108. Public speakers ought to live longer, | the point you are to aim at, is, the greatest and enjoy better health, than other persons; possible degree of usefulness. 7. He who and if they conform to the principles here only aims at little, will accomplish but little. taught, and the laws of life and health gener- Anecdote. A silly, but very pretty woally, this will be the result. Pulmonary dis-man, complained to the celebrated and beaueases may be thrown off by these exercises; tiful Sophia Arnold, of the number of her the author being a living witness, having been admirers, and wished to know how sho given over at three different times with con- should get rid of them. "Oh, my dear," umption. The celebrated Cuvier and Dr.(was the satiric reply,) "it is very easy for Brown, the metaphysician, and many others you to do it: you have only to speak.” that might be mentioned, are also witnesses of this truth. One reason is, that natural peaking induces one to use a very large quantity of air, whereby the capacity of the lungs is much enlarged, the quantity of air increased, and the blood more perfectly puri-importance, is to show our own unimportance. 5. fied; the use of the whole body insures a free Grief, cherished unseen, is genuine; while that, circulation, and, of course, contributes to universal health.

Proverbs. 1. Those, who possess any real excellence, think and say, the least about it. 2 The active only, have the true relish of life. 3. Many there are, who are everything by turns, and nothing-long. 4. To treat trifles-as matters of

which has witnesses, may be affected. 6. Errordoes not so often arise from our ignorance of the truth, as an unwillingness to receive it. 7. Somemistake the love-for the practice of virtue, and are not so much good themselves, as they are the friends of goodness. 8. To love any one, and not do him good, when there is ability and opportunity, is a contradiction. 9. Pity-will always be his portion in adversity, who acted with kindness in prosperity. 10. The best mode of proving any science, is by exhibiting it.

Think'st thou-there are no serpents in the world,
But those, which slide along the grassy sod,
And sting the luckless foot, that presses them?
There are, who, in the path of social life,
Do bask their spotted skins, in fortune's sun,
And sting the soul, aye, till its healthful frame
Is changed to secret, festering, sore disease;
So deadly-is its wound.

The brave, 'tis sure, do never shun the light; Just are their thoughts, and open are their tempers; Still are they found-in the fair face of day, And heaven, and men—are judges of their actions. 409. DISEASES OF THE THROAT-are connected, particularly, with those parts of the body, which are involved in breathing, and relate to the understanding, or reasoning faculties of the mind: thus, thinking and breathing are inseparably connected together; as are feeling and acting; hence, the predominance of thought, in the exercise of the voice, or in any kind of action, and zeal without knowledge, tend directly to such perversions of mind and body, as induce, not only diseases of the throat, but even pulmonary diseases: if, then, we will to be free, in any re-living within them. If all who could, would spect, we must return to truth and nature; for live within their means, the world would be they will guide the obedient in the right way. much happier and much better than it is. Henry Clay and his noble housewife-give us an example worthy of all imitation.

A Good Example. Mr. Clay, in a debate upon the Loan Bill, remarked, that, for twenty or thirty years, neither he nor his wife, had owed any man a dollar. Both of them, many years gone by, had come to the conclusion, that the best principle of economy was this,-"never to go in debt. To indulge your wants when you were able to do so, and to repress them when you are not able to indulge them." The example is not only an excellent one for ilself, but comes from a high source. To repress a want-is one of the wisest, safest, and most necessary principles of political economy. It prevents, not only the dangerous practice of living beyond our means, but encourages the safe precedent of

2. Byron says, of Jack Bunting, “He knew Varieties. 1. Is pride-a mark of talent? not what to do, and so he swore:" so we may say of many a one's preposterous use of books -He knew not what to do, and so he read.

Miscellaneous. 1. Whatever one possesses, becomes doubly valuable, by having the happiness of dividing it with a friend. 2. He who loves riches more than his friend, does not deserve to be loved. 3. He who would pass the latter part of his life with hmmor, and usefulness, must, when he is young, consider that he shall one day be old; and when he is old, remember that he has once been young. 4. The rolling planets, and the glorious sun, Still keen that order, which they first begun; But wretched man, alone, has gone astray, swerved from his God, and walks another way. 5. The oldlive in the past, as the young do-in the future. 6. Fix upon a high standard of character: to be thought well of—is not sufficient:

Wit's-a feather-Pope nas said,

And ladies-do not doubt it:

For those, who've izust—within the head,
Display the most-about it.
They sin, who tell us love can die;
Its holy flame forever bu.neth;

From heaven it came, to heaven returneth.
Forgiveness-to the injured does belong;
But they ne'er pardon, who have done the wrong
Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow,

Thou shalt not escape calumny.

410. DELIVERY-addresses itself to the mind through two mediums, the eye and the ear: hence, it naturally divides itself into two parts, voice and gesture; both of which must be sedulously cultivated, under the guidance of proper feeling, and correct thought. That style is the best, which is the most transparent; hence the grand aim of the elocutionist should be-perfect transparency; and when this part is attained, he will be listened to with pleasure, be perfectly understood, and do justice to his subject, his powers, and his audience.

Pioneers. The "eccentric" man-is generally the pioneer of mankind, cutting his way the first-into the gloomy depths of unexplored science, crcoming difficulties, that would check meaner spirits, and then-holding up the light of his knowledge-to guide thousands, who, but for him, would be wan dering about in all the uncertainty of ignorance, or be held ir ne fetters of some selfish policy, which they had not, of themselves -the energy to throw off.

Proverbs. 1. Constant occupation-shute out temptation. 2. A flatterer-is a most danger ous enemy. 3. Unless we aim at perfection, we shall never attain it. 4. They who love the longest, love the best. 5. Pleasure-is not the rule for rest, but for health. 6. The President is but the head-servant of the people. 7. Knowledge-is not truly ours, till we have given it away. 8. Our debts, and our sins, are generally greater than we suppose. 9. Some folks-are like snakes in the bad. 11. Beauty will neither feed or clothe us. grass. 10. He-injuries the good, who spares the 12. Woman's work is never done.

411. YOUNG GENTLEMEN, (said William Wirt,) you do not, I hope, expect from me, an oration for display. At my time of life, and worn down, as I am, by the toils of a laborious profession, you can no longer look for the spirit and buoyancy of youth. SPRING is the season for flowers; but I-am in the autumn of life, and you will, I hope, accept from me, the fruits of my EXPERIENCE, in lieu of the more showy, but less substantial blossoms of SPRING. I could not have been tempted hither, for the puerile purpose of DISPLAY. My visit has a much graver motive and object. It is the hope of making some suggestions, that may be serviceable in the journey of life, that is before you; of calling into action some dormant energy; of pointing your exertions to some attainable end of practical utility; in short, the hope of contributing, in some small degree, towards making you happier in yourselves, and more useful to your country.

sar's Commentaries, the radical elements of
Varieties. 1. Who does not see, in Ce.
the present French character? 2. "A man,"
says Oliver Cromwell, 66
never rises so high,
3. The virtue, that vain persons affect to des-
as when he knows not whither he is going."
pise, might have saved them; while the beau-

412. The conversational-must be deliv-ty, they so highly prized, is the cause of their ered in the most natural, easy, familiar, dis-ruin. 4. He, who flatters, without designtinct, and agreeable manner; the narrative ing to benefit by it, is a fool; and whoever and didactive, with a clear and distinct artic- encourages that flattery, that has sense ulation, correct emphasis, proper inflections, enough to see through, is a vain coxcomb. 5. and appropriate modulations; because, it is The business of the teacher-is not so much not so much your object to excite the affec- to communicate knowledge to the pupil, as tions, as to inform the understanding: the to set him to thinking, and show him how argumentative, and reasoning, demand great to educate himself; that is, he must rather deliberation, slowness, distinctness, frequent teach him the way to the fountain, than carpauses, candor, strong emphasis and occasional vehemence. No one can become a and sell dear; i. e. make as good bargains as ry him to the water. 6. Many buy cheap, good reader and speaker, without much prac- they can; which is a trial of skill, between tice and many failures. other; but honest men set their price and two knaves, to see which shall overreach the adhere to it. 7. If you put a chain round the neck of a slave, the other end fastens it

"Tis not ir folly-not to scorn a fool,
And scarce in human wisdom-to do more.

of the Revolutionary war, the king of Great Anecdote. What for? After the close Britain--ordered a thanksgiving to be kept throughout the kingdom. A minister of the gospel inquired of him, "For what are we to give thanks? that your majesty has lost thirteen of your best provinces ?" The king answered, "No." "Is it then, that your majesty has lost one hundred thousand lives of king. "Is it then, that we have expended, and your best subjects?" "No, no!" said the lost, a hundred millions of money, and for the defeat and tarnishing of your majesty's arms ?" "No such thing," said the king thanksgiving!" pleasantly. "What then, is the object of the "Oh, give thanks that it is

no worse."

self around your own.
Would you then learn to dissipate the band
That, in the weak man's way-like lions stand,
Of these huge threatening difficulties dire,
His soul appal, and damp his rising fire?
Exert that noblest privilege, alone,
Resolve, resolve, and to be men aspite.

Here to mankind indulged: control desire;
Let godlike reason, from her sovereign throne,
Speak the commanding word-I will, and it is dom

413. EARNESTNESS OF MANNER-is of Proverbs. 1. People generally love truth vital importance in sustaining a transparent more than goodness; knowledge more than ho style; and this must be imbibed internally, ness. 2. Never magnanimity--fell to the ground. and felt with all the truth and certainty of 3. He, who would gather immortal palms, must nature. By proper exercises on these prin- not be hindered by the name of goodness, but ciples, a person may acquire the power of must explore—if it be goodness. 4. No author passing, at will, from grave to gay, and from was ever written down, by any but himself. 5. Better be a nettle in the side of your friend, than lively to severe, without confounding one his echo. 6. Surmise is the gossamer, that malice with the other: there are times, however, blows on fair reputation; the corroding dew, that wher, they may be united; as in the humor destroys the choicest blossoms. 7. A genera ous and pathetic, together. prostration of morals-must be the inevitable result of the diffusion of bad principles. 8. To know-is one thing; and to do-is another. 9. Candor-lends an open ear to all men. 10. Art -is never so beautiful, as when it reflects the philosophy of religion and of man.

Breathes there a man with soul so dead,
Who never, to himself hath said,
"This is my own, my native land ?"
Whose heart-hath ne'er within him burned,
As home-his footsteps he hath turned,
From wandering on a foreign strand?
If such there breathe, go mark him well:
For him, no minstrel raptures swell;
High tho' his titles, powers, or pelf.
The wretch-concentred all in self,
Living-shall forfeit fair renown,
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung,
Unwept'd, unhonored, and unsung.

414. The following are the terms usually applied to style, in writing, and also in speaking; each of which has its distinctive characteristics; though all of them have something in common. Bombastic, dry, elegant, epistolary, flowing, harsh, laconic, lofty, loose, terse, tumid, verbose. There are also styles of occasion, time, place, &c.: such as the style of the bar, of the legislature, and of the pulpit; also the dramatic style, comedy, (high and low,) farce and tragedy.

We cannot honor our country-with too deep a reverence; we cannot love her-with an affection too pure and fervent; we cannot serve her-with an energy of purpose, or a faithfulness of zeal-too steadfast and ardent. And what is our country? It is not the East, with her hills and her valleys, with her countless sails, and the rocky ramparts thousand villages, and her harvest-home, with of her shores. It is not the North, with her her frontiers of the lake, and the ocean. It is not the West, with her forest-sea, and her inland isles, with her luxuriant expanses, clothed in the verdant corn; with her beautiful Ohio, and her majestic Missouri. Nor is it yet the South, opulent in the mimic snow of the cotton, in the rich plantations of the rustling cane, and in the golden robes of the rice-field. What are these, but the sister families of one greater, better, holier family, OUR COUNTRY?


Illiterate and selfish people, are often opposed to persons traveling through the country, to lecture on any subject whatever; and Give thy thoughts no tongue, especially, on such as the grumblers are ig- Nor any unproportioned thought his act. norant of. But are not books and newspa- Be thou familiar; but by no means vulgar. pers, itinerants too? In olden time, the wor- The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, shipers of the goddess Diana, were violently Grapple them to thy soul, with hooks of steel; opposed to the Apostles; because, thro' their But do not dull thy palm-with entertainment preaching of the cross, their craft was in Of ev'ry new hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade. Beware danger. The liberally educated, and those of entrance into quarrel! but, being in, who are in favor of a universal spread of Bear it, that the opposer--may beware of thee. knowledge, are ready to bid them "God Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice, [ment. speed," if they and their subject are praise-Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judg. Costly thy habit-as thy purse can buy, worthy. But not expressed in fancy; rich, not gaudy. For the apparel-oft proclaims the man. Neither a borrower, nor a lender be; For loan-oft loses both itself and friend, And borrowing-dulls the edge of husbandry. This above all--to thine own self he true, And it must follow, as the night the day. Thou canst not, then-be false to any man. Dare to be true-nothing-can need a lie; The fault that needs it-grows two-thereby.

Anecdote. A Kingly Dinner in Nature's Palace. Cyrus, king of Persia, was to dine with one of his friends; and, on being asked to name the place, and the viands with which he would have his table spread, he replied, "Prepare the banquet at the side of the river, and let one loaf of bread be the only dish." Bright, as the pillar, rose at Heaven's command: When Israel-marched along the desert land, Blazed through the night-on lonely wilds afar, And told the path,—a never-setting star; So, heavenly Genius, in thy course divine, Rope-is thy star, her light—is ever thine.

What do you think of marriage?

I take it, as those that deny purgatory ¡
It locally contains or heaven or kell;
There is no third place in it.

415. Beware of a slavish attention to rules; for nothing should supercede Nature, who knows more than Art; therefore, let her stand in the foreground, with art for her servant. Emotion is the soul of oratory: one flash of passion on the cheek, one beam of feeling from the eye, one thrilling note of sensibility from the tongue, one stroke of hearty emphasis from the arm, have infinitely more value, than all the rhetorical rules and flourishes of ancient or modern times. The great rule is BE IN EARNEST. This is what Demosthenes more than intimated, in tive declaring, that the most important ng in eloquence, was action. There will be no execution without fire. Whoever thinks, must see, that man-was made To face the storm, not languish in the shade; Action-his sphere, and, for that sphere designed, Eternal pleasures--open on his mind. For this-fair hope-leads on th' impassioned soul, Through life's wild labyrinth--to her distant goal: Paints, in each dream, to fan the genial flame, The pomp of riches, and the pride of fame; Or, fondly gives reflection's cooler eye, A glance, an image, of a future sky.

Notes. The standard for propriety, and force, in public speaking is-to speak just as one would naturally express himself in earnest conversation in private company. Such should we all do, if left to ourselves, and early pains were not taken to substitute an artificial method, for that which is natural. Beware of inagining that you must read in a different way, with different tones

and cadences, from that of common speaking.

Woman. The right education of this sex is of the utmost importance to human life. There is nothing, that is more desirable for the common good of all the world; since, as they are mothers and mistresses of families, they have for some time the care of the education of their children of both sorts; they are intrusted with that, which is of the greatest consequence to human life. As the health and strength, or weakness of our bodies, is very much owing to their methods of treating us when we were young; so-the soundness or folly of our minds is not less Owing to their first tempers and ways of thinking, which we eagerly received from the love, tenderness, authority, and constant conversation of our mothers. As we call our

first language our mother-tongue, so—we may as justly call our first tempers our mother-tempers; and perhaps it may be found more easy to forget the language, than to part entirely with those tempers we learned mented, that the sex, on whom so much dein the nursery. It is, therefore, to be lapends, who have the first forming both of our bodies and our minds, are not only edu

Anecdote. The severity of the laws of Draco, is proverbial; he punished all sorts of crime, and even idleness, with death: hence, De-ma-des said "He writes his laws, not with ink-but with blood." On being asked why he did so, he replied,-that the smallest crime deserved death, and that there was not a greater punishment he could find out, for greater crimes. Miscellaneous. 1. Envy-is the daugh-cated in pride, but in the silliest and most ter of pride, the author of revenge and mur- contemptible part of it. Girls are indulged der, the beginning of secret sedition and the in great vanity; and mankind seem to conperpetual tormentor of virtue; it is the filthy sider them in no other view than as so many slime of the soul, a venom, a poison, that painted idols, who are to allure and gratify consumeth the flesh, and drieth up the mar- their passions. row of the bones. 2. What a pity it is, that there are so many quarter and half men and women, who can take delight in gossip, because they are not great enough for any thing else.

Were I so tali-as to reach the pole,
And grasp the ocean-with a span,
I would be measured-by my soul,
The mind's-the standard of the man.

Laconics. 1. God has given us vocal organs, and reason to use them. 2. True gesture-is the language of nature, and makes its way to the heart, without the utterance of a single word. 3. Coarseness and vulgarity-are the effects of a bad education; they cannot be chargeable to nature 4. Close observation, and an extensive knowledge of human nature alone, will enable one to adapt himself to all sorts of character. 5. Paintingdescribes what the object is in itself: poetry—what it inspires or suggests: one-represents the visible, the other-both the visible and the invisible. 6. It is uncandid self-will, that condemns without a hearing. 7. The mind-wills to be free; and the signs of the times-proclaim the approach of its


4. What is the difference between loving
the minds. and the persons of our friends?
5. How different is the affection, the thought,
action. form and manners of the male, from
the affection, thought, action, form and man-
Bers of the female.

Then farewell,-I'd rather make
My bed-upon some icy lake,

When thawing suns-begin to shine,
Than trust a love-as false as thine.

The stomach-hath no ears,

in her late warlike proceeding against Chi•
Varieties. 1. Was England-justified
na? 2. Fit language there is none, for the
heart's deepest things. 3. The honor of a
maid-is her name; and no legacy is so rich
as honesty. 4. O, how bitter a thing it is-
to look into happiness-thro' another's eyes.
Ungrateful man, with liquorish draughts,
And morsels unctuous, greases his pure mind,
That from it-all consideration slips.

To persist
In doing wrong, extenuates not wrong,
But makes it much more heavy.

He cannot be a perfect man,

Not being tried or tutored in the world:
Experience is by industry achieved,
And perfected-by the swift course of time
A confused report-passed thro' my ears;
But, full of hurry, like a morning dream,
It vanished—in the business of the day.

Proverbs. 1. The more-women look into their glasses, the less-they attend to their notese 2. Works, and not words, are the proof of love. 3. There is no better looking-glass, than a true friend. 4. When we obey our superiors, we instruct our

inferiors. 5. There is more trouble in having nothing to do, than in having much to do. 6. The

best throw of the dice-is to throw the.n away. 7.

Virtue, that parleys, is near the surrender. 8. The spirit of truth-dwelleth in meekness. 9. Resist a temptation, till you conquer it. 10. Plain dealing is a jewel.

416. THE DECLAMATORY AND HORTATORY-indicate a deep interest for the persons addressed, a horror of the evil they are entreated to avoid, and an exalted estimate of the good, they are exhorted to pursue.

A Wife; not an Artist. When a man

The exhibition of the strongest feeling, requires such a degree of self-control, as, in the very torrent, tempest and whirlwind of passion, possesses a temperance to give it smoothness. The DRAMATIC-Sometimes calls for the exercise of all the vocal and mental powers: hence, one must consider the character represented, the circumstances under which he acted, the state of feeling he possessed, and every thing pertaining to the scene with which he was connected. 417. ROLLA'S ADDRESS TO THE PERU- LORD and SAVIOR,-and in all that timeVIANS. My brave associates-partners-of he never did me any injury, but always my toil, my feelings, and my fime! Can good; and therefore, I cannot, in conscience, Rolla's words-add vigor-to the virtuous reproach my KING and my REDEEMER.” energies, which inspire your hearts? No; you have judged as I have, the foulness of the crafty plea, by which these bold invaders would delude you. Your generous spirit has compared, as mine has, the motives, which, in a war like this, can animate their minds and ours. They, by a strange frenzy driven, fight for power, for plunder, and extended rule; we for our country, our altars, and our homes. They-follow an adventurer, whom they fear, and obey a power, which they hate; we serve a monarch whom we love, a God, whom we adore. Whene'er they move in anger, desolation-tracks their progress! Whene'er they pause in amity, affliction-mourns their friendship. They boast, they come but to improve our state, a child in the way he should go. enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the Varieties. 1. He, who is cautious and yoke of error! Yes they will give enlight-prudent, is generally secure from many dan ened freedom to our minds, who are them-gers, to which many others are exposed. 2 selves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. A fool may ask more questions in an hour They offer us their protection. Yes, such than a wise man may answer in seven years protection-as vultures-give to lumbs-3. The manner in which words are delivered covering, and devouring them. They call contribute mainly to the effects they are to on us to barter all of good, we have inherited produce, and the importance which is attach and proved, for the desperate chance of some-ed to them. 4. Shall this greatest of free nathing better, which they promise. Be our tions be the best? 5. One of the greatest plain answer this: The throne-we honor obstacles to knowledge and excellence, is inis the people's choice; the laws we rever-dolence. 6. One hour's sleep before midnight, ence-are our brave fathers' legacy; the faith is worth two afterward. 7. Science, or learn. we follow teaches us to live in bonds of cha- ing, is of little use, unless guided by good rity with all mankind, and die—with hope sense. of bliss-beyond the grave. Tell your invaders this, and tell them too, we seek no change; and, least of all, such change as they would bring us.

of sense comes to marry, it is a companion he wants, and not an artist. It is not merely a creature who can paint, and play, and sing, and dance. It is a being who can comfort and counsel him; one who can reason and reflect, and feel and judge, and discourse and discriminate; one who can assist him in his affairs, lighten his sorrows, purify his joys, strengthen his principles and educate his children. Such is the woman who is fit for a mother, and the mistress of a family. A woman of the former description may occasionally figure in a drawing-room, and excite the ad miration of the company; but is entirely unfit for a helpmate to man, and to train up


Oh! vice accursed, that lur'st thy victim on
With specious smiles, and false deluding hopes-
Stiles that destroy, and hopes-that bring despair,
Infatuation-dangerous and destructive,
Pleasure most visionary, if delight, how transient!
Prelude of horror, anguish, and dismay!

Anecdote. Faithful unto Death. When the venerable Polycarp· -was tempted by Herod, the proconsul, to deny, and blaspheme the LORD JESUS CHRIST, he answered,"Eighty and six years-have I served my

Men-use a different speech-in different climes,
But Nature hath one voice, and only one.
Her wandering moon, her stars, her golden run,
Her woods and waters, in all lands and times,
In one deep song proclaim the wondrous story.
They tell it to each other-in the sky,
Upon the winds they send it-sounding high,
Jehovah's wisdom, goodness, power, and glory.
I hear it come from mountain, cliff, and tree,
Ten thousand voices-in one voice united;
On every ride the song encircles me,

The whole round world reveres-and is delighted.
Ah! why, when heaven-and earth-lift up their vois
Ah! why should man akone, no: worship, nor rejoica?

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