Laconics. 1. No change in external appear ance, can alter that, which is radically wrong. 2. Seize an opportunity, when it presents itself; if once lost, it may never be regained. 3. Vicious men, endeavor to impose on the world, by assuming a semblance of virtue, to conceal their bad habits, and evil propensities. 4. Beware of self

all that is good and true. 5. The excessive pleas ure one feels-in talking of himself, ought to make him apprehensive, that he affords little to his auditor. 6. In our intercourse with the world, we should often ask ourselves this question-How would I like to be treated thus? 7. In all ages and countries, unprincipled men may be found, who will slander the most upright character, and find others as base as themselves, to join in the propagation of their falsehoods.

387. Cadence-means a descent, or fall of the voice: here, it means the proper manner of closing a sentence. In the preceding examples, the pupil sees how it is made. The best cadence, that which rests most pleasantly on the ear, is the fall of a triad; i. e. a regular gradation of three notes from the prevalent pitch of voice; which is gen-love, for it hardens the heart, and shuts the mind to erally the fourth or fifth: tho' different voices are keyed on different pitches: hence, each must be governed by his own peculiarities in this respect. Beware of confounding cadence with inflections; and never end a sentence with a feeble and depressed utterance. The' rature-weigh our talents, and dispense, To every man, his modicum of sense, Yet-much-depends, as in the tiller's toil, On culture, and the sowing of the soil. The brave man-is not he, who feels no fear, For that were stupid-and irrational;— But he, whose noble soul his fear subdues, [from. And bravely dares the danger, which he shrinks He holds no parly with unmanly fears; Where duty bids, he confidently steers; Faces a thousand dangers at her call, And trusting in his God, surmounts them all. What is life?

'Tis not to stalk about, and draw in fresh air,
From time to time, or gaze upon the sun;
Tis to be FREE.

Confinement of Debtors. The prosperity of a people is proportionate to the number of hands and minds usefully employed. To the community, sedition is a fever, corruption is a gangrene, and idleness is an atrophy. Whatever body, and whatever society-wastes more than it acquires, must gradually decay: and every being, that continues to be fed, and ceases to labor, takes away something from the public stock. The confinement, therefore, of any man in the sloth and darkness of a prison, is a loss to the nation, and no gain to the creditor. 388. WORD-PAINTING. There is noth- For, of the multitudes, who are pining in ing in any of the other fine arts, but what is those cells of misery, a very small part is involved in oratory. The letters are analo- suspected of any fraudulent act, by which gous to uncompounded paints; words-to they retain, what belongs to others. The paints prepared for use; and, when arranged rest are imprisoned by the wantonness of into appropriate and significant sentences, pride, the malignity of revenge, or the acrithey form pictures of the ideas on the can-mony of disappointed expectation. vas of the imagination: hence, composition. whether written or spoken, is like a picture, exhibiting a great variety of features, not only with prominence, but with degrees of prominence: to do which, the painter, speaker, or writer, applies shades of the same color to features of the same class, and opposing colors to those of different classes. Government. The ordinary division of governments into republican, monarchical, and despotic, appears essentially erroneous; for there are but two kinds of government, good and bad: governments are national and special. The essence of the formerconsists in the will of the nation constitutionally expressed; that of the latter, where there are other sources of power, or right, than the will of the nation.

Anecdote. Punctual Hearer. A woman, who always used to attend public worship with great punctuality, and took care to be always in time, was asked how it was she could always come so early; she answered very wisely, "that it was part of her religion-not to disturb the religion of


I hate to see a scholar gape,
And yawn upon his seat,
Or lay his head upon his desk,
As if almost asleep.


"Tis slander:

Whose edge-is sharper than the sword, whose tongue
Outvenoms all the worms of Nile; whose breath-
Rides on the sporting winds, and doth belie
All corners of the world: kings, queens, and states,
Maids and matrons, the secrets of the grave-→→
This viperous slander enters.

Mercy to him that shows it, is the rule,
And righteous limitation of its act,

By which heaven moves, in pardoning guilty man.
And he, that shows none, (being ripe in years,
And conscious-of the outrage he commits,)
Shall seek it, and not find it, in his turn.
His words-are bonds; his oaths-are oracles;
His love-sincere; his thoughts-immaculate;
His tears-pure messengers, sent from his heart:
His heart-is as far from fraud,-as heaven-from earth.

Be earnest!-why shouldst thou for custom's tako,
Lay a cold hand upon thy heart's warm pulse,
And crush those feelings back, which, uttered, make
Links in the chain of love? Why thus convuls
A soul, that overflows with sympathy
For kindred souls, when thou art called to be

The Heart's Apostle, loving, pure, and true?
The smooth hypocrisies, the polished lies,
The cold dead forms-and hollow mockeries

Current among the many, by the few,
Who know their manhood, should be held in scorn!
Speak freely thy free thought-and other souls
To thine shall answer-as from living coals
Together kindled, light and heat are born!

389. DYNAMICs. This, in mechanical phi- Maxims. 1. The credit that is got by a lie, losophy, means the science of moving-powers;-only lasts till the truth comes out. 2. Zeal, in elocution and singing, it relates to the force, loudness, harshness, strength, roughness, softness, swell, diminish, smoothness, abruptness, gentleness of voice: that is, its qualities, which are as various as those of the human mind; of which, indeed, they are the representatives. Observe-that the names of these qualities, when spoken naturally, express, or echo, their natures. The Loud, Rough, Soft, Smooth, Harsh, Forcible, Full, Strong, Tremulous, Slender, &c. all of which are comprehended in force, pitch, time, quantity, and abruptness of voice.

mixed with love, is harmless—as the dove. 3. A covetous man is, as he always fancies, in want. 4. Hypocrites-first cheat the world, and at last, themselves. 5. The borrower is slave to the lender, and the security-to both. 6. Some are too stif to bend, and too old to mend. 7. Truth has always a sure foundation. 8. He, who draws others into evil courses-is the devil's agent. 9. A spur in the head-is worth two in the heel. 11. To do good, is the right way to find good. 10. Better spared, than ill spent. 12. Years teach more than books.

Anecdote. Love and Liberty. When an with his princess, by Cyrus, and was asked, Armenian prince-had been taken captive what he would give to be restored to his kingdom and liberty, he replied: "As for my

if my blood-would redeem my princess, I would cheerfully give it for her." When Cyrus had liberated them both, the princess was asked, what she thought of Cyrus? To which she replied, "I did not observe him; my whole attention was fixed upon the gene rous man, who would have purchased my liberty with his life."

390. Let the following examples be rendered perfectly familiar-the feelings, tho'ts, words and appropriate voice: nothing, however, can be done, as it should be, without having the most important examples memo-kingdom and liberty, I value them not; but rized, here and elsewhere. (Loud) "But when loud surges-lash the sounding shore; (Rough) The hoarse rough voice, should like the torrent roar." (Soft) "Soft is the strain, when Zephyr gently blows; (Smooth) And the smooth stream, in smoother numbers flows." (Harsh) "On a sudden, open fly, with impetuous recoil and jarring sound, the infernal doors, and on their hinges grate harsh Prejudice-may be considered as a conthunder." (Soft) "Heaven opened wide tinual false medium of viewing things; for her ever-during gates (harmonious sound) prejudiced persons-not only never speak on golden hinges turning." (Soft) "How well, but also, never think well, of those charming-is divine philosophy! (Harsh) whom they dislike, and the whole character Not harsh, and crabbed, as dull fools supand conduct is considered-with an eye to pose. (Soft) But musical-as is Apollo's that particular thing which offends them. lute." (Harsh, Strong and Forcible.) "Blow Varieties. 1. Every thing that is an ob wind, and crack your cheeks! rage! blowject of taste, sculpture, painting, architecture, your cataracts, and hurricane spout, till you gardening, husbandry, poetry, and musichave drenched our steeples. You sulphuri- come within the scope of the orator. 2. In a ous and thought-executing fires, vaunt couri-government, maintained by the arm of pow ers to oak-cleaving thunderbolts; and thou, all shaking thunder, strike flat the thick rotundity of the world."

(Soft and Smooth.)
How sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank;
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music,
Creep in our ears; soft stillness, and the night,
Become the touches of sweet harmony.

(Quick and Joyous.)

Let the merry bells ring round,
And the jocund rebeck sound,
To many a youth-and many a maid,
Dancing-in the checkered shade.

A want of occupation--is not rest,
A mind quite vacant--is a mind distressed.
As rolls the ocean's changing tide,
So-human feelings-ebb-and flow :-
And who could in a breast confide,

Where stormy passions-ever glow!
Remote from cities-lived a swain,
Unvexed-with all the cares of gain;
His head-was silvered o'er with age,
And long experience-made him sage.

er, there is no certainty of duration; but one cemented by mutual kindness, all the best feelings of the heart are enlisted in its support. 3. Who was the greater tyrant, Diony. sius or the bloody Mary? 4. Beauty, unac companied by virtue, is like a flower, with out perfume; its brilliancy may remain, but its sweetness is gone; all that was precious in it, has evaporated. 5. We might as well throw oil on a burning house to put out the fire, as to take ardent spirits into the stomach, to lessen the effects of a hot sun, or severe exercise. 6. The understanding must be elevated above the will, to control its desires; but it must be enlightened by the truth, that it may not err.

The pathway-to the grave-may be the same,
And the proud man-shall tread it,-and the low,
With his bowed head, shall bear him company.
But the temper-of the invisible mind,
The god-like-and undying intellect,
These are distinctions, that will live in heaven,
When time, is a forgotten circumstance.

tune. 3. Despair-has ruined some, but presump-
tion-multitudes. 4. Flattery-sits in the parlor,
while plain-dealing is kicked out of doors. 5. H
is not drunk for nothing, who pays his reckoning
with his reason. 6. If the world knew what passe
in my mind, what would it think of me.
neither counsel nor salt, till you are asked for it. 8.

391. DYNAMICS CONTINUED. These con- | Maxims. 1. Al is soon ready in an orderly trasts produce great effects, when properly house. 2. Bacchus las drowned more than Nepexhibited, both in elocution and music. The rushing loud, indicates dread, alarm, warning, &c.; the soft, their opposites: the tendency of indistinctness is, to remove objects to a distance, throwing them into the background of the picture; and of fullness, to bring them into the fore-ground, making them very prominent; thus— -the polyphonist deceives, or imposes upon the ear, making his sounds correspond to those he would represent, near by, and at a distance.

392. FORCIBLE. Now storming fury rose, and clamor; such as heard in heaven, till now, was never: arms on armor, clashing, brayed horrible discord; and the maddening wheels of brazen chariots raged. Full:high on a throne-of royal state, which far outshone the wealth of Ormus, and of Inde; or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand, showers on her kings barbaric, pearl and gold, Satan, EXALTED, sat. Strong: him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong, flaming from the ethereal skies with hideous ruin and combustion, down to bottomless perdition there to dwell in adamantine chains, and penal fire,-who durst defy the Omnipotent to arms.

7. Give

Close not a letter-without reading it, nor drink water-without seeing it. 9. A fool, and his money, are soon parted. 10. If few words-will not inake you wise, many will not.

Anecdote. Charity Sermon. Dean Surft was requested to preach a charity sermon; but was cautioned about having it too long: he replied, that they should have nothing to fear on that score. He chose for his text these words-" He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he hath given-will he pay him again." The Dean, after looking around, and repeating his text in a still more emphatic manner, added-"My beloved friends, you hear the terms of the loan; and now, if you like the security,-down with your dust." The result was, as might be expected,—a very large collection.

Precept and Example. Exampleworks more cures than precept; for words, without practice, are but councils without effect. When we do as we say, it is a confirmation of the rule; but when our lives and doctrines do not agree, it looks as if the lesson were either too hard for us, or the advice not worth following. If a priest-design to edify by his sermons, concerning the punishment of the other world, let him renounce his lust, pride, avarice, and contentiousness; for whoever would make another believe a danger, must first show that he is apprehensive of it himself.

Varieties. 1. The first book read, and the last one laid aside, in the child's library, is the mother: every look, word, fone, and gesture, nay, even dress itself—makes an

So MILLIONS are smit-with the glare of a toy: They grasp at a pebble-and call it-a gem, And tinsel-is gold, (if it glitters,) to them; Hence, dazzled with beauty, the lover is smit, The hero with honor, the poet—with wit; The fop-with his feather, his snuff-box and cane, The nymph with her novel, the merchant with gain: Each finical priest, and polite pulpiteer, Who dazzles the fancy, and tickles the ear, With exquisite tropes, and musical style, As gay as a tulip-as polished as oil, Sell truth-at the shrine of polite eloquence, To please the soft taste, and allure the gay sense. Miscellaneous. 1. Fair sir, you spit on me-on Wednesday last; you spurned mesuch a day; another time-you called me dog; and for these courtesies, I'll lend thee thus much moneys. 2. I stand-in the pre-everlasting impression. 2. One who is consence of Almighty God, and of the world; and I declare to you, that if you lose this charter, never, no NEVER-Will you get another. We are now, perhaps, arrived at the varting point. Here, even HERE, we stand-show, bluster and arrogant pretensions. 3. on the brink of fate! Pause! for HEAVEN's sake, pause. 3. Can you raise the dead? Pursue and overtake the wings of time? And can you bring about again, the hours, the DAYS, the YEARS, that made me happy? 4. But grant-that others can, with equal glory, look down on pleasure, and the bait of sense, where-shall we find a man, that bears afflictions, great and majestic in his ills, like Cato?

Oh then, how blind-to all that truth requires,
Who think it freedom, where a part-aspire.

scious of qualities, deserving of respect, and attention, is seldom solicitous about them; but a contemptible spirit-wishes to hide it self from its own view, and that of others, by

The blood of a coward, would stain the character of an honorable man; hence, when we chastise such wretches, we should do it with the utmost calmness of temper. 4. Cultivate the habit-of directing the mind, intently, to whatever is presented to it; this-is the foundation of a sound intellectual character. 6. We are too apt, when a jest is turned upon ourselves, to think that insufferable, in another, which we looked upon as very pretty and facetious, when the humor was our own, Never purchase friendship by gifts.

others--fetters the freedom of nature, and tends to awkwardness; all would appear well, if they never tried to assume—what they do not possess. Every one is respectable and pleasing, so long as he or she, is perfectly natural and truthful, and speaks and acts from the impulses of an honest and affectionate heart, without any anxiety as to what others think.

393. Words are paints, the voice- the imitation! Anxiety about the opinions of brush, the mind--the painter; but science, practice, genius, taste, judgment and emotion are necessary--in order to paint well: and there is as much difference between a good and bad reader, as there is between a good painter and a mere dauber. What gives expression to painting? EMPHASIS. We look upon some pictures and remark, "that is a strong outline;" "a very expressive countenance:" this is emphasis: again, we look upon others, and there is a softness, delicacy, and tenderness, that melts the soul, as she contemplates them; this is emotion. 394. Throw the following lines on the canvas of your imagination; i. e. picture them out there.

In her bower-a widow dwelt;
At her feet-three suitors knelt:
Each-adored the widow much,
Each essayed her heart to touch;
One-had wit, and one-had gold,
And one-was cast in beauty's mould;
Guess-which was it-won the prize,
Purse, or tongue, or handsome eyes?
First, appeared the handsome man,
Proudly peeping o'er her fan;
Red his lips, and white his skin;
Could such beauty-fail to win?
Then-stepped forth-the man of gold,
Cash he counted, coin he told,
Wealth-the burden of his tale;
Could such golden projects fail?
Then, the man of wit, and sense,
Moved her with his eloquence;
Now, she heard him-with a sigh;
Now she blushed, she knew not why:
Then, she smiled-to hear him speak,
Then, the tear-was on her cheek:
Beauty, vanish! gold, depart!
WIT, has won the widow's heart.

IN POLITENESS, as in everything else, connected with the formation of character, we are too apt to begin on the outside, instead of the inside: instead of beginning with the heart, and trusting to that to form the manners, many begin with the manners, and leave the heart to chance and influences. The golden rule-contains the very life and soul of politeness: "Do unto others--as you would they should do unto you." Unless children and youth are taught by precept and example, to abhor what is selfish, and prefer another's pleasure and comfort to their own, their politeness will be entirely artificial, and used only when interest and policy dictate. True politeness-is perfect freedom and ease, treating others-just as you love to be treated. Nature-is always graceful: affectation, with all her art, can never produce anything half so pleasing. The very perfection of elegance-is to imitate nature; how much better-to have the reality, than the

Laconies. 1. Modesty-in your discourse, will give a lustre--to truth,--and excuse-to your errors. 2. Some are silent, for want of matter, or assurance; others are talkative, for want of 3. To judge of men-by their actions, one sense. would suppose that a great proportion was mad and that the world-was one immense mad-house. 4. Prodigals-are rich, for a moment-economists, forever. 5. To do unto others, as we would they should do to us, is a goiden maxim, that cannot be too deeply impressed on our minds. 6. Continue to add a little-to what was originally a little, and you will make it a great deal. 7. The value-of sound, correct principles, early implanted in the human mind, is incalculable.

Those who are talentless, themselves, are the first to talk about the conceit of others; for mediocrity-bears but one flowerENVY.

Anecdote. Too Hard. About one hundred years ago, Mahogany-was introduced in England as ballast for a ship, that sailed from the West Indies; and one Dr. Gibbons wished some furniture made of it: but the workmen, finding it too hard for their tools, laid it aside. Another effort was made; but the cabinet-maker said it was too hard for his tools. The Doctor told him, he must get stronger tools then: he did so, and his effort was crowned with success. Remember this, ye who think the subject of elocution, as here treated, too difficult: and if you cannot find a way, make one. Press on!

Varieties. 1. A good reader may become a good speaker, singer, painter and sculptor: for there is nothing in any of these arts, that may not be seen in true delivery. 2. Old Parr, who died at the advanced age of 152, gave this advice to his friends; “Keep your head cool by temperance, your feet warm by exercise: rise early, and go early to bed; and if you are inclined to grow fat, keep your eyes open, and your mouth shut." Are not these excellent life-pills? 3. As the lark

sings at the dawn of day, and the nightingale at even, so, should we show forth the loving kindness of the Lord-every morn• ing, and his faithfulness--every night. 4. Is not the science of salvation-the greatest of all the sciences?

Without a star, or angel-for their guide.
Who worship God, shall find him: humble Love,
(And not proud Reason,) keeps the door of heaven:
Love—finds admission, where Science-fails.

395. MODULATION-signifies the accom- Maxims. 1. The follies of youth-are food for modation of the voice, (in its diversifications of all these principles,) to every variety and shade of thought and feeling. The upper pitches of voice, we know, are used in calling persons at a distance, for impassioned emphasis of certain kinds, and for very earnest arguments; the middle pitches--for general conversation, and easy familiar speaking, of a descriptive and didactic character; and the lower ones, for cadences, and the exhibition of emphasis in grave and solemn reading and peaking.

répentance—in old age. 2. Truth-may languish, but it can never die. 3. When a vain man hears another praised he thinks himself injured. 4. Antiquity is not always a mark of truth. 5. That trial is not fair-where affection is judge. G. Business-is the salt of life. 7. Dependence—is a poor trade. 8. He, who lives upon hope, has but a slender diet. 9. Always taking out of the mend tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the ber tom. 10. He, who thinks to deceive God, deceives himself Xenophanus,

Anecdote. An ill thing.

an old sage, was far from letting a false mc. desty lead him into crime and indiscretion, when he was upbraided, and called timorous, because he would not venture his money at any of the games. "I confess," said he, "that I am exceedingly timorous, for I dare not do an ill thing.

396. Who can describe, who delineate the cheering, the enlivening ray? who-the looks of love? who-the soft benignant vibrations of the benevolent eye? who-the twilight, the day of hope? who-the internal efforts of the mind, wrapt in gentleness and humility, to effect good, to diminish evil, and Education. It is the duty of the instruc increase present and eternal happiness? who tors of youth to be patient with the dull, and --all the secret impulses and powers, collect- steady with the froward,-to encourage the ed in the aspect of the defender, or energy of timid, and repress the insolent,-tully to emtruth? of the bold friend, or subtle foe-of ploy the minds of their pupils, without overwisdom? who--the poet's eye, in a fine burdening them, --to awaken their fear, phrenzy rolling, glancing from heaven--to without exciting their dislike,--to communi. earth, from earth--to hearen, while imagina- cate the stores of knowledge, according to the tion bodies forth the form of things un-capacity of the learner, and to enforce obediknown.


Notes. The pitch of the voice is exceedingly important in mery branch of our subject, and particularly, in the higher parts;

and this-anong the rest. You must not often raise your voice to

the eighth note; for it will be harsh and unpleasant to the ear, and

very apt to break: nor drop it to the first note; for then your ar Gedation will be difficult and indistinct, and you cannot impart any life and spirit to your manner and matter; as there is little or

o compass below this pitch: both these extremes must be careully avoided.

ence by the strictness of discipline. Above all, it is their bounden duty, to be ever on the watch, and to check the first beginnings of ice. For, valuable as knowledge may be, virtue is infinitely more valuable; and worse than useless are these mental accomplishments, which are accompanied by depravity of heart.

of bad things; yet even they have their use; for they serve to check the licentiousness-of the tongues of those, who, without the fear of being called to account, through the instru mentality of these babbling knaves, would run riot in backbiting and slander.

Patrick Henry's Treason. When this Varieties. 1. Can charcoal-paint fire; worthy patriot, (who gave the first impulse to chalk-light, or colors-live and breathe? the ball of the revolution,) introduced his ce-2. Tattlers-are among the most despicable lebrated resolution on the stamp act, in the Virginia House of Burgesses, in 1765, as he descanted on the tyranny of that obnoxious act, exclaimed-"Cesar--had his Brutus; Charles the First, his Cromwell; and George the Third" Treason!" cried the speaker; “treasm; treason; TREASON;" re-echoed from every part of the house. It was one of those trying moments, which are decisive of character; but Henry faltered not for an instant; and rising to a loftier attitude, and axing on the speaker--an eye, flashing with fire, continued --"may PROFIT--by these examples: if this be treason, make the most of it."

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Tis the mind, that makes the body rich;
And, as the sun-breaks the darkest cloud,
So, honor-'peareth-in the meanest habit.
No: let the eagle-change his plume,
The leaf-its hue, the flow'r-its bloom;
But ties around the heart were spun,
That could not, would not, be undone.

Oh, who-the exquisite delights can tell,
The joy, which mutual confidence imparts?
Or who-can paint the charm unspeakable,
Which links. in tender bands. two faithful hearts!
6. Many things - - are easier felt, than fold.
7. It is no proof of a man's understanding,
to be able to affirm-whatever he pleases;
but, to be able to discern, that what is true,
is true, and that what is false, is false—is the
mark and character of intelligence.

Nature-sells everything for labor.

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