about Trotskii. But he too has always real issue at stake, hidden under a heap been a zero politically, and will remain of theoretical rubbish. Trotskii actuso to the end of his days — even if ally commanded a majority in that destiny were to make him dictator. Party Congress, because the Party had

In the first place, Trotskii, who did not been sufficiently vigilant and the not join our Party until the eve of his wrong local representatives had been triumph, when it became the only elected’; but at the last moment he organization that promised a career, was frightened by the prospect of power never had anything Communistic in and responsibility, and shamefully took him; that is why Lenin was right again to cover. in disliking and distrusting him.

Or remember his latest exploit, his You say he created the Red Army? book, which was a breach of Party disEnough of that talk. First of all, if you cipline. It cost his supporters dearly, want to know the truth, we have no for at the critical moment he deserted army, unless by army you mean them. He might without difficulty parades, demonstrations against world have sat in the place of the dictator, for imperialism, and punitive expeditions the ‘lower Party strata,' as well as the at home. A prominent German general, army, were for him. But he could not whom we asked to take charge of our conquer his cowardice, and took 'a military instruction, came to Moscow, leave of absence, for his health,' in the looked things over, waved his hand, distant Caucasus at the order of 'the and said something that was not triumvirate,' there to spend his time flattering and is not fit to repeat on shooting crows, in imitation of Nichopaper. And did not Trotskii himself las II - he always imitates someone. say once that his Red Army was like a Later he came back to Moscow like an radish, red on the outside, but white obedient lamb and resumed his belliginside? It is not without significance, erent talk again, threatening war on in my opinion, that Sergei Sergeevich Europe and what not — in imitation, I Kamenev, the actual military head of believe, of Paul I. the army and an old-time officer, has He is as cold as an icicle, and only never joined the Communist Party, na“ve people mistake his false pathos and keeps twisting his magnificent and his boldness for the sacred fire of moustache with a silence that seems to revolution.' Do you remember how hide a great deal.

this talking machine stood on the stage There is no greater coward than of the Great Theatre and received the Trotskii. That is why he so loves loud, ovations of the huge audience: nose in boastful — and always cold and arti- the air and the face of a mummy and ficial — talk and demagogic slogans. not a nod of his head! Not a sign of By the way, he sometimes gets lost in response! these, as when, for instance, he, to our Compare this with Iliich, who used great and general confusion, cited in to say so simply, like a child: 'My dear one of his army and navy orders the friends, this and this is my opinion. I words of Jesus to Judas Iscariot - know I'm right. You don't agree? So forgetting their source and meaning: much the worse for you, because I shall "That thou doest, do quickly.'

act as I think best, and not as you wish. Recall our famous debate on trade- Good-bye.' unions, which threatened to cause a I hardly think it worth my while to Party schism and to put Trotskii in the speak of the fourth-rate ones — Krasplace of Lenin. Indeed that was the sin, Krestinskii, who failed to control

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his fellows in his trade-delegation, and who has always been a friend of the so on. Because then, I'm afraid, I Revolution'; or: 'Dear Felix, please let might have to pollute the paper with so-and-so out of prison. I know he is the name of Steklov, the editorial perfectly trustworthy. The whole writer.

country is being governed by means of They are nonentities; but as to our these calling-cards, which are bought at so-called 'young guards,'our League of fabulous prices such as only the rarest Communist Youth, our 'Lenin pio- autographs command. neers,'our 'converts' from other politi- The Party stinks to Heaven! cal Parties, and our imported foreign Have I not heard voices raised in sweethearts,- for we have a great defense of 'self-support,' as they call it, plenty of them, — they are not merely as no sin? Do they not make a shrewd zeros, they are negative quantities, and distinction between 'bribery' as somesuch serious drawbacks to the cause thing received in return for favors that that we puzzle helplessly what to do are contrary to law, and this ‘self-supwith them.

port'extorted from the new bourgeoisie And as to thieving! Donnerwetter, for things that are perfectly lawful, like how they do steal!

a gift! ... O Marxian dialectics! That Here we come to a devilish puzzle. is where they have led us. Vox populi Why is it that persons who only a short justly calls us a gang of cheats - mywhile ago sacrificed their all to their self included, although you know that convictions, and lived like your church money means nothing to me, that I do ascetics, have suddenly conceived a not care for comfort, that revolution is taste —

for sumptuous homes — not all in all for me, that I would gladly apartments, not even twenty-room drown my own dear wife if the Revoluapartments, but residences of the most tion required it. luxurious sort, champagne, gay female Then why do these Communists companions, private trains, 'thirty-five steal? It seems an inexorable law! I thousand servants’ merely to run their know your explanation, which you errands? And their wives will have summed up in a word to the tribunal nothing less than diamonds the size of that tried you. 'Where there is dirt, hazelnuts, - 'a crown jewel, if pos- there will be vermin,' you said. But sible’ is the way they put it, —.and ten you must not, you dare not, base such gowns a month from Paris, or at least a generalization on a few special cases!

with a sour mien - from the great Revolution is not dirt, it is sacred fire! Lamanova. Why is it that so-and-so, Only give me a great, honest Revoluafter years of a half-starved revolu- tionary-Communist! 'There is no such tionary life with his homely but loyal thing,' you tell me. You lie - you Communist helpmate, when he would should be shot for it! readily have given the Party every- ‘Russia is perishing!' you tell me — thing he owned, even a million ruble you, a Slavophil, you a believer in 'light legacy if he had received it, must now from the East and in the divine mismove into a palatial residence on sion of our thankless fatherland. Of the Povarskaia, divorce his Communist

course, you are romantic. And so are wife, ‘sign up at the Commissariat' only we write our creed, not with with a seventeen-year-old beauty over- pen and ink, but with fire and sword, loaded with paint and perfumery, and upon the scrolls of inexorable reality. trade briskly in his calling-cards: 'Dear Once, I remember, you drove me out of Nicolas, please do this and that for X., your room because, after a hot argu


ment, I admitted to you that we have Lenin, which you wrote in 1921, like a no 'Soviet Government,' no 'dictator- people's deputy, in the naive belief that ship of the proletariat,' no trust in our Lenin, as formerly our own beloved Party as a whole — that all we have is Tsar, was surrounded by bad advisers a small group of leaders of the coming who would not let him see the truth? world revolution. You then compared We all laughed heartily when we read me to the 'devils' of Dostoevskii at your kind-hearted stupidities, with which I, losing patience, retorted that which you tried to explain to us what unfortunately we could not execute Russia really is and what her destiny Dostoevskii. Yes, I repeat even now,

will be. Yes, at that time you believed and with pleasure, that we certainly in Lenin. That Byzantine-Moscovite would have executed Dostoevskii, and romanticism of yours was the same as that we should have dealt no more that nursed by all Russians throughout gently with Tolstoi, had he broken their stupid history. loose in our days, as he did under the No, my dear youngster, Lenin and all Tsar, with that pamphlet of his 'I of us — the leaders — understand the Cannot Remain Silent. But now I shall Russian reality as well as you do. And assert something even worse than that. as to knowing it - why, our Felix has Russia? What is Russia ?

put two Chekists behind each citizen! To you the word symbolizes a high We certainly know Holy Russia's peomystery. To you Russia is a text en- ple, at least, better than you do. graved on the throne of your God, who You may be proud. Iliich read your is a cosmic monarch with no use for letter to the last syllable, and do you constitutional government, 'Six letters want to know what he said? 'He must of fire and blood -six steps to the be a good man. A great pity he is not divine glory.' To me, however, it is but with us.' Then he coughed, cleared his a geographical conception that we have throat, and added: ‘And a clever man succeeded in abolishing without the

but a fool!' least harm to the Revolution

a word

How can you fail to understand that that we have relegated to the musty Russia, — which to you is an end in itarchives of the past where it belongs. self, - interests us only in so far as it To me modern Russia that is, the gives us means and materials for the S. S. S. R. - is the accidental bivouac world revolution? What we need for of the Central Committee of the Third that is a more or less secure roof over International.

our heads, and then money — all the Do you remember your own letter to money we can get.

very clever




(THEODOR BERKES is the veteran Bal- panion and, gallant squire of dames kan correspondent of the Berliner that he was, fell to thinking how he Tageblatt, who has lately been on a might satisfy her wish. Presently came special journey through Macedonia.] the son-in-law of the mufti himself,

wearing the keche, or white Albanian In order to shield their women from cap of felt, and laying his hand to his chance glances, the Turks, when they mouth, to his eyes, and to his forehead still ruled Macedonia, forbade the con- as a greeting, he said in Albanian, ‘Mir struction of windows on the street side se vjen!' (welcome). We replied, like of houses, and so the Albanian and men of the world, 'Tu ngat jeta!' and Turkish mahalas (city quarters), unless then, with a ‘Lutem Zotni!' we all went they were part of the charchija, or busi- to the house of the mufti. ness section, still have a dead and Not even the mufti's house, however, dreary outward aspect. The narrow would admit us behind its clay walls streets are long rows of towering clay immediately, and when at length we walls, and only here and there in this stood before them we had still to wait gray waste does the gable of one of the some time on the other side of the houses become visible.

street. A little Turkish boy was first The lady who was my traveling sent into the house to bear word of our companion was also disillusioned by the coming, and also of course to bear word colorless clay of the Orient, and her that men were in the party. When the curious, penetrating woman's eyes youngster at length came back we wanted to pierce the wall behind which went in through the street door, to find the Turkish custom concealed the ourselves in a little courtyard, but still interesting trousers-wearing members surrounded by clay walls, - on which of her own sex

- secluded far from the tobacco leaves were hung to dry, glance of every man, and even from the forming part of a little house into which, glance of other women. But though at right angles, led a flight of wooden these walls were only clay, they did not steps. The mufti's son-in-law told us part, and the little wooden doors that that this was the selamlik, the men's opened quickly here and there, and house, and then he went on into it just as quickly closed, by no means through a little door. Here was a sursatisfied these curious eyes. What was prise for all of us. Now we had stepped there to do?

into a magnificent big garden in which Our Albanian friend in upper Tonus little streams of water bubbled and detected the discontent of my com- gurgled, while a lusty swarm of bees 1 From Berliner Tageblatt (Liberal daily),

was humming about the hives. After January 11

the grayness of the clay walls this

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garden seemed like a little marvel of there were endless texts from the color and sunshine. Shrubs were in Koran, carefully painted and illumibloom; flowers gave off their perfume; nated. Little intimate windows opened ancient trees threw their shadow, and out on the garden, and on the long side through the branches of a large beech, of the wall there was a little raised which seemed, to exhale comfort, we fireplace, almost Gothic, with slender saw a large white house.

pillars. On the carved shelves that ran 'The haremlik!' whispered our leader, about the room were all the utensils and as we walked toward the house we that a Turkish household needs: there seemed to hear feminine drapery hurry- were about twelve sahans those big, ing like a flock of frightened birds off deep copper bowls with tin lining in the wide balcony and deep into the which a rich host will often offer his interior of the house.

guests some forty different dishes; Men in the harem? It gave me spoons of wood and horn up above, visions of cold steel between the ribs which the orthodox Moslem still uses merely to think of it. But the mufti's even to-day instead of knife and fork; son-in-law strolled unconcernedly innumerable little cups for the thick ahead, first taking off his shoes, into the Turkish coffee; numerous drinkingvestibule adorned with carpets, and glasses and silvered candlesticks. In big as a hall in itself; while we did the the wainscoting were little doors besame. The luxury which we had al- hind which were huge closets to receive ready found in the garden increased as the bolsters and silken quilts that the we made our way through numerous Turks and Albanians spread out on the open doors that led out on the side, big carpet and use for beds. It makes and we had the impression of more and hospitality simpler than with us, for in more luxury as we went up a flight of this way any Turkish house can receive stairs and into a special balcony-room. any number of guests at any hour. To The balcony was raised in front of us rest in the daytime, however, they use and was connected with the garden by the mindelik - little structures like a lower gallery with carved wood and sofas, placed along the walls in the flowers as ornaments. The fragrance room and strewn with carpets and of the garden came up into the house. silken cushions. In the corner hung The sunbeams pierced through the the gold-mounted wall-clock with Turkbranches of the beech, and golden spots ish figures on the dial, and close beside of light danced over the gay carpet with it on the floor stood the mangal, the all its silk embroidered cushions. Here, big copper basin in which the charcoal as a usual thing, the ladies of the harem fire is lighted. Not a table or chair is to sat, but we had frightened them away be seen in the room, and at meals they from their carpets and their cushions. bring in a big table with Lilliputian We strolled into one of the adjoining legs, no more than a foot high, which at rooms, and as we did so the mufti's other times hangs outside on the son-in-law set himself squarely across

kitchen wall. the door through which our entrance The Turkish boy appeared and took was forbidden. We were in the mufti's the lady who was with me to call upon own room now, and there was no mis- the ladies of the house. Meantime betaking that here the mufti received his hind the closed door we men conversed, wives. The woodwork of the room was drank mocha out of little cups, cracked artistically carved, and between the the nutlike kikiriki, took fruit from carpets with which the walls were hung silver bowls, and sliced big sweet

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