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418. The merging of the Diatonic Scale! in the Musical Staff, as some have done in elocution, is evidently incorrect; for then, the exact pitch of voice is fixed, and all must take that pitch, whether it be in accordance with the voice, or not. But in the simple diatonic scale, as here presented, each one takes his lowest natural note for his tonic, or key-note, and then, passes to the medium range of pitches. Different voices are often keyed on different pitches; and to bring them all to the same pitch, is as arbitrary as Procruste's bedstead, according to Hudribras: "This iron bedstead, they do fetch,
To try our hopes upon;
If we're too short, we must be stretch'd,
Cat off-if we're too long."
Beware of all racks; be natural, or nothing.
419. SUGGESTIONS. Let the pupils memorize any of the proverbs, laconics, maxims, or questions, and recite them on occasions like the following: when they first assemble in the school-room; or, meet together in a social circle: let them also carry on a kind of conversation, or dialogue with them, and each strive to get one appropriate to the supposed state, character, &c. of another: or use them in a variety of ways, that their ingenuity may suggest.
Laconics. 1. A..y vic ation of law-is a breach of morality. 2. Music, in all its variety, is essentially one: and so is speech, tho' infinitely diversified. 3. Literary people-are often unpleas ant companions in mixed society; because they have not always the power of adapting them
selves to others. 4. It is pedantry-to introduce
foreign words into our language, when we have
Anecdote. Sterling Integrity. In 1778, while congress was sitting in Philadelphia, frequent attempts were made, by the British officers, and agents, to bribe several of the members. Governor Johnstone-authorized the following proposal, to be made to Col. Joseph Reed: "That he would engage his interest to promote the objects of the British, he should receive THIRTY THOUSAND DOLLARS, and any office in the colonies, in his majesty's gift. Col. Reed-indignantly replied, "I am not worth purchasing; but such as 1 am, the king of Great Britain is not rich enough to buy me."
Anger. Of all passions-there is not one so extravagant and outrageous as this; other passions solicit and mislead us: but this runs away with us by force, hurries us as well to our own, as to another's ruin: it often falls upon the wrong person, and discharges its wrath on the innocent instead of the guil ty. It spares neither friend nor foe; but tears all to pieces, and casts human nature into a perpetual warfare.
All the world's—a stage,
In fair round belly, with good capon lined,
Pride. There is no passion so universal, or that steals into the heart more imperceptibly, and covers itself under more disgui-Full of wise saus and modern instances,
ses, than pride; and yet, there is not a sin-
And so he plays his part: The sixth age-shifts
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.
PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.
Maxims. 1. Some are alert in the beginning, but negligent in the end. 2. Fear-is often concealed under a show of daring. 3. The remedy is often worse than the disease. 4. A faint heart never won a fair lady. 5. No man is free, who does not govern himself. 6. An angry man opens his mouth, and shuts his eyes. 7. Such as give ear to slanderers, are as bad as slanderers themselves.
Proud looks lose hearts, but courteous words-win
A cheerful manner denotes a gentle nature. 9.
My liege-I did deny no prisoners.
I was born a prince, and am become a king;
And, 'twixt his finger and his thumb, he held
Of Lying. Lying-supplies those who
He gave his nose. And still he smil'd, and talk'd, for every crime, and with a supposed shelter
And as the soldiers-bore dead bodies by,
He called them untauglit knaves, unmannerly,
from every punishment. It tempts them to
He question'd me; amongst the rest, demanded
I then, all smarting with my wounds, being gall'd corrupts the early simplicity of youth; it
blasts the fairest blossoms of genius; and
To be so pestered with a popinjay,
420. THE SLENDER CHARACTERISTIC OF VOICE. In all cases, endeavor to express by the voice and gesture, the sense and feeling, that are designed to be conveyed by the words; i. e. tell the whole truth. Most of e following words, that Shakspeare puts into the mouth of Hotspur, descriptive of a dandy, requires the use of this peculiarity of voice, in order to exhibit their full meaning. Conceive how a blunt, straight-forward, honest soldier would make his defence, when unjustly accused by his finical superior, of unsoldier-like conduct; and then recite the following.
Varieties. 1. A very moderate power, exercised by perseverance, will effect-what direct force could never accomplish. 2. We must not deduce an argument against the use of a thing, from an occasional abuse of it. 3 Should we let a painful and cold attention to manner and voice, chill the warmth of our hearts, in our fervency and zeal in a good cause? 4. Youth-often rush on, impetu ously, in the pursuit of every gratification, heedless of consequences. 5. The adherence to truth-produces much good; and its appearances-much mischief. 6. Every one, who does not grow better, as he grows older, is a spendthrift of that time, which is more precious than gold. 7. Obedience to the truths of the Word, is the life of all; for truths are the laws of the heavens, and of the church; obedience-implies the reception of them; so far as we receive, so far we are alive, by the coming of the kingdom within us.
Number. Unity—is an abstract conception, resembling primary, or incorporeal matter, in its general aggregate; one-appertains to things, capable of being numbered, and may be compared to matter, rendered visible under a particular form. Number is not infinite, any more than matter is; but it is the source of that indefinite divisibility, into equal parts, which is the property of all bodies. Thus, unity and one are to be distinguished from each other.
Whoe'er, amidst the sons Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue, Displays distinguished merit, is a noble Of Nature's own making.
PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.
421. TREMOR OF VOICE-resembles the Proverbs. 1. Proud persons have few real trill in singing, and may be indicated in this friends. 2. Mildness-governs better than anger. manner, ; the voice ranging 3. No hope should influence as to do evil. 4. Few from a quarter of a tone, to several tones. things are impossible to skill and industry. 5. It is made deep in the throat, with a drop- Diligence is the mistress of success. 6. Conscience ping of the jaw; and when properly used, is never dilatory her warnings. 7. A rain it is very effective and heart-stirring: espehope flattereth the heart of a fool. 8. Moderate cially, in the higher kinds of oratory. It speed is a sure help to all proceedings. 9. Liberheightens joy, mirth, rapture, and exulta-ality of knowledge makes no one the poorer. 10. tion; adds pungency to scorn, contempt, and If you endeavor to be honest, you struggle with sarcasm: deepens the notes of sorrow, and yourself. enhances those of distress: often witnessed in children, when manifesting their delights. There are several degrees, from the gross to the most refined.
422. 1. Said Falstaff, of his ragged regi- United States, five hundred and eighty-four Varieties. 1. In 1840, there were in the ment, "I'll not march through Coventry thousand whites, who could not read or with them, that's flat; no eye hath seen such write; five thousand, seven hundred and scarecrow's." Almost every word requires a seventy-three deaf and dumb; five thous kind of chuckle, especially the italic ones; and and twenty-four blind; fourteen thous and by making a motion with the chin, up and five hundred and eight insane, or idiots, and down, the shake of the voice will corres- and two millions four hundred and eightypond to the sign, this example we have an instance of a refin- tion increases thirty-four per cent. in ten 2. In seven thousand slaves. 2. As our populaed tremor of voice; but the right feeling is ne-years, at this rate, in 1850, our cessary to produce it naturally. Queen Cath- millions will be twenty-two millions: in arine said, in commending her daughter to 1860, thirty millions; and in 1900, ninetyHenry," And a little to love her, for her moth-five millions. 3. The regular increase of the er's sake: who loved him-heaven knows N. E. states is fourteen per cent; of the midhow dearly." The coloring matter of the dle states twenty-five per cent.; of the southvoice is feeling-passion, which gives rise to ern twenty-two per cent.; and of the westthe qualities of voice; thus, we employ ern-sixty-eight per cent. 4. Many persons harsh tones in speaking of what we disap-are more anxious to know who Melchisedec prove, and euphoneous ones in describing the was, or what was Paul's thorn in the flesh, objects of love, complacency, admiration, &c. than to know what they shall do to be saved. 5. To cure anger, sip of a glass of water, till the fit goes off. 6. An infallible remedy for anxiety-"cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee."
423. In extemporaneous speaking, or speaking from manuscript, (i. e. making it talk,) when the speaker is under the influence of strong passion, the voice is apt to be carried to the higher pitches: how shall he regain his medium pitch? by changing the passion to one requiring low notes; thus, the surface of his flow of voice, will present the appearance of a country with mountains, hilis, and dales. Elocution-relates more to the words and thoughts of others; oratory to our own. To become a good reader and speaker, one must be perfect in elocution, which relates to words: in logic, which relates to thoughts; and in rhetoric, which appertains to the affections: thus involving ends, causes, and effects.
Anecdote. Aged Gallantry. A gallant old gentleman, by the name of Page, who was something of a rhymester, finding a lady's glove at a watering-place, presented it to her, with the following lines:
"If from your glove-you take the letter g, Your glove is love-which I devote to-thee." To which the lady returned the following
"If from your Page, you take the letter p.
by its right name, would hardly pass through Names. A man, that should cali every thing the streets, without being knocked down as a common enemy.
TRY TRY AGAIN.
"Tis a lesson-you should heed,
If at first-you don't succeed,
Try, try again;
Once, or twice, though you should fail,
If you would, at last, prevail,
Try, try again;
If we strive, 'tis no disgrace,
your task is hard,
Time will bring you your reward,
All that other folks can do,
Why, with patience, should not you?
TRY, TRY AGAIN,
424. Before entering on a consideration and illustration of the Passions, the pupil is urged to revise the preceding lessons and exercises; but do not be deceived with the idea, that thinking about them is enough, or reading them over silently; join practice with thought, and the effects are yours. One of the great difficulties in thinking about any art or science, and witnessing the efforts of others in their presentation, is-that one's taste is so far in advance of his own practice, that he becomes disgusted with it, and despairs of his success. Let us remember that nothing is truly our own, that we do not understand, love and practice.
Proverbs. 1. Beauty is 10 longer amiable, than while virtue adorns it. 2. Past services should never be forgotten. 3. A known enemy is better than a treacherous friend. 4. Don't engage in any undertaking, if your conscience says no to it. 5. Benefits and injuries receive their value from the intention. 6. We should give by choice, and not by hazard. 7. He, that does ɔd to another, from proper motives, does good also to himself. 8. He that is false to God can never be trus to man. 9. A good principle is sure to produce a good practice. 10. None are truly wise, but those that are pure in heart.
HAMLET'S INSTRUCTIONS ON DELIVERY.
Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you; trippingly on the tongue. But if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief the town-crier had spoke my lines. And do not saw the air too much with your hand; but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I may say, WHIRLWIND of your passion, you must Intuition. We cannot have an idea of acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it one, without the idea of another to which it smoothness. Oh! it offends me to the soul, to hear is related. We then get the idea of two, a robustious, periwig-pated fellow tear a passion by contemplating them both; referring, abto tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the stractly, to one of them. We say one and groundlings; who, (for the most part,) are capa-one are equal to two; one one, is less than ble of nothing, but inexplicable dumb-show and two ones; therefore, one does not equal two. noise. I would have such a fellow whipp'd for One and one, are the parts of two, and the o'erdoing termagant, it out-Herod's Herod. Pray parts of a thing are equal to the whole of it. you, avoid it. Be not too tame, neither; but let Thus, we come to the knowledge of what your own discretion be your tutor. Suit the ac- has been called intuitive proposition, only tion-to the word, the wo-l-to the action; with by reasoning. When such a principle is this special observance, that you o'erstep not the clearly admitted, we cannot deny its truth, modesty of nature: for anything, so overdone, is for a moment: but it is far from being, from the purpose of playing; whose end, both at strictly speaking, an intuitive truth. the first, and now, was, and is-to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn-her own image,—and the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure. Now, this overdone, or come tardy off, though it may make the unskillful laugh, cannot but make the judicious-grieve: the censure of one of which, must, in your allowance, o'erweigh a whole thea-I tre of others. Oh! there be players that I have seen play, and heard others praise, and that highly, that, neither having the accent of christian, nor the gait of christian, pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed, that I have thought some
of nature's journeymen had made men, and not made them well; they imitated humanity so abom
425. TENDENCIES OF OUR LANGUAGE. As our language abounds in monosyllables, it affords good means to deliver our thoughts in few sounds, and thereby favors despatch. which is one of our characteristics; and when we use words of more than one syllable, we readily contract them some, by our rapid pronunciation, or by the omission of some vowel; as, drown'd, walk'd, dips; instead of drown-ed, walk-ed, dip-peth, &c.; and even proper names of several syllables, when familiarized, often dwindle down into monosyllables; whereas, in other languages, they receive a softer turn, by the addition of a new syllable.
Anecdote. Contrary. A woman, having fallen into a river, her husband went to look she fell in. for her, proceeding up stream from where The bystanders asked him if he was mad? she could not have gone against the stream. The man answered:
She was obstinate and contrary in her lifetime, and I suppose for certain she is so at her death."
Varieties. 1. The virtues of the country are with our women, and the only remaining hope of the resurrection of the genius and character of the nation, rests with them. 2. The present-is the parent of the future. 3. The last words of the Indian chief, who died at Washington, in 1824, were. ** When
am gone, let the big guns he fired over me." 4. Beware of turning away from doing good, by thinking how much good you The pleasure of thinking on important subwould do, if you only had the means. 5. jects, with a view to communicate our tho'ts to the unfolding minds around us, is a most exquisite pleasure. 6. Principle and prac tice must go hand in hand, to make the man, or woman. 7. The time is fast apnew fields, and view itself, its Creator, and proaching, when the mind will strike out the Universe from new positions.
Why do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear,
426. A just delivery consists in a distinct | Proverbs. 1. To fail, or not-to fail; that articulation of words, pronounced in proper is the question. 2. He, that loveth pleasure, shall tones, suitably varied to the sense, and the be a poor man. 3. Flattery is a dazzling meteor emotions of the mind; with due observation that casts a delusive glare before the mental eye of accent, the several gradations of emphasis; seduces the imagination, perverts the judgment, pauses or rests in proper places, and well and silences the dictates of reason. 4. Mankind measured degrees of time; and the whole ac- by reason and reflection. 5. Our duty and true are governed more by feeling and impulse, than companied with expressive looks, and significant gestures. To conceive, and to execute, are two different things: the first may arise from study and observation; the second is the effect of practice.
laugh, is often an act of wisdom. 7. No one can interest, always unite. 6. An occasional hearty be great, who is not virtuous. 8. We make more than half the evils we feel. 9. No one can estimate the value of a pious, discreet, and faithful mother. 10. The boy-is the father of the man.
Anecdote. Tallow and Talent. Fletcher, bishop of Nesmes, was the son of a tallow chandler. A great duke once endeavored to mortify the prelate, by saying to him, at the
427. RULES FOR THE'. When questions are not answered by yes or no; as, Who is that lady? In AFFIRMATIVE sentences; as-I am prepared to go: language of AUTHORITY; as-Back to thy punishment, false fugitive: TERROR; as- -The light king's levee, that he smelt of tallow. To burns blue: SURPRISE; as-Sir, I perceive which the bishop replied, "My lord, I an that thou art a prophet: REPREHENSION; the son of a chandler, it is true, and if you as-You are very much to blame for suffer- lordship had been the same, you would have ing him to pass: INDIGNATION: Go-false remained a chandler all the days of your life. fellow, and let me never see your face again: CONTEMPT; as-To live in awe of such a thing as I myself: EXCLAMATION: O nature! how honorable is thy empire! RHETORICAL DIALOGUE, when one or more persons are represented; as-James said, Charles, go and do as you were bidden; and John said, he need not go at present, for I have something for him to do: and the FINAL PAUSE; as-All general rules have some exceptions.
428. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS. 1. Is there Varieties. 1. Never repay kindness with more than one God? 2. Was the world crea- unkindness. 2. Is pride-commendable? 3. ted out of nothing? 3. What is the mean- No guarantee for the conduct of nations, or ing of the expression, "let us make man in individuals, ought to be stronger than that our image, after our likeness ?" 4. By what which honor imposes. 4. True patriotism means can we become happy? 5. Can we labors for civil and religious liberty all over be a friend, and an enemy, at the same time? the world-for universal freedom; the liber6. Are miracles the most convincing eviden- ty and happiness of the human race. 5. ces of truth? 7. Will dying for principles, What is charity, and what are its fruits? 6. prove any thing more than the sincerity of When persons are reduced to want, by their the martyr? 8. Is it possible for a created own laziness, or vices, is it a duty to relieve being to merit salvation by good works? 9. them? 7. To read Milton's Paradise Lost, Have we life of our own; or are we dependentment of the Essay on Man, is said to have is the pleasure of but few. 8. The arguon God for it every moment? 10. What is the difference between good and evil? 11. been written by Bolingbroke, and versified Is any law independent of its maker? 12. by Pope. 9. Painting, Sculpture and Architecture are three subjects, on which nearly to conceal ignorance, if they cannot display all persons, of polite education, are compelled knowledge. 10. Is labor—a blessing, or a
Are miracles-violations of nature's laws?
429. Some think matter is all, and manner little or nothing; but if one were to speak the sense of an angel in bad words, and with a disagreeable utterance, few would listen to him with much pleasure or profi. The figure of Adonis, with an awkward air, and ungraceful motion, would be disgusting instead of pleasing.
Disinterestedness-is the very flower of all the virtues, a manifestation—in the heart of one who feels and ucts from it, of heaven on earth,-the very reflection of the sun of Paradise. If mankind more generally, knew how beautiful it is to serve others, from the love of doing them good, there would not be so much cold and narrow selfishness in the world. When we have contributed most to the happiness of others, we are receptive ourselves of the most happiness.
Reader, whosoe'er thou art,
What thy God has given, impart ;
Music-oh! how faint, how weak!
When thou canst breathe her soul-so well.