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PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.

Maxims. 1. It does not become a lavo-maker,

430 STYLE. The character of a person's style of reading and speaking depends upon to become a law-breaker. 2. Friendship is stronger his moral perceptions of the ends, causes, and than kindred. 3. Idleness is the sepulchre of a liv. effects of the composition: thus, STYLE maying man. 4. An orator, without judgment, is like a be considered the man himself, and, as every horse without a bridle. 5. He that knows when to 8. Impose one sees and feels, with regard to everything, speak, knows when to be silent. 6. The truest end according to the state or condition of his of life-is to know the life that never ends. 7 Inot on others a burthen which you cannot bear mind, and as there are and can be no two Wine has drowned more than .he sea. persons alike; each individual will have a yourself. 9. He overcomes a stout enemy, that manner and style peculiar to himself; tho' overcomes his own anger. 10. Study mankitud in the main, that of two persons of equal as well as books. education and intelligence, may be in a great degree similar.

Note of Interrogation (?). Anecdote. Mr. Pope, the poet, who was small and deTHE'. When ques-formed, sneering at the ignorance of a young 431. RULES FOR tions are answered by yes or no, they gen- man, who was very inquisitive, and asked a erally require the '. Exs. Are you well? good many impertinent questions, inquired Is he gone? Have you got your hát? Do of him if he knew what an interrogation you say yes? Can he accommodate me? point was? "Yes sir," said he, "it is a little Will you call and see me? But when the crooked thing, like yourself, that asks ques questions are emphatic, or amount to an affir- tions." mative, the 'is used. Are you well? As much as to say tell me whether you are well. Is he gone? Have you done it? All given Hath he said in an authoritative manner. it, and shall he not do it? He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? Is he a man, that he should repènt?

Ideas, acquired by taste-are compound and relative. If a man had never experienced any change, in the sensation produced by external things, on the organs of taste, that which he now calls sweet, (if it had been the quality, subjected to the sense,) would have conveyed to the mind no possible idea; but, alternating with the quality we call bitter, contrariety-produces the first impres sion, and he learns to distinguish the qualitics by names. The sensation-awakened by Madeira wine, must be very acute, to enable a man to discriminate, accurately, without a very careful comparison. Let a particular kind of Madeira wine remain a few years on the lees of many other kinds, and who would detect the compound flavor, but the contriver 3

432. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is the cusket more valuable than the jewel? 2. Will not the safety of the community be endangered, by permitting the murderer to live? 3. Are theatres-beneficial to mankind' 4. Did Napolean do more hurt than good to the world? 5. Were the Texans right-in rebelling against Mexico? 6. Ought the license system to be abolished? 7. Is animal magnetism true? 8. Who was the greatest monster-Nero, or Catiline? 9. Should we act from policy, or from principle? 10. Is not the improvement of the mind, of the first importance?

Varieties. 1. Inspire a child with right feelings, and they will govern his actions: hence, the truth of the old adage, Example is better than precept. 2. The great difficulty is, that we give rules, instead of inspiring sentiments; it is in vain to lead the understanding with rules, if the affections are not right. 3. Benjamin West states, that his mo

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the

Nature. Man is radiant with expressions. Every feature, limb, muscle and vein, may tell something of the energy within. The brow, smooth or contracted, the eye, placid, dilated, tearful, flashing,-the lip, calm, quiv-ther kissed him, eagerly, when he showed her ering, smiling, curled, -the whole counten- the likeness he had sketched of his baby sister; and, he adds,-that kiss made me a ance, serene, distorted, pale, flushed, hand, with its thousand motions, the chest, painter. 4. Lay by all scraps of material still or heaving,—the attitude, relaxed or firm, things, as well as of knowledge, and they cowering or lofty,-in short, the visible char-will certainly come in use within seven years. acteristics of the whole external man,-are 5. Gain all the information you can, learn all NATURE'S HAND-WRITING; and the tones and that comes in your way, without being intruqualities of the voice, soft, low, quiet, broken, sive, and provided it does not interfere with agitated, shrill, grave, boisterous,-are her the faithful discharge of other duties. 6. It ORAL LANGUAGE: let the student copy and was a maxim of the great William Jones, learn. Nature is the goddess, and art and never to lose an opportunity of learning anything. science her ministers.

Since trifles-make the sum of human things,
And half our misery-from our foibles springs;
Since life's bat joys-consist in peace and ease,
And few-can save or serve, but all-can please;
U let the ingentle spirit-learn from hence,-
A small unkindness-is a great offence.

A wise man poor,
Is like a sacred book, that's never read;
To himself he lives, and to all else seems dead:
This age-thinks better of a gilded fool,
Than of a threadbare saint-in wisdom's schoo

433. STYLE. The numerous examples Maxims. 1. Punctuality begets confidence, given throughout this work, afford the neces- and is the sure road to honor and respect. 2. A sary means for illustrating all the principles picture is a poem, without words. 3. Sensible men of elocution: let the taste, and judgment, as show their sense, by saying much in few words well as the abilities of the student-be test-4. He, who thinks to cheat another, cheats himed by a proper selection and application of self. Pride is easily seen in others; but we them. He must not expect too much from rarely see it in ourselves. 6. Wealth is not his others, nor take it unkindly, when thrown who gets it, but his who enjoys it. 7. A bad boot upon his own resources: the best way to in- is one of the worst of thieves. 8. Toleration crease our strength, is to have it often tested. 9. Too much prosperity makes most men fools should spring from charity, not from indifference All who become orators, must make them-10. He, who serves God, has the best master i

selves orators.

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the world. 11. One love drives another out. Health is better than wealth.

434. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. If we do well, shall we not be accepted? 2. Which

is more useful, fire, or water? 3. Ought cir- Influence. Few are aware of the full excumstantial evidence to be admitted in crim-tent of meaning contained in this word. If inal cases? 4. Can we be too zealous in we can measure the kind and quantity of rightly promoting a good cause? 5. Which influence, that every variety of heat and cold is worse, a bad education, or no education? has on the world of matter; if we can tell 6. Are not bigotry and intolerance-as des- the influence, that one individual has on antructive to morality, as they are to common other, one society on another, and one nasense? 7. Are we not apt to be proud of tion on another, both for time and eternity; that which is not our own? 8. Ought there itual beings have on one another, and on if we can estimate the influence, that spir not to be duties on imported goods, to encourage domestic manufactures? 9. Is slathe human race, collectively, and separately; very right? 10. Have steamboats been the also the influence of the Great Spirit on all cause of more good than evil? creation, then, we are able to see and realize 435. IGNORANCE AND ERROR. It is al- Contemplate and weigh the influence, that the mighty meaning of this important word. most as difficult to make one unlearn his er- different kinds of food and drink have on the rors, as to acquire knowledge. Mal-information is more hopeless than non-informa-innumerable parts; the influence on body human system, by being appropriated to its tion; for error is always more busy than ig- and mind of keeping and violating the laws norance. Ignorance-is a blank sheet, on of life, by thinking feeling, and acting; the which we may write; but error-is a scrib-influence, which a good or bad person bled one, from which we must first erase. his associates and also their influence on othhas on Ignorance—is contented to stand still, with ers, through all coming time, as well as in the her back to the truth; but error-is more eternal world, and you will perceive somepresumptuous, and proceeds in the same di- thing of the importance of ceasing to do evil, rection. Ignorance has no light, but error and learning to do well; of living and pracfollows a false one. The consequence is, ticing what is good and true, and thereby that error, when she retraces her footsteps, being saved from all that is evil and false. has farther to go, before she can arrive at the truth, than ignorance. Anecdote. Virtue before Riches. The-lowing, which he religiously observed; "Six mistocles-had a daughter, to whom two men hours to sleep, to law's great study six, Four were wishing to make love; one-was very spend in prayer, the rest to nature fix." 2. rich, but a simpleton, and the other-poor, Wm. Jones, a wiser economist of the fleeting but a very wise man: the father preferred the hours of life, amended the sentiment thus; latter, saying, "I would rather have a man Seven hours to law, to soothing slumbers without riches, than riches without a man." seven, Ten to the world allot, and all to The primal duties-shine aloft, like stars; heaven. 3. The truly beautiful and sublime The charities, that soothe, and heal, and bless, are to be found within the regions of nature Are scattered at the feet of man, like flowers; and probability: the false sublime sets to itThe generous inclination, the just rule, self no bounds: it deals in thunders, earthKind wishes, and good actions, and pure thoughts. quakes, tempests, and whirlwinds. 4. Is it No my.tery is here; no special boon any pain for a bird to fly, a fish to swim, or For hig, and not for low; for proudly graced, a boy to play? 5. Confound not vociferation And not for meek of heart. The smoke ascends with emphatic expression; for a whisper To heaven as lightly from the cottage hearth, may be as discriminating as the loudest tones As from the haughty palace. He, whose soul 6. Speech-is the gift of God. 7. Order Ponders this true equality, may walk the same in the world, in man, and in the The fields of earth-with gratitude and hope. church; man-is an epitome of all the prin ciples of order.

Varieties. 1. Lord Coke-wrote the fol

Our wishes lengthen-as our sun declines.

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436. STYLE, &c. To accomplish your object, study the true meaning and character of the subject, so as to express the whole, in such a way as to be perfectly understood and felt thus, you will transport your hearers to the scene you describe, and your earnestness raise them on the tiptoe of expectation, and your just arguments sweep everything before them like a MOUNTAIN torrent: to ex

cite, to agitate, and delight, are among the most powerful arts of persuasion: but the impressions must be enforced on the mind by a command of all the sensibilities and sympathies of the soul. That your course may be ever upward and onward, remember, none but a GOOD man can be a perfect orator; uncorrupted and incorruptible integrity is one of the most powerful engines of persuasion.

438. MANNER AND MATTER. The secret of success in Music, as well as in Elocution, is, to adapt the manner perfectly to the matter: if the subject be simple, such must be the manner if it be gay and lively, or solemn and dignified, such, or such must be the manner in addition to which, the performer must forget himself, or rather lose himself in the subject, body and soul, and show his regard to his audience, by devoting himself to the subject and hence he must never try to show himself off: but hide behind the thought and feeling, and depend upon them to produce the effect: if there is any affectation, the hold on the heart is in that proportion relinquished. Oh, when shall we take our appropriate place and regard USE as the grand object!

Maxims. 1. Revenge, however sweet, la dearly bought. 2. Life is half spent, before we know what it is to live. 3. The world is a workshop, and the wise only know how to use its tools. 4. A man is valued, as he makes himself valuable. 5. Heaven is not to be had, merely by wishing for it. 6. As often as we do good, we sacrifice. 7. Be careful to keep your word, even in the most trifling matter. 8. Hearts may agree, tho' heads may dif

fer. 9. Honest men are easily bound; but you can ever bind a knave. 10. Experience keeps a lear school; but fools will learn in no other.

437. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is any government-as important as the principles it should protect and extend? 2. Should we remain passive, when our country, or politi-vey, for asserting the circulation of the blood, cal rights are invaded? 3. Are banks beneficial! 4. Have the crusaders been the cause of more evil than good? 5. Was the war waged against the Seminoles of Florida, just? 6. Which is the more important acquisition, wealth, or knowledge? 7. Is there any neutral ground between good and evil, truth and falsehood? 8. Which should we fear most, the commission of a crime, or the fear of punishment? 9. By binding the understanding, and forcing the judgment, can we mend the heart? 10. When proud people meet together, are they not always unhappy? 11. Is not common sense a very rare and valuable article? 12. What is the use of a body, without a soul?

was styled a vagabond, a quack; and persecuted, through life, by the medical profession. In the time of Francis I., Ambrose Pare-introduced the ligament, to staunch the blood of an amputated limb, instead of boiling hot pitch, in which the bleeding stump had formerly been dipped; and he was persecuted, with the most relentless rancour, by the Faculty, who ridiculed the idea-of risking a man's life upon a thread, when boiling pitch had stood the test for centuries. Medicines have been proscribed as poison, and then prescribed in great quantities; the proscriptions and prescriptions being both adopted with | equal ignorance and credulity. There is no hope for man, but a thorough and correct education in the school of truth and goodness.

But sure to foreign climes—we need not range,
Nor search the ancient records of our race,
To learn-the dire effect of time-and change,
Which, in ourselves, alas! we daily trace;
Tet, at the darkened eye, the withered face,
Or hoary hair-1 never will repine;

But spare, O Time! whate'er of mental grace,
Of candor, love, or sympathy divine;

bate'er of fancy's ray, or frierulship's flame is mine. BRONSON.

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Some

Anecdote. Curious Patriotism.
years ago, one of the convicts at Botany Bay,
wrote a FARCE, which was acted with much
applause in some of the theatres. Barring
ton, the notorious pick-pocket, wrote the
prologue; which ended with these lines:

True patriots we: for, be it understood,
We left our country-for our country's good.
Ignorance-Willfulness. The ignor
ant-oppose without discrimination. Har-

Varieties. 1. Does the nature of things depend on the matter, of which they are formed; or on the laws of constitution, by which matter is arranged? 2. Is not vegetable matter formed from oxygen and hydrogen; and animal matter from these two and carbon? But what are their constituent parts? Were their essences created, or are they eternal? 3. What large portions of the world there are of which we know compara. tively nothing! and although we are familiar with our bodies, externally, yet how little of their internals do even the best physiologists know? 4. How much is really known of the nature of mind? and yet there is presumption enough in some, to decide at once, upon all the phenomena of the mind, and prescribe its limits. 5. Thus, man clothes himself with his fanciful knowledge, and plays such insane tricks before the world. e make the angels weep.

The fisher-is out on the suung sad,

And the reindeer-bounds o'er the pasture free;
And the pine-has a fringe of a softer green,

And the moss-looks bright, where my foot hath been.

439. EFFECTIVE STYLE. The more your Maxins. 1. Happiness is the shadow reading and speaking partake of the freedom contentment, and rests, or moves forever with its and ease of common discourse, (provided original 2. A drop of wisdom is worth a tun of you sustain the object and life of the compo- riches. 3. Whatever does not stand with credia, sition) the more just, natural, and effective will not stand long. 4. Business must be attend will be your style of delivery: hence the ne-ed to, a the expense of every thing else of less im cessity of studying nature, of avoiding all portance. 5. Our states of mind differ as much affectation, and of never attempting that in as our spirits and temper. 6. Death-cannot kil public, which is beyond your ability. Some what never dies,-mutual love. 7. If you will mar, or spoil what they are going to say, by les. 8. Open rebuke is better than secret love. 9. not hear reason, she will rap you over your knuck making so much ado over it, thinking they Good counsel is thrown away on the arrogant must do some great thing; when it isal most and self-conceited. 10. He, who resolves to amend, as simple as-wash and be clean: whatever has God, and all good beings on his side. is not natural is not agreeable or persuasive.

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Why have those banished and forbidden legs
Dared once to touch a dust of England's ground
But more than why-Why have they dared to march
So many miles upon her peaceful bosom ;
Frightening her pale-faced villagers with war,
And ostentation of despised arms?

Comest thou because the anointed king is hence?
Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind,
And in my loyal bosom lies his power.
Were I but now the lord of such hot youth
As when brave Gaunt, thy father, and myself,
Rescued the Black Prince, that young Mars of men
From forth the ranks of many thousand French;
Oh, then, how quickly should this arm of mice,
Now prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee,
And minister ourrection to thy fault!

442. ELOQUENCE. What were all the Maxims. 1. Old age and faded flowers, no attribu es of man, his personal accomplish-remedies can revive. 2. Something should be ments, and his boasted reason, without the learned every time a book is opened. 3. A truly taculty of SPEECH? To excel in its use is great man never puts away the simplicity of the the highest of human arts. It enables man child. 4. The gem cannot be polished without to govern whole nations, and to enchant, friction, nor man-perfected, without adversity. 5 while he governs. The aristocracy of Elo- The full stomach cannot realize the evils of hunquence is supreme, and, in a free country, ger. 6. When thought is agitated, truth rises. 7. can never be subdued. It is the pride of A child requires books, as much as the merchant peace, and the glory of war: it rides upon docs goods. 8. Learn by the vices of others, how the zephyr's wings, or thunders in the storm. detestable your own are. 9. Judge not of men or But there is in eloquence, in painting, the things, at first sight. 10. Reprove thy friend pri life of the canvas, which breathes, moves, vately, and commend him publicly. speaks, and is full of action: so is there in the dance, the poetry and music of motion, the eloquence of action; whose power consists in the wonderful adaptation of the graces of the body to the harmonies of mind. There is eloquence in every object of taste, both in art and nature; in sculpture, garing them, answered, "That his fore span dening, architecture, poetry and music; all were lawyers, and the other-clients." of which come within the scope and plan of the orator, that he may comprehend that intellectual relation, that secret clause in the liberal professions, which, connecting one with another, combines the influence of all. Virtue, alone, ennobles human kind,

attorneys overtaking a wagoner, with two
Anecdote. Sharp Reply. Two country
his expense, asked him,
span of horses, and, thinking to be witty at
"How it happened,
that his forward horses were so fat, and the
rear ones so lean?" The wagoner, know-

And power-should on her glorious footsteps wait.
Wisdom-finds tongues-in trees; books-in run-
ring streams; sermons-in stones, and GOOD-in
verything.

You pride you-on your golden hue;
[too.
Know-the poor glow-worm-hath its brightness
When men of judgment—feel, and creep their way,
The positive-pronounce-without delay.

"Tis good, and lovely, to be kind;
But charity-should not be blind.

A little learning-is a dangerous thing; Drink deep-or taste not the Pierian spring : There, shallow draughts-intoxicate the brain, But, drinking largely, sobers us again. Ah me! the laureled wreath, that murder wears, Blood-nursed and watered with the widow's tears, Seems not so foul,—so tainted,—and so dead, As waves the night-shade round the sceptic's bed. 443. MUSIC is the oral language of the affections; as words are the natural language of the thoughts. The notes of a tune are analogous to letters; the measures-to words; the strains to sentences; and the tune, or musical piece, to a discourse, oration, or poem. As there is a great variety of affections, and states of affection in the human mind, so there is a great variety of tunes, through the medium of which these affections, and states of affection are manifested. There are three grand divisions of music, which, for the sake of distinction, may be denominated the upper, or that which relates to the Supreme Being; the middle, or that relating to created, rational beings, or social music; and the lower, or what appertains to that part of creation below man-called descripLive music.

Ambition-is like love,-impatient-
Both of delays,—and rivals.

Selfishness-seems to be the complex of all vices. The love of self, when predominant, excludes all goodness, and perverts all truth. It is the great enemy of individuals, societies, and communities. It is the cause of all irritation, the source of all evil. People, who are always thinking of themselves, have no time to be concerned about others; their own pleasure or profit, is the pivot, on which everything turns. They cannot even conceive of disinterestedness, and will laugh well as themselves. Selfishness-is the very to scorn all, who appear to love others, as essence of the first original sin, and it must be corrected, or we are lost.

Varieties. 1. The wind, the falling of water, humming of bees, a sweet voice reading monotonously, tend to produce sleep; this is not so much the case with musical tones. 2. The trilling and quivering of the voice, which please so much, correspond to the glittering of light: as the moonbeams playing on the waves. 3. Falling from a discord to a concord, which produces so much sweetness in music, correspond to the affections, when brought out of a state of dislike; and also with the taste; which is soon cloyed with what is sweet alone. 4. Music has great effect on mind and body, making us warlike or the reverse, soft and effeminate, grave and light, gentle, kind and pitiful, &c., according to its nature, and perform ance; the reason is, because hearing is more closely associated with feeling or spirits, than the other senses. Observe the effect of Yankee Doodle, God save the King, Marseilles Hymn, &c. 5. When music speaks to the affection, affection obeys, as when noture speaks, nature replics.

Let gratitude-in acts of goodness flow;
Our love to God, in love to man below.
Be this our joy-to calm the troubled breast,
Support the weak, and succor the distress'd ·
Direct the wand'rer, dry the widow's tear;
The orphan guard, the sinking spirit cheer.
Tho' small our power to act, tho' small our skill,
God-sees the heart; he judges—by the will.

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