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PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.

Proverbs. 1. As you sow, you shall reap 334. INFLECTIONS. These are the rising and falling slides of the voice, terminating 2. Betray no trust, and divulge no secret. 3. Chide not severely, nor punish hastily. 4. Despise none, on a higher, or lower pitch, than that on which it commenced; being continuous from and despair of none. 5. Envy cannot see; igno rance cannot judge. 6. Gossiping and lying, ge the radical, or opening fullness of voice, to the vanish, or terminating point; and not nerally go hand in hand. 7. He, who swears, discrete, as the seven notes are. In the in-distrusts his own word. 8. It is not easy to love tonations, the voice steps up or down, by those, whom we do not esteem. 9. Labor brings is spoken in jest. 11. He who serves-is not free discrete degrees; but in the inflections, it pleasure; idleness-pain. 10 Many a true word glides up or down, by continuous degrees. 12. First come, first served. 13. When gold speaks, The piano, organ, &c., give discrete degrees; all tongues are silent. the harp, violin, &c., continuous degrees.

Anecdote. Don't know him. Lord Net son, when a boy, being on a visit to his aunt's. went one day a hunting, and wandered so far, that he did not return, till long after dark. The lady, who was much alarmed by his absence, scolded him severely; and among other things said; I wonder Fear did not drive you home. "Fear," replied the lad, "I don't know him."

335. The following sentences may be read, with either the failing, or the rising inflection; and the pupil should determine, from the sense, &c., the object of the question. 1. Is not good reading and speaking a very rare attainment? 2. How are we to recover from the effects of the fall? 3. Are we natually inclined to evil or good? 4. Is it possible for man to save himself? 5. Who is entitled to the more honor, Columbus, or Washington? 6. Which is the more useful member in soeiety, the farmer, or the mechanic? 7. Ought there to be any restrictions to emigration? 8. Will any one, who knows his own heart, trust himself?

Progress of Society. Whoever has attentively meditated-on the progress of the human race, cannot fail to discern, that there is now a spirit of inquiry amongst men, which nothing can stop, or even materially control. Reproach and obloquy, threats and persecution, will be in vain. They may im336. The inflections-may, perhaps, be bitter opposition and engender violence, but better understood, by contrasting them with they cannot abate the keenness of research. the monotone; which is nearly one continued There is a silent march of thought, which no sound, without elevation, or depression, and power can arrest, and which, it is not difficult may be represented by a straight horizontal to foresee, will be marked by important events. In the use of the Mankind were never before in the situation in line, thus ; inflections, the voice departs from the mono- which they now stand. The press has been tone, and its radical, in a continued elevation operating upon them for several centuries, or depression, two, three, five, or eight notes, with an influence scarcely perceptible at its according to the intensity of the affirmation, commencement, but by daily becoming more interrogation, command, petition, or nega-palpable, and acquiring accelerated force, it tion; which are the five distinctive attributes is rousing the intellect of nations; and happy will it be for them, if there be no rash inter of the vital parts of speech. ference with the natural progress of knowledge; and if by a judicious and gradual adaptation of their institutions to the inevitable changes of opinion, they are saved from those convulsions, which the pride, prejudices and obstinacy of a few may occasion to the whole.

337. SOME OF MAN'S CHARACTERISTICS. His position is naturally upright; he has free use of both hands: hence, he is called the only two-handed animal: the prominence of his chin, and the uniform length of his teeth, are peculiar: he is, physically, defenceless, having neither weapons of attack nor of defence: his facial angle is greater than that of any other animal; being from 70° to 90°: he has generally the largest brains: he is the only animal that sleeps on his back: the only one that laughs and weeps; the only one that has an articulate language, expressive of ideas: and he is the only one endued with reason and moral sense, and a capacity for religion; the only being capable of serving God intelligibly.

MILTON.

Thy soul-was like a star-and dwelt apart;
Thou hadst a voice-whose sound was like the sea,
Pure-as the naked heavens, majestic. free.
So didst thou travel--on life's common way,
In cheerful godliness; and yet-thy heart
The lowliest duties-on herself did lay.

Varieties. 1. A good wife - is like a snail. Why? Because she keeps in her own house: a good wife is not like a snail. Why? Because she does not carry her all on her back: a good wife is like a town clock. Why? Because she keeps good time: i good wife is not like a town clock. Why! Because she does not speak so loud, that all the town can hear her: a good wife is like an echo. Why? Because she speaks when spoken to: a good wife is not like an echo. Why Because she does not tell--all she hears.

Ye maidens fair-consider well,
And look both shrewd, and sly,
Ere rev'rend lips, make good the knot,
Your teeth-will ne'er untie

338. INFLECTIONS. An anecdote may Proverbs. 1. The remedy is often worse serve to present this important branch of our than the disease. 2. To him that wills. ways are subject, in a light easy to be understood by seldom wanting. 3 A well-balanced mind--will all. An elderly gentleman asked the author, resist the pressure of adversity. 4. Be always on if he thought it possible for him to learn to your guard, against the advices of the wicked, sing? He was answered in the affirmative, when you come in contact with them. 5. Blessed provided he loved music, and was anxious to is he, that readeth, and understandeth what he learn. His voice was quite flexible, and vareadeth. 6. Take it for granted, there can be no ried, in conversation, and he used all the excellence, without labor. 7. The rich man is often notes of the scale, except two. It was a stranger to the quiet and content of the poor man. thought, upon the spur of the moment, to future world. 9. There is no general rule, with8. Beware of gathering scorpions. for this, or the get the old man a little angry, (and after-out exceptions. 10. Every light-is not the sun. wards beg his pardon,) in order to induce 11. Never be angry—at what you cannot help. him to slide his voice through the octave: the elfort was successful; and with much feeling, he again asked, "Do you say sir, that (1) I— can learn to sing? an old man like me ?" carrying his voice from the first to the eighth note, on 1, sing, and me. Just then a friend came in, to whom he observed, with incredulous surprise, mingled with a little contempt,-"He says I can learn to sing" and his voice fell from the eighth to the first note,

on I.

which was directed by the Judge, to bring in Anecdote. Use of Falsehood. A jury,

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certain prisoner guilty, on his own confesGuilty" and offered, as a reason, that they sion and plea, returned a verdict of "Not knew the fellow to be so great a liar, they

did not believe him.

The business that we lore, we raise betime.
And go to--with delight.

Talent. One man, perhaps, proves miserable in the study of the law, who might have flourished in that of physic, or divinity; ansen-other-runs his head against the pulpit, who might have been serviceable to his country at the plough; and a third-proves a very dull and heavy philosopher, who possibly would have made a good mechanic, and have done well enough at the useful philosophy of the spade or anvil.

Varieties-in the Uses of Inflections. 1. Is genuine repentance founded in love, or fear? 2. Can we intentionally offend a person, whom we truly love? 3. Have not angel

339. No one can read the following tence of ors, even in the common manner, without any regard to inflections, and not give the word before or, the rising inflection, and the one after it, the falling inflection; and the reader's ear must be the judge. Good, or bad; true, or false; right, or wrong; this, or that; boy, or girl; man, or woman; male, or female; land, or water; over, or under; above, or below; before, or behind; within, or without; old, or young; strength, or weakness; fine, or coarse; one, or two;ic, as well as satanic beings, once been men, you, or I; well, or ill; kind, or unkind; and women, on some of the countless earths black, or white; red, or green; rough, or in the universe? 4. Has any one actual sin, smoothe; hard, or soft; straight, or crook-till he violates the known will of God, and ed; long, or short; round, or square; fat, wilfully sins against his own conscience? or lean; swift, or slow; up, or down. If 5. How can the Red men be forgotten, while the reader does not satisfy himself the first so many of the states, territories, mountime, let him practice on these phrases till hetains, rivers and lukes, bear their names? 6. loes. Since decision of character can be acquired 340. READING. The purposes of reading by discipline, what is the best method to ac are three: the acquisition of knowledge, as- quire it? The firm resolve—to obtain that sisting the memory in treasuring it up, and knowledge, necessary for a choice, and then the communication of it to others: hence, to do what we know to be right, at any, and we see the necessity of reading aloud. The every peril. 7. What places are better adapancient Greeks never read in public, but recited than theatres, in their present degradated from memory; of course, if we wish to tion, to teach the theory and practice of fash• succeed as they did, we must follow in their ionable iniquity? 8. What is a more faithfootsteps. How much better it would be, if ful, or pleasant friend, than a good book? clergymen would memorize those portions of the Bible, which they wish to read in public! But it may be said, that the task would be a severe one: true, but how much more effect might be produced on themselves and others and then to have a large part, or the whole, of that blessed book, stored up in the mind, for use here and hereafter!

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When you mournfully rivet--your tear-laden eyes,

That have seen the last sunset of hope-pass away,
On some bright orb, that seems, through the still sapphire ab
In beauty and splendor, to roll on its way:
Oh remember, this earth, if beheld from afar,
Would seem wrapt in a halo-as clear and as bright
As the pure silver radiance-enshrining yon star,
Where your spirit-is eagerly soaring to-night
And at this very moment, perhaps, some poor heart,
That is aching and breaking in that distant sphere,
Gazes down on this dark world, and longs to depart
From its own dismal home, to a wrighter ons hert

4.

Proverbs. 1. Good manners are sure to pro-
cure respect. 2. Self-conceit makes opinion obsti-
3. Knowledge is the mind's treasure.
nate.
Make the best of a bad bargain. 5. Never speak
to deceive, nor listen to betray. 6. Passion—is ever
and solid sense, to wit. 8. Quit not certainty for
the enemy of truth. 7. Prefer loss, to unjust gain,
Seek not after the failings of others. 11. Might-
hope. 9. Rejoice in the truth, and maintain it. 10.
does not make right. 12. Divinity-cannot be de
fined. 13. Deride not the unfortunate.

PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.

341. THE RISING INFLECTION ('). This | indicates that the voice glides upward continuously, on the more important words. Ex. Do you say that I can learn to sing? Are you going to town to-day? Is he a good mán? Do you love and práctice the truth? Is it your desire to become úseful? Do you wish to become a good reader, speaker, and singer? Is there not a difference between words, thoughts, and feelings?

342. THREE MODES OF EXISTENCE. May we not appropriately contemplate our bodies, and our minds, as consisting of three degrees, each having its own legitimate sphere? Is not each like a three story house, with three successive suits of apartments, which may be called-the lower, the middle and the upper? Are there not three vital degrees of the body, the abdominal, the thoracic, and the enceph'alic? And does not the mind consist of as many degrees, called scientific, rational and affed tuous? or, natural, spiritual and heav' enly? Is there not in us, as it were, a ladder reaching from earth to heaven? Shall we not ascend, and descend upon it, and thus take a view of both the worlds in which we livé? But will not the material part soon die, and the soul-live forever? Then does not wisdom say, attend to each, according to its importance? Are we not wonderfully made? Doth our soul know it right well? And will we praise our Redeemer, by doing

his will?

Philosophy. Philosophy, so far from deserving contempt, is the glory of human na ture. Man approaches, by contemplation, to what we conceive of celestial purity and excellence. Without the aid of philosophy, the mass of mankind, all over the terraqueous globe, would have sunk in slavery and superstition, the natural consequences of gross ignorance. Men, at the very bottom of society, have been enabled, by the natural talents they possessed, seconded by favorable opportunities, to reach the highest improvements in philosophy; and have thus lifted up a torch in the valley, which has exposed the weakness and deformity of the castle on the mountain, from which the oppressors sallied, in the night of darkness, and spread desolation with impunity. Despots: the meanest, the basest, the most brutal and ignorant of the human race, who would have trampled on the rights and happiness of men unresisted, if philosophy had not opened the eyes of the sufferers, shown them their own

343. On examining children, in an unper-power and dignity, and taught them to despise rerted state, and all animals, it will invariably those giants of power, as they appeared thro' be found, that they use the lower muscles for the mists of ignorance, who ruled a vassal breathing, and producing sounds. Who is world with a mace of iron. Liberty—is the nót aware that children will hallon, all day daughter of philosophy; and they who de long, without becoming hoarse, or exhausted? test the offspring, do all that they can to vilify And how often it is the case, that parents wish and discountenance the mother. their children to call persons at a distance, being aware that they have themselves lost the power to speak as formerly. Now all that is necessary to be done, by such individuals, is to retrace their steps to truth and nature. Remember, that examples, in this art especially, are better than precents: rules are to prevent faults, not to introduce beauties; therefore, become so familiar with them, that they may govern your practice involuntarily.

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Varieties.

1. nat is humility, and what are its effects? 2. Vice-stings us, ever. in our pleasures; but virtue-consoles us, even in our pains. 3. Cowards-die many times; the valiant-never taste of death but

Anecdote. Gold Pills. Dr. Goldsmith, having been requested by a wife, to visit her husband, who was melancholy, called upon the patient, and seeing that the cause was poverty, told him he would send him some pills, which he had no doubt would prove efficacious. He immediately went home, put len guineas into a paper, and sent them to the sick man: the remedy had the desired effect.

once.

4. True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known till it is lost. 5. Young folks tell what they do; old ones, what they have done; and fools, what they will do. 6. Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues, we write in sand. 7. The natural effects of (4) fidelity, (5) clemency and (6) kindness, in governors, are peace, good-will, order and esteem, on the part of the governed. 8. Never make yourself too little for the sphere of duty; but stretch, and expand yourself to the compass of its objects. 9. (4) Friends, (5) Romans, (6) countrymen-lend me your ears; I come to bury Cesar, not to praise him. 10. All truthsare but forms of heavenly loves; and all fal sities-are the forms of infernal loves.

If you would excel in arts, excel in industry.

Suspicion overturns—what confidence-builds ;
And he, who dares but doubt when there's no ground,
Is neither to himself, nor others -sound'.

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344. INFLECTIONS. One very encouraging feature of our interesting subject is, that all our principles are drawn from nature, and are therefore inherent in every one; the grand design is to develop our minds and bodies in accordance with these principles; which can be done, not by silently reading the work, or thinking about its contents; but, by putient, persevering practice: this, only, can enable us to overcome our bad habits, and information. 7. Tho' ruin ensue, justice must bring our voices, words, and mind into har-not be infringed. 8. Those things beco:ne us best, mony, so that the externals may perfectly that appertain to our situation in life. 9. Pros correspond to the internals. perity-intoxicates and disturbs the mind: adversi

Proverbs. 1. The body contains the working tools of the mind; master your tools, or you will be a bad workman. 2. Here, and there; or, this world, and the next, is a good subject for reflection. 3. An artist lives everywhere. 4. The body-is the image, or type, of the soul; and the soul is offer, in hopes of a better one; the first is certain; visible, only through it. 5. Never refuse a good the last is only hope. 6. A promiscuous and superficial study of books, seldom yields much solid

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that Adolphus, king of Sweden, determining Duelling. We read, in Swedish history, to suppress these false notions of honor, issued a severe edict against the practice. Two

345. 1. Is there aught, in loquence-ty-subdues and ameliorates it. 10. The strongest that can warm the heart? She draws her symptoms of wisdom in us, is being sensible of our fire from natural magery. Is there aught follies. 11. A good man-is not an object of fear. in poetry to enliven the imagination? 12. Friendship-is stronger than kindred. There is the secret of her power. 2. Do Sin is sin, whether seen or not. you love to gaze at the (3) sin, the (4) moon, and the (6) planets? This affection contains the science of ASTRONOMY, as the seed -contains the future tree. Would a few pence-duty, on tea, for raising a revenue, have ruined the fortunes of any of the Amer-gentlemen, however, generals in his service, icans? No! but the payment of one penny, on a quarrel, agreed to solicit the king's peron the principle it was demanded, would mission, to decide their difference by the laws have made them-slaves. of honor. The king consented, and said, he would be present at the combat. He was attended by a body of guards and the public executimer, and before they proceeded to must fight till one of them died. Then, turnthe onset, he told these gentlemen, that they

346. INVALIDS-will find the principle, and practice, here set forth, of great service to them, if they possess the strength, and have the resolution, to adopt them; and they will often derive special aid by attempting to do something: for the mind, by a determina-ing to the executioner, he added, do you imThis had the intended effect; the difference mediately strike off the head of the survivor. between the two officers was adjusted, and no more challenges were heard of in the army of Gustavus Adolphus.

tion of the will, can be brought to act upon the nervous system, in such a way, as to start the flow of the blood on its career of health, and strength; and, ere they are aware of it, they will be ready to mount up as with the wings of an eagle, and leave all care, and trouble, and anxiety on the earth. Let them try it, and they will see: persevere.

Anecdote. The Cobbler. A cobbler, at

Leyden, who used to attend the public disputations, held at the academy, was once asked if he understood Latin. "No," replied the mechanic, "but I know who is wrong in the argument." "How?" replied his friend. "Why, by seeing who is angry first."

Lift up thine eyes, afflicted soul!

From earth-lift up thine eyes,

Though dark-the evening shadows roll,
And daylight beauty-dies;

One sun is set-a thousand more

Their rounds of glory run,
Where science leads thee-to explore
In every star-a sun.
Thus, when some long-loved comfort ends,
And nature would despair,

Faith-to the heaven of heavens ascends,
And meets ten thousand there;

First, faint and small, then, clear and bright,
They gladden all the gloom,

And stars, that seem but points of light,
The rank of suns assume.

Varieties. 1. Oh! who can describe woman's love, or woman's constancy. 2. Can the immortality of the soul be proved from the light of nature? 3. If the sculptor could put life into his works, would he not resemble a good orator? 4. Can we be too zealous cles the most convincing evidences of truth? in promoting a good cause? 5. Are mira6. Is it not very hard to cherish unkind feelings, and thoughts, without showing them in unkind words and actions? 7. Are theatres -beneficial to mankind? 8. Ought any thing be received, without due examination? 9. Do you wish to know the persons, against whom you have most reason to guard yourself? your looking-glass will reveal him to you. 10. If a man is in earnest, would you therefore call him a fanatic.

They are sleeping! Who are sleeping?
Captives, in their gloomy cells;

Yet sweet dreams are o'er them creeping,
With their many-colored speils.

AR they love-again they clasp them;
Feel again-their long-lost joys;

But the haste-with which they grasp them,
Every fairy form destroys.

Proverbs. 1. Speech-is the image of action. 2. Superstition-is the spleen of the soul. 3. Suspect a tale-bearer, and trust him not. 4. Suspicion is the passion of true friendship. 5. Sweet are the slumbers of the virtuous. 6. Safe is he, who serves a good conscience. 7. Never do a mean action. 8. Set not too high a value on your own

11. The

abilities. 9. Simple diet makes healthy children.
10. Sneer not at that you cannot RIVAL
best answer to a slander-is silence. 1. Vice—is
infamous in every body.

347, THE FALLING INFLECTION () indicates that the voice glides downwards, continuously, on the more important words, 1. 66 Where are you going? 2. Of what are you thinking? 3. Who sendeth the early and the lutter rain? 4. What things are most proper for youth to learn? Those that they are to practice, when they enter upon the stage of action. 5. Be always sure you are right, then go ahead." 6. Begin'; be bold, and venture to be wise: He who defers this work, from day to day, Does on river's brink expecting, stay, Till the whole stream, that stopt him, shall be gone,--That runs, and runs, and ever will run on. 7. I do not so much request, as demand your attention. 8. Seek the truth for its own sake, and out of love for it; and when found, embrace it, let it cut where it will; for it is all powerful, and must prevail.

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348. Never begin, or end, two successive sentences on the same pitch: neither two lines in poetry; nor two members of a sentence; nor two words meaning different things; if you do, it will be monotonous. The 3d, 4th, or 5th note is the proper pitch for commencing to read or speak; the force must be determined by the occasion, the size of the room, the sense, &c. If we are in the middle of the pitches, we can rise or fall according to circumstances; but if we begin too high, or too low, we shall be liable to extremes. Look at those of the audience at a medium distance, and you will not greatly err in pitch. 349. MENTAL PHILOSOPHY-treats of the faculties of the human mind; their laws and actions, with a general reference to their use and cultivation. It teaches, that the two constituents of mind-are the WILL and the UNDERSTANDING; the former is the receptacle of all our affections, good, or evil; the latter, of all our thoughts, true or false. Phrenology-may be considered. to a certain extent, as the highway to the philosophy of mind; but it is not a sure guide, being founded on the philosophy of effects, instead of that of causes; as is the case with all the sciences: hence, it cannot be depended on. To judge righteously of the subject of mind, we must have the whole man; which involves phrenology, physiology, and psycholo gy: all of which must be seen in the light of TRUTH, natural, and spiritual.

Anecdote. Rhymetry. When queen

Elizabeth visited the town of Falkenstene, the inhabitants employed their parish clerk-to versify their address: the mayor, on be ing introduced, with great gravity mounted a three legged stool, and commenced his poetical declamation thus: "O mighty queen, Welcome to Falkenstene!", Elizabeth burst out in a loud roar of laughter; and, without giving his worship time to recover himself, she replied, "You great fool, Get off that stool."

Keep company with the wise and good.

Compassion. Compassion-is an emo tion, of which we ought never to be asham ed. Graceful, particularly in youth, is the tear of sympathy, and the heart, that melts at the tale of wo; we should not permit ease and indulgence to contract our affections, and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment. But the distresses of human life, of the solitary we should accustom ourselves to think of cottage, the dying parent, and the weeping orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with pain and distress, in any of our amusements,

or treat even the meanest insect with wantor

cruelty.

Varieties. 1. What does the tree of life signify, and what the knowledge of good and What heaps of the ruins of a former world, evil, and what the eating from them? 2. surface, of the one we inhabit? 3. Why is are piled up to form the substratum, and the Caucasian, or European race, so migratory and unsettled in its habits and propensities, while the African race seems disposed to stay at home, contented, and happy? 4. Where, in the brain, is the determination of the mind, when we think intensely? Is it not where phrenologists locate causalty? 5. Why is the eye used to represent the spirit of man, that goeth upward, and wisdom? 6. Who knoweth, (says Solomon,) the spirit of the beast, that goeth downward! 7. Why is a circle-used to represent eternity?

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THE DYING CHRISTIAN TO HIS SOUL.

Vital spark-of heav'nly flame!
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame;
Trembling, hoping, ling'ring, flying,
Oh, the pain, the bliss—of dying!
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife,
And let me languish—into life.
Hark! they whisper; angels say,
"Sister spirit, come away."
What is this-absorbs me quite;
Steals my senses,--shuts my sight,
Drowns my spirits,-draws my breath!
Tell me, my soul, can this-be death?
The world recedes; it disappears!
Heav'n-opens on my eyes! my ears
With sounds seraphic ring:-
Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly'
O grave! where-is thy victory?
O death! where-is thy sting?

I hate to see-a shabby book,
With half the leaves-torn out,
And used, as if its owner-thought
"Twere made- to toss about,

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