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27. Articulation is the cutting out and shaping, in a perfectly distinct and appropriate manner, with the organs of speech, all the simple and compound sounds which our twenty-six letters represent. It is to the ear what a fair hand-writing is to the eye, and relates, of course, to the sounds, not to the names, of both vowels and consonants. It depends on the exact positions and correct operations, of the vocal powers, and on the ability to vary them with rapidty, precision and effect: thus, articulation is purely an intellectual act, and belongs not to any of the brute creation.
29. Two grand objects are, to correct bad done by the practice of analysis and synnabits, and form good ones; which may be thesis: that is, taking compound sounds, syllables, words, and sentences into pieces; or, resolving them into their component parts, and then recombining, or putting them together again. Error must be eradicated, cr truth cannot be received; we must cease to do evil, and learn to do well: what is true can be received only in proportion as its opposite false is removed.
Anecdote. Accommodating. A Physi cian-advertised, that at the request of his friends, he had moved near the church-yard; and trusted that his removal would accommodate many of his patients. No doubt of it.
[I in ILL.]
28. The second sound of I is short: not end there. 8. An ounce of mother wit is IL; inn, imp; the ser-vile spur-it of a rep-tile lib-er-tine is hos-tile to fem-i-nine fi-del-ity; the pu-er-ile dis-ci-pline of mer-can-tile chi-cane-ry, is the ar-tif-i-cer of mil-i-ta-ry des-po-tism; the fer-tile eglan-tine is des-tiu'd for a ju-ve-nile gift; the gen-u-ine pro-file of Cap-tain White-field is the an-tip-o-des of in-di-vi-si-bil-i-ty; the wind, in the vi-cin-i-ty of mount Lib-a-nus, is a me-di-ci-nal for the con-spir-a-cy of the brig-and; the pris-tine foun-tains of the ad-a-man-tine spring is sul-lied with the guilty guil-o-tine; man is an ex-quis-ite e-pit-o-me of the in-fi-nite Di-vin-i-ty, and should be stud-ied as def-i-nite-ly as pos
Proverbs. 1. A thousand probabilities will not make one truth. 2. A hand-saw is a good thing, but not to shave with. 3. Gentility, without ability, is worse than beggary. 4. A man may talk like a wise man, and yet act like a fool. 5. If we would succeed in any thing, we must use the proper means. 6. A liar should have a good memory. 7. Charity begins at home, but does
A bark, at midnight, sent alone
To drift upon a moonless sea,-
Is like what I am-wi hout thee.
worth a pound of learning. 9. Short reckonings make long friends. 10. Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of fools. 11. Every one knows best where his own shoe pinches. A faint heart never won a fair lady.
Freedom. When freedom is spoken of, every one has an idea of what is meant ; for every one has known what it is to live in freedom, and also what it is to live, and ac under restraint. But then it is obvious that different persons feel in freedom, according to circumstances; things which restrain and infringe upon the freedom of some, have no such effect upon others. So that in the same situation in which one would feel free, another would feel himself in bondage. Hence, it is evident that tho' all have a general idea of what freedom is, the same circumstances, it follows, that freeyet all have not the same idea of it. For as different persons would not all be free in dom itself is not the same thing to all. Of course, the kinds of freedom are as many and various as the kinds of love are by which we are all governed and our freedom is genuine or not genuine, according as our ruling love is good or evil.
Varieties. 1. Did you ever consider how many millions of people-live, and die, ignorant of themselves and the world? 2. Stinginess soon becomes a confirmed habit, and increases with our years. 3. The man, who
Notes. 1. Beware of Mr. Walker's error, in giving the sound of long E to the final unaccented I and Y of syllables and words, which is always short: as,-as-per-ee-tee, for as-per-i-ty, mee-nor-ee-tee, for mi-nor-i-ty; char-ee-tee for char-i-ty; pos-see a l-ee-tee, for pos-si-bil-i-ty, &c. 2. Some give the short sound of
30. Irregulars. A, E, O, U, and Y, in a few words, have this sound: as-the hom-age giv-en to pret-ty wom-en has been the rich-est bus-'ness of pet-ty tyr-an-ny, since the English just, and firm in his purpose, cannot be proph-e-cy of Py-thag-o-rus; the styg-i-an fur-shaken in his deterinined mind, either by nace of bus-y Wal-lace, in Hon-ey al-ley, is a threats or promises. 4. By continually scol med-ley of pyr-i-tes, and the treb-le cyn-o-sure ding children and domestics, for small faults, of cyg-nets, hys-sop, and syn-o-nyms. they finally become accustomed to it, and de spise the reproof. 5. Good books-are not only a nourishment to the mind, but they enlighten and expand it. 6. Why do we turn from those living in this world, to those who have left it, for the evidences of genuine love? 7. All principles love their nearest relatives, and seek fellowship and conjunction with
I to in the unaccented syllables of-ad-age, cab-bage, pos-tage, bon-dage, u-sage, &c., which is agreeable to the authorities, and to give the a as in af, savors of affectation 3 is silent in evil, devil, cousin, basin, &c. 4. I, in final unaccented syllables, not
ending a word, is generally short; zi-mi-i-tude, fi-del-i-ty mi mor-i-ty.
There are some bosoms-dark and drear
31. The organs of speech are, the dorsal | Natural Philosophy—includes all suband abdominal muscles, the diaphragm and stances that affect our five senses,-hearing, intercostal muscles, the thorax or chest, seeing, tasting, smeling and feeling; which the lungs, the trachea or wind-pipe, the substances are called matter, and exist in larynx, (composed of five elastic cartilages, three states, or conditions,-solid, when the the upper one being the epiglottis,) the glot-particles cohere together, so as not to be easily tis, palate, tongue, teeth, lips and nose: but, in all efforts, we must use the whole body. All vowel sounds are made in the larynx, or vocal box, and all the consonant sounds above this organ.
separated; as rocks, wood, trees, &c.: liquid, when they cohere slightly, and separate freely; as water: and gaseous, or aeriform state, when they not only separate freely, but tend to recede from each other, as far as
the space they occupy, or their pressure will permit,-as air, &c.
32. O has three regular sounds: first, its NAME sound, or long: OLD; the sloth-ful doge copes with the flo-rist before Pha-raoh, and sows on-ly yel-low oats and osier; the home-ly por-trait of the a-tro-cious gold-smith is the yeoman-ry's pil-low; Job won't go [0 m OLD.] to Rome and pour tal-low o-ver the broach of the pre-co-cious wid-ow Gross; the whole corps of for-gers tore the tro-phy from the fellow's nose, and told him to store it under the po-ten-tate's so-fa, where the de-co-rus pa-trol pour'd the hoa-ry min
Educators, and Education. We all must serve an apprenticeship to the five senses; and, at every step, we need assistance in learning our trade: gentleness, patience, and love-are almost every thing in education: they constitute a mild and bless. ed atmosphere, which enters into a child's soul, like sunshine into the rosebud, slowly, but surely expanding it into vigor and beauty. Parents and Teachers must govern their own feelings, and keep their hearts and consciences pure, following principle, instead of impulse. The cultivation of the affections and the development of the body's senses, begin together. The first effort of intellect is to associate the names of objects with the sight of them; hence, the necessity of early habits of observation of paying attention to surrounding things and events; and enquiring the whys and wherefores of every thing; this will lead to the qual
33. A correct and pure articulation, is indispensable to the public speaker, and essential in private conversation: every one, therefore, should make himself master of it. All, who are resolved to acquire such an articulation, and faithfully use the means, (which are here furnished in abundance,) will most certainly succeed, though opposed by slight organic defects; for the mind may obtain supreme control over the whole body.ities, shapes, and states of inanimate sub34. Irregulars. Au, Eau, and Ew, have stances; such as hard, soft, round, square, this sound in a few words: The beau Ros-bles, afterwards of animals; and finally, of hot, cold, swift, slow, &c.; then of vegeta seau, with mourn-ful hau-teur, stole the hautboy, bu-reau, cha-teau and flam-beaux, and poked them into his port-manteau, before the belle sowed his toe to the har-row, for strew-tue, working sometimes on one part, then ing the shew-bread on the plat-eau.
human character, we must not proceed as men, angels, and God. In forming the the sculptor does, in the formation of a sta
on another; but as nature does in forming a flower, or any other production; throwing out altogether the whole system of being, and all rudiments of every part.
Varieties. 1. The just man will flourish in spite of envy. 2. Disappointment and suffering, are the school of wisdom. 3. Is
Anecdote. A Narrow Escape. A pedantic English traveler, boasting that he had been so fortunate, as to escape Mr. Jefferson's celebrated non-importation law, was told by a Yankee lady, "he was a very lucky man: for she understood that the non-importation law prohibited the importing of goods, of which corporeal punishment necessary in the school, brass-was the chief composition." army and navy ? 4. Every thing within the scope of human power, can be accomplished by weli-directed efforts. 5. WOMAN-the morning-star of our youth, the day-star of our manhood, and the evening-star of our age. 6. When Newton was asked-by what means he made his discoveries in science; he replied,
Proverbs. 1. Affairs, like salt-fish, should be a long time soaking. 2. A fool's tongue, like a nonkey's tail, designates the animal. 3. All are not thieves that dogs bark at. 4. An ant may work its heart out, but it can never make honey. 5. Better go around, than fall into the ditch. 6. Church work generally goes on slowly. 7. Those," by thinking." 7. Infinity-can never be whom guilt contaminates, it renders equal. 8. received fully-by any recipient, either in Force, without forecast, is little worth. 9. Gen-heaven, or on earth.
tility, without ability, is worse than plain beg-The silver eel, in shining volumes roll'd,
gary. 10. Invite, rather than avoid labor. He'll go to law, at the wagging of a straw. Hi son's choice,-that, or none.
'Tis not, indeed, my talent-to engage In lofty trifles; or, to swell my pagewith wind, and noise.
The yellow carp, in scales bedropp'd with gold;
O cursed thirst of gold! when, for thy sake, The fool-throws up his interest in both worlds; First, starv'd in this, then, damn'd-in that to come.
Causes of Greek Perfection. All Greek
Philologists have failed to account satisfac torily, for the form, harmony, power, and
35. Attend to the quantity and quality of the sounds, which you and others make; that is, the volume and purity of voice, the time occupied, and the manner of enuncia-superiority of that language. The reason ting letters, words, and sentences: also, seems to be, that they have sought for a thing learn their differences and distinctions, and make your voice produce, and your ear ob- where it is not to be found; they have look'd serve them. Get clear and distinct ideas into books, to see what was never written and conceptions of things and principles, in books; but which alone could be heard. both as respects spirit, and matter; or you They learned to read by ear, and not by letwill grope in darkness. ters; and, instead of having manuscripts be36. The second sound of O is close: made the thoughts their own, by actual approfore them, they memorized their contents, and OOZE; do stoop, and choose to ac-cou-tre the gour-mand and trou-ba-dour, with boots' and shoes; the soot-y cou-ri-er broods a youth-ful boor to gamboge the goose for a dou-ceur; [0 in OOZE.] Brougham, (Broom,) proves the uncouth dra-goon to be a wound-ed tou-rist by his droop-ing sur-tout; it be-hoves the boo-by to shoot his bou-sy noo-dle soon, lest, buo-yant with soup, the fool moor his poor ca-noe to the roof of the moon.
priation. When an author wished to have
which is similar to the phrase-catching
37. The difference between expulsion and explosion is, that the latter calls into use, principally, the lungs, or thorax: i. e. the effort is made too much above the diaphragm the former requires the combined action of the muscles below the midriff; this is favorable to voice and health; that is deleterious, generally, to both: many a one has injured his voice, by this unnatural process, and others have exploded their health, and some their life; beware of it.
Notes. 1. Au, in some French words, have this sound; as-chef-d'eau-vre, (she-doovr, a master stroke ;) also, Eu; as-maneu-vre; coup-d'œil, (coo-dale, first, or slight view;) coup-demain, (a sudden attack ;) and coup-de-grace, (coo-de-gras, the finishing stroke). 2 Beware of Walker's erroneous notation in pronouncing oo in book, cook, took, look, &c., like the second sound of o, as in boon, pool, tooth, &c. In these first examples, the oo is like u in pull; and in the latter the o is close. In the word to, in the following,
when it constitutes a part of the verb, the o is close: as-"in the
examples alluded to;" "attend t' the exceptions." 3. In concert
practice, many will let out their voices, who would read so low as not to be heard, if reading individually.
Proverbs. 1. A fog-cannot be dispelled with a fan. 2. A good tale-is often marr'd in telling. 3. Diligence-makes all things appear easy. 4. A good name is better than riches. 5. A man may even say his prayers out of time. 6. A-pel-les-was not a painter in a day. 7. A plaster is a small amends for a broken head. 8. All are not saints that go to church. 9. A man may live upon little, but he cannot live upon nothing at all. 10. A rolling stone gathers no moss. Patience is a bitter seed; but it yields sweet fruit. 12. The longest life must have an end.
There is a pleasure-in the pathless woods,
To mingle-with the Universe, and feel-
Varieties. 1. Is it not strange, that such beautiful flowers-should spring from the dust, on which we tread? 2. Patient, persevering thought-has done more to enlighten and improve mankind, than all the sudden and brilliant efforts of genius. 3. It is astonishing, how much a little added to a little, will, in time, amount to. 4. The happiest state of man-is-that of doing good, for its own sake. 5. It is much safer, to think-what we say, than to say—what we think. 6. In affairs of the heart, the only trafic is-love for love; and the exchangeall for all. 7. There are as many orders of truth, as there are of created objects of order in the world; and as many orders of goodproper to such truth.
There is a spell-in every flower,
And every simple bird-hath power-
And there is music-on the breeze,
Which bids my soul rise up, and bless
38. Oratory-in all its refinement, and Analogies. Light-is used in all lannecessary circumstances, belongs to no par-guages, as the representative of truth in its ticular people, to the exclusion of others; power of illustrating the understanding. nor is it the gift of nature alone; but, like Sheep, lambs, doves, &c., are analogous to, other acquirements, it is the reward of ardu- or represent certain principles and affections us efforts, under the guidance of consummate and hence, we select them as fit representa of the mind, which are pure and innocent, skill.' Perfection, in this art, as well as in all tives of such affections: while, on the other others, is the work of time and labor, prompt-hand, bears, wolves, serpents, and the like,
ed by true feeling, and guided by correct thought.
are thought to represent their like affections. In painting and sculpture it is the artist's great aim, to represent, by sensible colors, and to embody under material forms, cer tain ideas, or principles, which belong to the mind, and give form to his conceptions on canvass, or on marble: and, if his execution be equal to his conception, there will be a perfect correspondence, or analogy, between his picture, or statue, and the ideas, which he had endeavored therein to express. The works of the greatest masters in poetry, and those which will live the longest, contain the most of pure correspondences; for genuine poetry is identical with truth; and it is the truth, in such works, which is their living principle, and the source of their power over the mind.
[O in ON.]
39. The third sound of O is short: ON; fore-head, prod-uce; the dol-o-rous coll-ier trode on the bronz'd ob-e-lisk, and his solace was a com-bat for om-lets made of gor-geous cor-als; the vol-a-tile pro-cess of making ros-in glob-ules of trop-i-cal mon-ades is extraor-di-na-ry; the doc-ile George for-got the joc-und copse in his som-bre prog-ress to the moss broth in yon-der trough of knowledge; beyond the flor-id frosts of morn-ing are the sop-o-rif-ic prod-ucts of the hol-y-days.
40. Dean Kirwan, a celebrated pulpit orator, was so thoroughly convinced of the mportance of manner, as an instrument of doing good, that he carefully studied all his tones and gestures; and his well modulated and commanding voice, his striking attitudes, and his varied emphatic action, greatly aided his wing-ed words, in instructing, melting, inflaming, terrifying and overwhelming his auditors.
41. Irregulars. A sometimes has this sound: For what was the wad-dling swan quar-rel-ing with the wasp wan-der-ing and wab-bling in the swamp? it was in a quanda-ry for the quan-ti-ty of wars be-tween the squash and wash-tub, I war-rant you.
'Tis liberty, alone, that gives the flower of fleeting life its lustre, and perfume; And we are weeds without it.
been praised for his quickness of reply, a Anecdote. Ready Wit. A boy, having gentleman observed," When children are so keen in their youth, they are generally stupid when they become advanced in years." "What a very sensible boy you must have been, sir, "-replied the lad.
Notes. 1. The o in nor is like o in on and or: and the rea-kind-spend the early part of their lives ir. son why it appears to be different, is that the letter, when smooth, contributing to render the latter part misera
being formed the lowest in the throat of any of the consonants,
partakes more of the properties of the vowel than the rest. 2. 0ble. 5. When we do wrong, being convinc
is silent in the final syllables of pris-on, bi-son, dam-son, ma-son, par-son, sex-ton, ar-son, bla-zon, glut-ton, par-don, but-ton, rea-son, mut-ton, ba-con, trea-son, reck-on, sea-son, u-ni-son, he-ri-zon, crimson, les-son, per-son, Mil-ton, John-son, Thomp-son, &c.
ed of it-is the first step towards amendment. 6. The style of writing, adopted by persons of equal education and intelligence, is the criterion of correct language. 7. To go against reason and its dictates, when pure, is to go against God: such reason-is the divine governor of man's life: it is the very voice of God.
Proverbs. 1. A man of gladness-seldom falls into madness. 2. A new broom sweeps clean. 3. A whetstone-can't itself cut, yet it makes tools cut. 4. Better go around, than fall into the ditch. 5. Religion-is an excellent armor, but a bad cloke. 6. The early bird-catches the worm. 7. Every one's faults are not written in their fore-heads. 8. Fire and water-are excellent servants, but bad masters. 9. Fools and obstinate people, make lawyers rich. 10. Good counsel has no price. 11. Great barkers-ate no biters. 12. Regard the interests of others, as well as your own.
Man's soul-in a perpetual motion flows,
Varieties. 1. Why is a thinking person like a mirror? because he reflects. 2. Selfsufficiency-is a rock, on which thousands perish; while diffidence, with a proper sense of our strength, and worthiness, generally ensures success. 3. Industry-is the law of our being; it is the demand of nature, of reason, and of God. 4. The generality of man
THE EVENING BELLS.
42. Yield implicit obedience to all rules | and principles, that are founded in nature and science; because, ease, gracefulness, and effu iency, always follow accuracy; but rules may be dispensed with, when you have become divested of bad habits, and have perfected yourself in this useful art. Do not, however, destroy the scaffold, until you have erected the building; and do not raise the super-struct-ure, till you have dug deep, and laid its foundation stones upon a rock.
43. U has three regular sounds: first, NAME Sound, or long: MUTE; June re-fu-ses as-tute Ju-ly the juice due to cu-cum-ber; this feudal con-nois-sieur is a suit-a-ble co-ad-ju-tor for the cu-ri-ous man-tua-ma-ker; the a-gue and [U in MUTE.] fe-ver is a sin-gu-lar nui-sance to the a-cumen of the mu-lat-to; the cu-rate cal-culates to ed-u-cate this lieu-ten-ant for the tribu-nal of the Duke's ju-di-cat-ure.
44. Elocution, is reading, and speaking, with science, and effect. It consists of two parts: the Science, or its true principles, and the Art, or the method of presenting them. Science is the knowledge of Art, and Art is the practice of Science. By science, or knowledge, we know how to do a thing; and the doing of it is the art. Or, science is the parent, and art is the offspring; or, science is the seed, and art the plant.
45. Irregulars. Ew, has sometimes this diphthongal sound, which is made by commencing with a conformation of organs much like that required in short e, as in ell, terminating with the sound of o, in ooze; see the engraving. Re-view the dew-y Jew a-new, while the cat mews for the stew. In pronouncing the single sounds, the mouth is in one condition; but, in giving the diphthong, or double sound, it changes in conformity to them.
Notes. 1. U, when long, at the beginning of a word, syllable, is preceded by the consonant sound of y: i. e. it has this consonant and its own bowel sound: as; u-ni-verse, (yu-ni-verse,) pen-u-ry, (pen-yu-ry,) stat-u-a-ry, (stat-yu-a-ry,) ewe, (yu,) volume,
(vol-yume,) na-ture, (nat-yure,) &c.: but not in col-umn, al-um,
&c., where the u is short. 2. Never pronounce duty, doofy; tune, toon; news, noor; blue, bloo; slew, sloo; dews, doos; Jews, Joos; Tuesday, Toosday; gratitude, gratitoode, &c. 3. Sound all the syllables full, for a time, regardless of sense, and make every letter that is not silent, tell truly and fully on the ear: there is no danger that you will not clip them enough in practice.
Anecdote. A Dear Wife. A certain extravagant speculator, who failed soon after, informed a relation one evening, that he had that day purchased an elegant set of jewels for his dear wife, which cost him two thousand dollars. She is a dear wife, indeed," was the laconic reply.
Proverbs. 1. Fools make fashions, and other people follow them. 2. From nothing, nothing can come. 3. Give but rope enough, and he will hang himself. 4. Punishment- may be tardy, but it is sure to overtake the guilty. 5. He that plants trees, loves others, besides himself. 6. If a fool have success, it always ruins him. 7. It is more easy to threaten, than to do. self, as well as others. 9 Little strokes le great 8. Learning-makes a man fit company for himoaks. 10. Make the best of a bad bargain. 11.
in heads, replete with thoughts of other men ; WISDOM, in minds attentive to their own.
The more we have, the more we desire. 12. Genteel society-is not always good society.
Varieties. 1. Gaming, like quicksand, may swallow up a man in a moment. 2. Real independence-is living within our means. 3. Envy-has slain its thousands; but neglect, its tens of thousands. 4. Is not a sectarian spirit-the devil's wedge-to separate christians from each other? 5. That man is little to be envied, whose patriotism— would not gain force on the plains of Maraorthon; or whose piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of Ionia. 6. Rational evidence-is stronger than any miracle whenever it convinces the understanding; which miracles do not. 7. Man, in his salvation, has the power of an omnipotent Go to fight for him; but in his damnation, he must fight against it, as being ever in the ef fort to save him.
The Innocent and Guilty. If those, only, who sow to the wind-reap the whirlwind, it would be well: but the mischief is that the blindness of bigotry, the mad ness of ambition, and the miscalculation of diplomacy-seek their victims, principally,. amongst the innocent and unoffending. The cottage is sure to suffer, for every erWhen error sits in the seat of power and ror of the court, the cabinet, or the camp. authority, and is generated in high places, it may be compared to that torrent, which originates indeed, in the mountain, but commits its devastation in the vale below.
Eternal Joy. The delight of the soulis derived from love and wisdom from the Lord; and because love is effective through wisdom, they are both fixed in the effect, which is use: this delight from the Lord flows into the soul, and descends through the superiors and inferiors of the mind-into all the senses of the body, and fulfills it. self in them; and thence joy-becomes joy, and also eternal-from the Eternal.
These, as they change, Almighty Father! these
Even from the body's purity-the mind-