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When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected the conjunction or, the first lakes the rising, the second the falling in flection :
: as, “Does his conduct siipport discipline', or destroy it'" The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with em phasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.
The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confer so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by th young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce hir to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the ir flections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are mo striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and impo, tance.
“ Manufactures', trade', and agriculture', certainly employ mor than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species.”
“ He who resigns the world has no temptation to envy', hatred", ma lice', anger'; but is in constant possession of a serene mind: he wh follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappoint ing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', remorse', and confusion'.
“ To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy', comfort the afflicted are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.'
" Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in th body habits of lust
' and sensuality'; malice', and revenge' ; an aversial to every thing that is good', just, and laudable', are naturally season ed and prepared for pain and miscry."
"I am persuaded, that neither death', nor life; nor angels', na principalities', nor powers'; nor things present', nor things to come nor height', nor depth'; nor any other creature', shall be able to se parate us from the love of God”
The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investiga tion of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they ar governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.
Manner of reading Verse. When we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in makin; • the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse
which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own: and to adjust ano compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither to hurt the ear, r.or offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with good readers of poetry There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse : ons is, the pause at the end of the line; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end o the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme ren ders this always sensible; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also te read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, is reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing.song ane tone must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line wher it makes no pauss in the meaning, ought not to be marked by such
Be as is used in finishing a sentence; but, without either fall or eletion of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspenn of sound, as inay distinguish the passage from one line to another, ithout injuring the meaning. The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere out the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a fuse, not so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but Il sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural tuse, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th lable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsuI pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the ae can be read easily; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah
“ Ye nymphs of Solyma"! begin the song;
“ To heav'nly themes“, sublimer strains belong." But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate connexion, as not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided om one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle etween the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read ach lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such ases, is to regard only the pause which the serise forms; and to read he line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the ine sound somewhat unharmoniously; but the effect would be much Forse, if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in he following line of Milton,
he sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the bird syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly; though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,
“ I sit, with sad civility I read.” the ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore inust be tivo only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.
There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-cæsuras, which require very slight pauses ; and which the reader should manage with judgment, or he will be apt to fall into an affected sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura.
- Warms' in the sun", refreshes' in the breeze,
Pefuse the conclusiwit of this introducrion, 1h fronpuler lakes the Scris to recommend to teachers, lo exercise I weir pupils in discover ing and explaining ihe: emphatic words, and the croquer tones and pau ses, of every portion ..signed then to read, promisusiy to their boin culled out to ihe perfstwance
!...... s, in write they should be regularly examined, will injoruse brir lo demri nu tusie ; forevent is practice of reading ozitivist al. co.ljoone to be subject and establis!: a habit of readily discovering the wachlassung force, wu beauty, of very sentence they perusa
PIECES IN PROSE.
Page Select Sentences and Paragraphe.
23 CHAPTER II.
Narrative Pieces. zor, 1. No rank or possesions can make the guilty mind,
happy, 2. Change of external condition often adverse to virtue, 40 3. Haman; or the misery of pride,
41 4 Lady Jane Grey,
12 5. Ortogrul; or the vanity of riches,
45 6. The hili of science,
47 7. The journey of a day; a picture of human life,
50 CHAPTER III.
Didactic Pieces. Bart. 1. The importance of good education,
64 2. On gratitude,
65 3. On forgiveness.
66 4. Motives to the D'10of gentleness,
67 5. A suspicious tempe me source of misery to its possessor,
68 6. Comforts of religion,
69 7. Diffidence of our abilities a mark of wisdom,
60 8. On the importance of order in the distribution of our time,
• 61 9. The dignity of virtue amidst corrupt examples,
62 10. The fortifications of vice greater than those of virtue, 64 11. Ou contentment,
65 12. Rank and riches afford no ground for envy,
67 13. Patience under provocations our interest as well as
72 CHAPTER IV.
76 2. Virtue man's bighest interest,
76 3. The injustice of an uncharitable spirit,
Secr. 4 Tho aisfortunes of men mosty chargeable on them-
y. On the beauties of the P'salıns,
3. Exalted society, and ilie renewal of virtuous con-
nexions, two sources of fistnre felicity,