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IN THE HOUSE OF THE MUFTI
melons. Conversation lagged, and and eyes and feet, and stammering as in a Turkish house it is not etiquette efforts to converse, and had had a to ask after the health of the wives - royal good time. Feminine curiosity there was not much warmth in it. In on both sides had full sway, and while the house of the mufti conversation the Turkish women, strangers to the was doubly hampered, as it was a little world, searched the handbag of their difficult to ask how the host himself foreign visitor to its innermost corners, was, since he happened to be in a very and while they triedon European clothes disagreeable place. We were told that and experimented with cosmetics, she, a month before the Serbians had the foreign woman, had fumbled with thrown the white-bearded, seventy- just as much keenness and curiosity year-old Mufti Hadji Rustem Shporta through the brightly colored old trunks into prison, and that they were going in which lay the rich clothing of the to try him on the charge of having harem women with its gold and silver instigated the killing of two Christian embroidery. The richness of the ladies' engineers.
clothing was unbelievable, so adorned My companion dallied in the wom- was it with gold and silver; and the old en's quarters through the smoking gold coins alone, with which the colored of many nargile pipes, while we sat headdresses were adorned, amounted to with our legs crossed and took our ease a fortune. The women had heaps of in Oriental fashion. But what was hand-embroidered kerchiefs mountainthat? Was there not the rustling of high, and the European lady had rewomen's garments in the next room? ceived a souvenir in the form of a curiThe son-in-law grew restless, and put ous piece of handwork, a carefully his back closer to the door. Yes, there wrought flower. was a rustling of women's clothes. As she stepped into the women's From afar we could even hear feminine quarters, so my companion told me, laughter. Was there not a rustle in the the young women came joyously to walls too, and were no curious eyes meet her and led her over to an old surveying us through hidden peepholes lady who was sitting on a cushion. in the walls? The son-in-law grew still There were one old woman and four more nervous on his carpet, and we, young ones in the room, besides three too, found it difficult to maintain an air young girls and four little children, and of somnolent indifference to the world. the women told her that usually several
Presently we were standing outside families of close relatives lived together again, among the flowers of the garden sometimes there were fifty or sixty and in the sunny hallway, while we persons, and of course it was difficult cast a last glance caressingly over the for all to get along together. To-day pleasant house, clean as a splinter the ladies were wearing simple clothing, within and without, and toward the and instead of shoes they were weargayly colored balcony from which once ing coarse embroidered overstockings. more we could hear feminine garments Were they beautiful? Hardly, accordflutter, though hidden from our eyes. ing to European standards; but there The lady who was with me was full were some young girls whom one might to the brim of experiences, and femi- almost call lovely. They take special nine delight shone from her feverishly pains in the care of their hands. The sparkling eyes and from cheeks ruddy finger-nails were, of course, stained with excitement. They had managed with henna. All the ladies wore their to understand each other with hands hair covered with cloths, and explained
VOL. 326 — NO. 4815
that a Moslem woman would rather if her previous husband permits; but expose her bosom than her hair. Care if the husband has died, the older less, almost childlike, gayety reigned in brother of the husband then has the the harem, and they discoursed of first right. feminine intimacies with great pleasure The marriage customs themselves on both sides. Yet, whenever they are quite different from those in the could hear a sound from without, a West. The chosen wife is taken to her shadow seemed to fall across the room. husband's haremlik on the wedding In terror lest men should enter, the day. She makes a symbolic bow at the young girls ran like frightened birds to chamber, that she may long remain at the door and held it fast. Once the son- the house, and she prays Allah to give in-law came into the room, and all the her love. Then she daubs her face women kissed his hands with the most thickly with white, creamy paste, servile submissiveness.
paints red figures on it, and sticks lead These women of the harem
old coins on her face. Thus she waits with very quickly. At twenty they are downcast eyes, half stuck-together with already faded, while at forty they are the coins, for the man who comes late old. In an out-of-the-way town like in the evening from where he has been Prizren the visit of a foreigner was a feasting with his friends. He lifts her great event, and that was why they veil, washes the salve from her face in had detained the foreign lady for al- the bath of the house, and now knows most two hours.
for the first time whom it is he has In a garden under the mild sky of the married. Orient we talked pro and con about , There was much to be said by both love and women in the Orient. Love? parties, and enlightened Moslems told There is no such thing for the Moslem us that all these customs are highly woman, and there cannot be. The uncivilized. Mohammed did not deyoung girl waits, with no great expecta- mand them, and Kemal Pasha had, tion of love, for the man whom she God be praised, cast them aside. In must marry unseen, and she takes up Stamboul, both veil and harem were her life in the harem because it is an now abandoned, and women there are old custom. This life, they may think receiving the same treatment as men. fatalistically, is not very agreeable, but They no longer hide their beauty and it is so, and not otherwise. The man youth in sackcloth and ashes as they do whom they are to marry goes to the here in Macedonia; nor need they walk mufti, concludes a bargain, and de- behind the horse of the husband. At posits a small sum – enough for a few length we came to the psychological weeks. If he is willing to lose this problem of the jealous Moslem husamount, he may make up his mind band. As the freedom of the Moslem either way. The life of the Moslem woman grows, the harem will soon woman is very limited, and even a disappear with its lord — a figure more divorced woman can marry again only comic than romantic.
MODERN IDEAS IN EVOLUTION
BY L. H.
The recent visit of Dr. Kammerer to presentation of the way in which living this country and the appearance of a creatures have evolved. popular brochure on heredity have been The exact study of heredity begins accepted in certain sections of the press with the experiments of a brilliant conas earnest that biological science is re- temporary of Darwin, the Abbé Menturning to the Lamarckian fold and del, whose work lay for many years once more embracing the inheritance unrecognized, till his principles were of acquired characters. It is perhaps independently rediscovered by three natural that such a misunderstanding Continental workers in the opening should exist. Though we should treat years of the twentieth century. Since the reflections of a film star on as- then it has become the basis of all subtronomy with the respect they merit, sequent investigation on profitable we experience no surprise when a popu- lines. The essence of Mendel's method lar playwright indulges his incorrigible is simple to grasp. Instead of comparamateurishness in a preface on the evo- ing the offspring and parents as lution theory. This is partly because whole, he concentrated attention on the study of inheritance has only during individual characteristics as the unit, the last three decades attained to that and in making his crosses employed inprecision which gives it priority as an dividuals which had bred pure for exact science over other branches of
generations for the characteristic whose biological knowledge; and few people transmission was being studied. In this as yet can be expected to realize that a way he found that, when parents showreputation for biological investigation ing a particular character were mated in other fields can no longer be accepted with parents which did not show it, the as a guaranty of expert opinion. The distribution of the character among truth is that genetics, the scientific succeeding generations of the cross study of inheritance, has in extending regularly followed a definite rule. In its operations become more and more the simplest case it works out in this detached from the general body of bio- way. When the first crossbred generalogical inquiry, and the men who have tion are all alike and when individuals preëminently contributed to this ex- of this generation are mated inter se, tension - Bateson, Morgan, Punnett, those of the next generation fall into Goldschmidt, and others — have been three categories in predictable numeritoo busy replacing the folklore of the cal proportions: one half are impure, Lamarckian and Darwinian periods and breed like their parents of the first with mathematical expressions of di- generation; the other half are pure, rect experiment on hereditary trans- and fall into equal groups, one resemmission to attempt any all-embracing bling the father, the other the mother, 1 From the Manchester Guardian (Independent
of the original cross. Mendel was thus Liberal daily), January 2
led to conceive of the characters of an individual as the expression of material been discussed in past issues of the factors of which one is contributed by Manchester Guardian. the mother and one by the father. If Till twelve years ago genetical inwhen the egg or sperms are formed vestigation had been hampered greatly these material entities (genes they are by the difficulty of getting satisfactory called nowadays) are separately dis- animals or plants for experiment. To tributed, the proportions and types be satisfactory for the purpose of the which arise in crosses between indi- geneticist a species must breed providuals of different characters follow lifically and rapidly in the laboratory, from the laws of probability and may and there must be a sufficient variety be predicted with as much confidence of true-breeding character-differences as, say, the action of chloroform on the among its members. In 1912 Morgan, human heart.
of Columbia University, observed that When Mendel's researches were res- the fruit fly Drosophila produces frecued from their obscurity times were quent sports or mutants. It breeds more propitious to an appreciation of prolifically, its life cycle is complete in their significance. For microscopists ten days, and it will live happily in a probing into the secrets of the 'cells' glass bottle with a supply of fermenting or microscopic bricks of which our tis- bananas. Furthermore it possesses a sues are made had revealed in them very small number of chromosomes the presence of material bodies, the (four pairs). The rapidity with which it chromosomes, which do in fact behave breeds makes it possible to rear more in a manner precisely corresponding to generations of Drosophila in twelve that of Mendel's hypothetical factors. months than of human beings in five Had Mendel been less fortunate in centuries. It had been shown prior to selecting character differences which Morgan's work that some characters depend on single genes his discovery are transmitted together - that is to would have been delayed; but the say, they depend on factors which restimulus of his lead urged others to side in the same material unit. Morcontinue. Through the labors of Cor- gan's great discovery, based on the rens, Bateson, and others the appli- study of about five hundred characters, cability of Mendel's law to the un- in all cases transmitted according to raveling of an immense diversity of Mendel's law, was that all the charachereditary qualities in animals and ters of Drosophila fall into a number of plants increasingly encouraged the groups the members of which tend to belief that the most seemingly obscure be transmitted together, exactly correphenomena would, if patiently ana- sponding to the number of pairs (four) lyzed by the experimental method of maternal and paternal chromosomes which Mendel. introduced, fall into line in the cells of the body; and later he with the Mendelian law. And to-day was able to arrive at a mathematical we can confidently state that there is expression for the actual arrangement no type of hereditary characteristic - of the hereditary factors in the micolor, weight, size, number of parts, croscopic chromosomes. These exand so forth — for which Mendelian pressions can be and have been sucinheritance has not been proved to hold cessfully put to experimental test. good when sufficient trouble has been The outcome of this work has been taken to ascertain all the facts. Some important in its bearings on the probmost spectacular advances have cen- lems of stock-breeding and agriculture; tred in the analysis of sex, which has and America has not been slow to show
MODERN IDEAS IN EVOLUTION
its appreciation by endowments which that if a black parent mated with white place the American geneticist in a posi- produces gray offspring, gray mated tion of considerable advantage over his with black must produce darker gray, European colleagues. As yet the geneti- and so on, so that if a white individual cist is content to press on with his turned
in the normal course of analysis to a further knowledge of how events its distinguishing quality would new true-breeding types appear as
be diluted out of existence in a few sports or mutants, rather than formu- generations. Darwin replied that this late ambitious hypotheses of the evolu- was not so if white had an advantage tionary process. Two things can, how- over black in the struggle for existence. ever, be said with confidence.
Darwin's natural selection was inFirst, that the exact study of he- vented to counteract the 'swamping' redity has not given any encourage argument. But the conception of ment for regression to the view that swamping is a false one. Mendelian environmental influences operating on experiment shows that if two types are the parent can induce corresponding crossed it is always theoretically poschanges in the offspring. There is no sible to recoyer both parental types in more justification for this view to-day their original purity in the second than when Weismann forty years ago generation. We no longer need a theory challenged its advocates to produce of natural selection to account for the any. On the contrary, the constancy persistence of new types. Natural sewhich a new true-breeding or mutant lection is simply concerned with elimicharacter displays in experimental con- nating those that are not good enough ditions makes the Lamarckian view to live. less acceptable than it ever was.
Thus the position of the evolutionary The second conclusion which may be hypothesis has been strengthened by drawn from recent research is that modern research. The evolutionary Darwin's view of natural selection hypothesis still remains the most appears as an argumentum ad hominem plausible account of how living creaelaborated to meet objections that tures have come into being in the hiswere invalid and founded on premises tory of the earth. But the problem of that are unsound. In Darwin's time sterility, why some forms can interideas of hereditary transmission were breed and others cannot, is as yet but vague. It was not till fifteen years after little understood, though there have the publication of the Origin of Species been hopeful advances of late in this that the origin of a new individual from field. The experimental foundations a single sperm and a single egg-cell was of evolutionary theory will not be conclusively proved.
firmly established till we can produce To Darwin's contemporaries it in the laboratory mutants which refuse seemed evident that, if the results of to interbreed. This may now be a fait crossing were generally intermediate accompli in a few years. For the present between the parents, new types must the geneticist is content to confine his always be swamped out of existence in inquiries to a closer understanding of the long run. Darwin's critics argued the hereditary mechanism,