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selves. But when the rich were no longer taught this part of their duty, or, if they were taught it, did not choose to follow it, but preferred spending all upon themselves, they became luxurious, and self-indulgent, and lazy, and unmanly. A large class among the nations fell into these sins. The Nomadic tribes had not the same temptations as the citizens. In their rough and hardy mode of life it was necessary that every one among them should be industrious. All the labour connected with setting up and taking down the tents, preparing the food and clothes, tending the flocks and herds, was left to the women. The women were useful and active, and in general were loved and respected by the men. In the difficult work of clearing woods, hunting and destroying wild beasts, and chasing such animals as were good for food, the men became strong-limbed, hardy, enduring, and fearless. But by the poverty they sometimes suffered, from their many difficulties in procuring food, and by the consciousness of their great strength, they

were tempted to acts of injustice and cruelty. A strong affection bound together all the members of the same tribe; and every member of a tribe would have laid down his life for the chief. Tribes also who were of the same race formed friendly alliances with one another. Sometimes, however, jealousies arose, and then the stronger unjustly oppressed, or cruelly plundered, the weaker. Their affection did not extend to men of another language and another race. All such they regarded as their enemies, and warred against them whenever there was a prospect of gaining either goods or land.

Among their own race the tribes were not neglectful of law. They punished those who disregarded the laws. When new circumstances arose, requiring new regulations, the chiefs of each tribe, and the elders and wise men among them, met to consult together, and make new laws and regulations; and to these all the community had to submit.

If the virtues of Nomadic life, such as hardihood, self-denial, and endurance, could but have been joined with the patience, ingenuity, courtesy, and submission of the more civilized citizens, it would have been better for both classes. And so it pleased God in his providence to ordain that it should be in the course of ages. The empire of Rome, the most civilized nation in the world, was thrown together and intermixed with the Scythian, or Gothic, or Teutonic race (the second Nomadic race who emigrated from Asia).

This was first of all accomplished by war: the Gothic tribes having become very numerous and strong, overthrew the Roman empire by force of arms; and when a time of peace came, they learnt from those they had conquered the arts of civilized life, and their descendants gave up the Nomadic life, and have peopled Europe as distinct nations. In England we have had this mixture of the virtues of tribe-life and those of a civilized people; and the government and laws under which we now live are made up of institu

tions received from both these sources, and improved by that knowledge of Christianity which was made known to our forefathers, and has been handed down to us.

CHAPTER II.

CELTS IN EUROPE: THEIR BOLDNESS : THE DESTRUCTION

OF MANY BY MARIUS: THEIR DISLIKE TO THE SEA.TWO MODES IN WHICH THEIR HISTORY HAS BEEN PRESERVED TO US.--NAME OF BRITAIN.- JULIUS CÆSAR.-PHENICIANS.-CARTHAGINIANS.—GREEKS.

BEFORE the Celts found their way to England, they had become very numerous in Europe, and so daring, that they had at times attacked the powerful Roman empire. When they did this bold act, they were accustomed to collect their men (many tribes banding together under one chief, chosen by the other chiefs to lead them to the attack) in a secret way, and then to press forward with great rapidity till they reached an unguarded place, which they would plunder and destroy before the Romans had time to oppose them. But they did not go unpunished. Their attacks became so serious, that the Roman generals proceeded against

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