for Music is but an elegant and refined species of Elocution.
62. CERTAIN VOWELS TO BE PRONOUNCED SEPARATELY. In reading the following, be very deliberate, so as to shape the sounds perfectly, and give each syllable clearly and distinctly; and in all the ex-am-ples, here and elsewhere, make those sounds, that are objects of attention, very prominent. Ba-al, the o-ri-ent a-e-ro-naut and cham-pi-on of fier-y scor-pi-ons, took his a-e-ri-al flight into the ge-o-met-ri-cal em-py-re-an, and dropped a beau-ti-ful vi-o-let into the Ap-pi-i Forum, where they sung hy-me-ne-al re-quiems; Be-el-ze-bub vi-o-lent-ly rent the va-rie-ga-ted di-a-dem from his zo-o-log-i-cal crani-um, and placed it on the Eu-ro-pe-an geni-i, to me-li-o-rate their in-cho-ate i-de-a of eu-ring the pit-e-ous in-val-ids of Man-tu-a and Pom-pe-i, with the tri-en-ni-al pan-a-ce-a of no-ol-o-gy, or the lin-e-a-ment of a-ri-es. Notes. 1. The constituent diphthongal sounds of I are near. by 3d a, and Iste; those of u, approach to 2d e, and 24 o: those of ei, to 3d a, and 24 i: and those of ou to 31 o, and 2do: make and analyze them, and observe the funnel shape of the lips, which flange with the changing sounds in passing from the radicals to
their vanishes. 2. Preventives and curatives of incipient disease, may be found in these principles, positions and exercises.
offspring; and whole troops of dandies, quite as taper-waisted, and almost as mus. culine as their mothers, are the natural results of such a gross absurdity. If to be admired—is the motive of such a custom, it is a most paradoxical mode of accomplish ing this end; for that which is destructive of health, must be more destructive of beau ty that beauty, in a vain effort to preserve which, the victims of this fashion have devoted themselves to a joyless youth, and a premature decrepitude,
Varieties. 1. Is it best to divulge the truth to all, whatever may be their state of mind and life? 2. A good tale-is never the worse for being twice told. 3. Those who do not love any thing, rarely experience great enjoyments; those who do love, often suffer deep griefs. 4. The way to heaven is delightful to those who love to walk in it; and the difficulties we meet with in endeavoring to keep it, do not spring from the nature of the way, but from the state of the traveler. 5. He, who wishes nothing, will gain nothing. 6. It is good to know a great deal; but it is better to make a good use of what we do know. 7. Every day-brings forth something for the mind to be exercised on, either of a mental, or external character; and to be faithful in it, and acquit ourselves with the advantage derived thereby, is both wisdom and duty
Whether he knew things, or no,