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397. MODULATION CONTINUED. The Maxims. 1. A broad hat-does not always situation of the public reader and speaker, cover a wise head. 2. Burn not your house-te calls for the employment of the most refined frighten away the mice. 3. Drinking water, nei art in the management of his voice: hether makes a man sick, nor his wife a widow. 4 should address a whole assembly with as He has riches enough, who need neither borrow much apparent ease and pleasure to himself or flatter. 5. True wisdom-is to know what is and audience, as tho' there were but a single best worth knowing, and to do what is best worth doing. 6. Many things appear too bad to keep, and person present. In addressing an auditory, too good to throw away. 7. Keep a thing seven which meets for information, or amuseyears, and you will find use for it. 8. We cannot ment, or both, the judicious speaker-will pluck thorns from another's bosom, without plaadopt his ordinary and most familiar voice; cing roses in our own. 9. Better a half loaf than to show that he rises without bias, or preju- no bread. 10. Draw not thy bow before the arrow dice, that he wishes reason, not passion, should be fixed. guide them all. He will endeavor to be heard by the most distant hearers, without offending the ear of the nearest one, by making all his tones audible, distinct and tural
Experience. By what strange fatality is it, that having examples before our eyes, we do not profit by them? Why is our experina-ence, with regard to the misfortunes of others,
Friendship! thou soft, propitious power,
At thirty, man suspects himself a fool; Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan; At fifty, chides his infamous delay, Pushes his prude::: purpose-to resolve, In all the magnanimity of thought, Resolves and re-resolves-then, dies the same. 398. Some tell us, that when commencing an address, the voice should be directed to those most distant; but this is evidently wrong. At the beginning, the mind is naturally clear and serene, the passions unawakened; if the speaker adopt this high pitch, how can it be elevated, afterwards, agreeably to those emotions and sentiments, which require still higher pitches! To strain the voice thus, destroys all solemnity, weight
Varieties. 1. Give to all persons, whoin you respect, (with whom you walk, or whom you may meet,) especially ladies, the wall side of the walk or street. 2. If we think our evil allowable, tho' we do it not, it is appropriated to us. 3. Why does the pendulum of a clock-continue to move! Because of the uniform operation of gravitation. What is gravitation? 4. Humility—is the child of wisdom: therefore, beware of selfconceit, and an unteachable disposition. 5. Psychology-is the science, that treats of the essence--and nature of the human soul, and of the mode--by which it flows into the actions of the body. 6. The true way to store 7. The only way to shun evils, or sins, is to the memory is to develop the affections. fight against them. 8. Reading and obserand indispensable to its growth. 9. Is it pos vation are the food of the young intellect,
and dignity, and gives, to what one says, asible, that heart-friends will ever separate? squeaking effeminacy, unbecoming a manly 10. All effects are produced by life, and naand impressive speaker; it makes the voice harsh and unmusical, and also produces hoarseness.
Anecdote. Speculation. A capitalist, and shrewd observer of men and things, being asked, what he thought of the speculations now afloat, replied-"They are like a cold bath,—to derive any benefit from which, it is necessary to be very quick in, and very soon out."
Not to the ensanguin'd field of death alone
In the deliberate council; sagely scans
The source of action; weighs, prevents, provides,
of so little use? In a word, why is it, that we are to learn wisdom and prudence at our own expense? Yet such is the fate of man! Surrounded by misfortunes, we are supplied with means to escape them; but, blinded by caprice, prejudice and pride, we neglect the proffered aid, and it is only by the tears we shed, in consequence of our own errors, that we learn to detest them.
Now vivid stars shine out, in brightening files,
399, STRENGTH OF VOICE. The voice Proverbs. 1. To subdue a trifling erior, de is weak, or strong, in proportion to the less, not incur a greater. 2. Anger and haste-hinder or greater, number of organs and muscles, good counsel. 3. All complain of want of memory, that are brought into action. If one uses but none of want of judgment. 4. Good men are only the upper part of the chest, his voice a public good, and bad men—a public calamity will be weak: if he uses the whole body, 5. Human laws reach not our thoughts. 6. Ruas ne should do, (not in the most powerful lers-have no power over souls. 7. No one ever manner, of course, on common occasions,) suffered-by not speaking ill of others. 8. Silly his voice will be strong. Hence, to strength-people are generally pleased with silly things. 9. en a weak voice, the student must practice Zeal, without knowledge, is religious wildfire. 10 expelling the vowel sounds, using all the The example of a good man-is visible philos abdominal and dorsal nerves and muscles:ophy. in addition to which, he should read and recite when standing or sitting, and walking on a level plain, and up hill: success will be the result of faithful practice.
Anecdote. Clients' Bones. A certain mechanic, having occasion to boil some cattle's feet, emptied the bones near the court house. A lawyer, observing them, inquired of a bystander, what they were. 'I believe they are clients' bones," replied the wit, they appear to be well picked."
The Deceiver. A Base Character. Must not that man be abandoned, even to all manner of humanity, who can deceive a woman with appearances of affection and kindness, de-for no other end, but to torment her with [nies; more ease and authority? Is anything more unlike a gentleman, than, when his honor is engaged for the performing his promises, because nothing but that can oblige him to it, to become afterwards false to his word, and be alone, the occasion of misery to one, whose happiness he but lately pretended was dearer to him than his own? Ought such a one to be trusted in his common affairs? or treated, but as one whose honesty-consisted only in his capacity of being otherwise.
So soft, so elegant, so fair,
Sure, something more than human's there.
100. Demosthenes-had three particular defects; first, weakness of the voice; which he strengthened by declaiming on the seashore, amid the roar of waters; which effort would tend directly to bring into use the lower parts of the body; second, shortness of breath; which he remedied by repeating his orations as he walked up hill; which act serves to bring into use the appropriate organs, and fully inflate the lungs and third, a thick, mumbling way of speaking; which he overcame by reading and reciting with pebbles in his mouth; which required him to make a greater effort from below, and open his mouth wider. Examine yourself and act accordingly. Inconsistency. Montaigue-condemns cruelty, as the most odious of all vices; yet he confesses, that hunting-was his favorite perfection, which they are one day destined diversion. He acknowledges the inconsist- to realize. 6. For every friend, that we ency of man's conduct, but he does not as-lose for truth, God gives us a better one. cribe it to the right cause; which is the predominance, at the time, of those associations it awakens, conducing to pleasure. If he had not been accustomed to it, the associations of hunting, would have been painful, and his aversion to cruelty in the abstract, would have been realized in the concrete and particulars.
Varieties. 1. Is it strange, that beautiful flowers should wither and die? 2. Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string. 3. Our merican character is marked by a more than average delight-in accurate perception; which is shown by the currency of the by-word-" no mistake.” 4. In sickness, and languor, give us a strain of poetry, or a profound sentence, and we are refreshed; when the great Herder was dying, he said to his friends, who were weep ing around him:"Give me some greas thought." Blessed are they, who minister to the cry of the soul. 5. The christian sees, in all that befalls the human race, whether it be good or evil, only the manifestations of Divine Love, as exercised in training and preparing souls. for the approach of that
Then, pilgrim, turn, thy cares forego; All earth-born cares-are wrong; Man-wants but little-here below, Nor wants that little-long. BRONSON.
The love of praise, howe'er concealed by art,
401. TRANSITION-means, in speech, the changes of pitch, from one note to another; as from the eighth to the third: or from the sixth to the first; and vice versa; to correspond in variety and character, to the sentiment and emotion. In singing, it means changing the place of the key-note, so as to keep the tune within the scale of twenty-two-by outward appearances. 7. Never take adantage of another man's ignorance. 8. The
Proverbs. 1. Be just to others, that you may be just to yourself. 2. The mind of the idler never knows what it wishes for. 3. Every rose has its thorn. 4. There is nothing good, that may not be converted to evil purposes. 5. Few persons are aware-of the importance of rigid economy. 6. Do not suffer yourself to be deceived
degrees. In transition-the pitches of voice are not only changed, but its qualities, agreeably to the nature and object of the composition; however, there must never be any sacrifice of other principles-all the proportions must be preserved. Example:
9. A bird in the hand, is worth two in the bush. word, that has gone forth-can never be recalled. 10. That load appears light, which is borne with cheerfulness. 11. Virtue is the forerunner o happiness. 12. Foresight—is the eye of prudence.
Anecdote. Obey Orders. A brave veteran officer, reconnoitering a battery, which was considered impregnable, and which it was necessary to storm, laconically answered the engineers, who were endeavoring to dissuade him from the attempt;-" Gentlemen, you may think and say what you please: all I know, is,-that the American flagmust be hoisted on the ramparts to-morrow morning; for I have the order in my pocket."
An hour passed on; the Turk awoke,
(8) Strike! till the last armed foe expires;
(9) Strike! for your (6) altars and your (8) fires,
Effects of Perseverance. All the perwith praise or wonder, are instances of the formances of human art, at which we look resistless force of perseverance; it is by this that the quarry becomes a pyramid, and that
402. To succeed in these higher parts of oratory, one must throw himself into the condition, and shape, he wishes to fill, or be, and bring the body into perfect subjection: by assuming the appropriate language of action and earnestness, he may work himself into any frame of mind, that the subject demands.ed by the sense of their disproportion; yet in time, surmount the greatest difficulties, and those petty operations, incessantly continued,
distant countries are united with canals and rail-roads. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of a pickaxe, or of one impression of the spade, with the general design and last result, he would be overwhelm
He must be sure to keep up the life, spirit, and energy of the composition; and let there be a light and glow in his style. He must also cultivate a bold and determined manner; for if he takes no special interest in what he is reading or speaking, he may rest assured others will not.
mountains are levelled, and oceans bounded by the slender force of human beings.
Varieties. 1. Can Omnipotence do things incompatible and contradictory ? St. Augustine described the nature of God, as a circle, whose centre was everywhere, and his circumference nowhere. 3. The walls of rude minds are scrawled all over with facts and with thoughts; then shall one bring a landren," said an old man to his boys, scared by tern, and read the inscriptions? 4. "My chila figure in the dark entry, "you will never see anything worse than yourselves." 5. Some one says, "There are no prodigies, but the first death, and the first night, that deserve astonishment and sadness!" 6. When we have broken our god of Tradition, and ceased from our god of Persuasion, then, God may fire our hearts, with his own presence; but not before. 7. No love can be bound by oath, or covenant, to secure it against a highes love.
Lo! from the regions of the north,
(8) Burst the storm-on Phoci's walls;
Behold the Book, whose leaves display
God-scatters love-on every side,
403. MALE AND FEMALE VOICES. The Maxims. 1. Bad counsel confounds the advoices of men--are generally an octave lower viser. 2. No one can do wrong, without suffering than those of women; or, comparatively, wrong. 3. He is greatest, who is most useful. 4. men's voices are like the bass viol, and wo- Love-and you shall be loved. 5 A great manmen's voices like the violin. The voice is is willing to be little. 6. Blame-is safer than made grave, that is, to run on lower pitches, praise. 7. All the devils respect virtue. by elongating, and enlarging the vocal sincere word was never lost. 9. Curses-always chords; and it is made acute, that is, to run recoil upon the head of him, who imprecates them. on higher pitches, by shortening and dimin- 10. God-will not make himself manifest to comp ishing them; in connection, however, with ards. 11. The love of society is natural. the size of the chest, which always has its influence. Few are aware of the extent to which the voice is capable of being cultivated; and hence, we should beware of setting limits to it.
If every one's internal care
Were written on his brow,
How many would our pity share
The fatal secret, when revealed,
How calm, how beautiful, comes on
Education. The time, which we usually bestow on the instruction of our children-in principles, the reasons of which they do not understand, is worse than lost; it is teaching them to resign their faculties to authority; it is improving their memories, instead of their understandings; it is giving them credulity instead of knowledge, and it is preparing them for any kind of slavery which can be imposed on them. Whereas, if we assisted them in making experiments on themselves, induced them to attend to the consequence of every action, to adjust their little deviations, and fairly and freely to exercise their powers, they would collect facts which nothing could controvert. These facts they would deposit in their memories, as secure and eternal treasures; they would be materials for reflection, and, in time, be formed into principles of concould remove. This would be a method of duct, which no circumstances or temptations forming a man, who would answer the end
404. To acquire the ability to change, at will, your pitch of voice, so as to be able o adapt the manner to the matter, pracdice throwing the voice on different pitches, varying from one to five, five to eight, eight to one, and in other ways; also, recite such pieces as have a number and variety of speakers, as found in dialogues; and imitate the voice and manner of each, as far as possible. But remember, no one can accomplish much, without committing the examples to memory; thus, after long practice in this of his being, and make himself and others way, you may make the book talk and speak. All developments are from within-out, not from without-in. Miscellaneous. 1. Two things are in-religion? 2. There are two sorts of popular cumbent on the historian; to avoid stating what is false, and fully and fairly to place before us the truth. 2. One of the greatest blunders an orator can commit is, to deviate into abstruse expressions, and out of the beaten track. 3. Man-was created for a state of order, and he was in order, till he fell, or became depraved; or, what is the same thing, disordered-i. e. the reverse of order. 4. Man is in order, when he acts from supreme love to the Lord, and charity towards his neighber, in obedience to the Divine Will; but he is depraved, and disordered, in the degree he acts from the love of self, and the love of the world. 5. No man is compelled to evil; his consent only makes it his.
Of every aching breast,
Would fully prove, that while concealed,
Anecdote. An old alderman, after having lived for fifty years on the fat of the land, and losing his great toe with a mortification, insisted, to his dying day, that he owed it to two grapes, which he ate one day, after dinner; he said, he felt them lie cold at his stomach the moment they were eaten.
Tho' set ia horn, is still a diamonu,
Varieties. 1. Did not the Greek philosophy--corrupt the simplicity of the christian
corruption; one, when the people do not observe the laws; the other, when they are corrupted by the laws. 3. Cesar--added the punishment of confiscation, for this reason; lest the rich, by preserving their estates, should become bolder in the perpetration of crime. 4. No localities can bound the dominion, or the superiority of man. 5. What constitutes a church? Divine goodness and truth, conjoined by love, and exemplified in the life. 6. Madame de Stael's idea, that architecture is like frozen music, must have been suggested on a cold day. 7. We are often made to feel, that there is another youth and age, than that which is measured from the year of our natural birth; some thoughts always find us young, and keep us so; such a thought is the love of the Universal and Eternal Beauty.
405. STYLE-comprehends all the princi- | Proverbs. 1. A good word for a bad oneples of elocution, and denotes the manner in worth much, and costs tittle. 2. He, who knows which different kinds of composition should not when to be silent, knows not when to speak. be read, or spoken: of course, there are as 3. Oppression-causes rebellion. 4. Where con many kinds of style, as there are of compo- tent is, there is a feast. 5. The drunkard continu sition; and unless a person has command of ally assaults his own life. 6. Show me a liar, body and mind, he cannot harmonize his and I will show you a thief. 7. That which helps manner and matter. If in writing, style-tion is the foundation of happiness. 9. Must follies one man, may hinder another. 8. A good educa means proper words, in proper places; in speaking, it must signify, proper sounds in proper places. Ex.
deep a root as prejudice. 11. Inform yourself, and owe their origin to self-love. 10. No tree-takes so instruct others. 12. Truth-is the only bond of friendship.
What is wit? a meteor, bright and rare,
O the eye's eloquence,
406. What causeth the earth to bring forth and yield her increase? Is it not the light and heat of the sun, that unlocks her native energies and gives them their power? In an analogous manner should the light of the thought, and the heat of its accompanying affection, act upon the mind, which will communicate the influence received to the whole body, and the body to the voice and actions. This is what is meant by imbibing the author's feelings, and bringing before you all the circumstances, and plunging amid the living scenes, and feeling that whatever you describe, is actually present, and passing before your mind.
Learning. We have been often told, that "a little learning a dangerous thing," and we may be just as well assured, that a little be far better to have plenty of both but the bread is not the safest of all things; it would sophism-of those who use this argument, is, that they represent the choice between little and much; whereas our election must be made between little-and none at all; if the choice is to be-between a small portion of
information, or of food, and absolute igno decision in the homely proverb--* half a loar rance, or starvation, common sense gives it
is better than no bread."
Varieties. 1. The best and surest course
is-never to have recourse to deception, but
407. Lyceums and Debating societies, are admirable associations for the improvement of mind, and cultivation of talent, for pub-spendthrifts do mony, for the purpose of cir lic or private speaking. Franklin and Roculation. 5. Burke-called the French rev ger Sherman, (the one a printer, and the oth-olutionists, "the ablest architects of ruin, er a shoe-muker,) rose from obscurity to great that the world ever saw." 6. Trifles—always eminence, and usefulness, by their own efing that has no strength, can be valued only require exuberance of ornament; the build. forts: so may we, by using the proper for the grace of its decorations. 7. We can means. It was in a debating society, that Lord Brougham first displayed his superior not part with our heart-friends: we cannot talents and unrivaled eloquence; and there, let our angels go. also, HENRY CLAY, the greatest American orator, commenced his brilliant career. A word to those who would be wise is enough.
Nor fame I slight, nor for her favors call; She comes unlook'd for, if she comes at all. But, if the purchase cost so dear a price, Anecdote. An appropriate Sign. A man As soothing folly, or exalting eine ; who had established a tippling-house, being And if the muse-must flatter lawless sway, about to erect his sign, requested his neigh-And follow still where fortune leads the way; bor's advice-what inscription to put upon But the fall'n ruins of another's fame; Or, if no basis-hear my rising name, it. His friend replied, "I advise you to write Then, teach me, heaven, to scorn the guilty bays; en it-Drunkards and Beggars made here." Drive from my breast that wretched lust of praise Honor's-a sacred tie, the law of kings, Unblemish'd let me live, or die-unknown: The noble mind's-distinguishing perfection, O, grant me honest fame, or grant me none. That aids strengthens virtue, when it meets her, Tis sweet-to hear And imitates her actions, where she is not: The song and oar-of Adria's gondolier, It ought not to be sported with. (By distance mellowed,) o'er the waters sweep,