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the polling is a second device of the IMPENDING ELECTIONS IN EUROPE

same kind. But if the Conservatives SEVERAL new elections are pending in overcome the combined Republican Europe: the final run-off for the German majority shown at the polls on March Presidency, a Parliamentary election 29 by this kind of appeal, they will in Belgium, a prospective polling of the have subordinated the question of a same sort in Italy — and at the present monarchy or a republic to an extranemoment the anticipated summoning of ous issue. An election won by these French voters to the ballot box to de- tactics will be tantamount to a de cide whether the shaken and discordant ferred decision on the main point in disCartel des Gauches or M. Millerand's pute

pute -- and every such postponement reformed Bloc is to control the Govern- in the present European conjuncture ment. The German Presidential elec- probably favors the perpetuation of tion and the French Parliamentary Republican institutions. election, if it occurs, are of most imme- M. Herriot's Cabinet has been sailing diate importance.

in stormy waters for some time. PolitiWe are only beginning to learn cal passions at Paris are intensely exfrom Continental sources the detailed cited, and issues that can only be setmanoeuvring that preceded the first tled by conference and compromise German voting for President; but the have become bones of political contenConservatives apparently had can- tion around each of which there is an vassed the situation aright, for they infuriated squabble. Last month the made desperate efforts to avoid a Chamber fell into a fury over the restraight fight between Republicans ligious question and witnessed the and Monarchists, even going to the ex- wildest scenes during the past twentytent of offering to concentrate upon a five years. As a result, one of the CleriDemocratic candidate of Conservative cal delegates - a marquis, by the way sympathies in order to divide the vote was expelled from the session by of their opponents. The present at- force. Public finances show no sign of tempt to bring the religious issue into improvement. A battle is on between

Copyright 1925, by the Living Age Co.

causes

inflationists and anti-inflationists, and Protocol and asserts that the present between Socialists demanding a capital Cabinet has rejected it simply because levy - which means, in theory, making it was a Labor achievement. The war fortunes pay war debts — and un- Spectator cautiously observes: "To all compromising defenders of not only the outward seeming the Protocol is dead. sanctity but also the privacy of private We put it thus guardedly because it is wealth. For the moment M. Caillaux not always possible to say at what seems to be standing in the background, exact moment death has occurred, though he may be posing in the spot- nor, indeed, is it easy to define death. light long before these lines reach our .. The British Empire has rejected readers. Altogether, the political and it, and believes that it is really industrial situation in France seems at dead, but M. Herriot and M. Briand the moment to be deteriorating in believe that life can be restored to it, about the same degree as the situation and have actually expressed their intenin Germany is improving. Perhaps we tion of applying artificial respiration at shall not see marked progress in Europe the meeting of the League in Septemuntil a happy accident of political and ber. For our part, we can go so far economic meteorology

the with the French statesmen as to say barometer to rise simultaneously in that probably parts of the Protocol both countries.

at least some of its definitions — will be revived.'

On the other hand, the New StatesIS THE PROTOCOL DEAD?

man, which has turned ultra-Tory on AFTER hurriedly summoning the under- this issue, declares: 'Great Britain and taker, the mourners at the funeral of the Dominions have definitely rejected the Protocol apparently hope that it it, Italy concurs, and no one pretends may not be dead after all. At least that that there is any chance of Japan acis the reaction in a section of the Brit- cepting. Is it really worth while, in ish and the European press. So intent such circumstances, to try to talk cold were the reporters of the Geneva pro- mutton back into frisky lamb?' ceedings upon Mr. Austen Chamber- Corriere della Sera points out that lain's speech - which, by the way, is after the defeat of the Protocol ‘there rumored to have been written by Lord is no reason to suppose that it will be Balfour, and certainly suggests his easy to agree on special alliances.' As style - that we heard very little of for the Versailles Treaty, which France what was said in the Protocol's defense. would preserve inviolate, no such agreeM. Briand, speaking for France, and ment ‘is fixed and final for all time; if Dr. Benes, echoing him for Czechoslo- it were, practically every treaty would vakia, both indicated that their respec- end in a new war. The essential thing tive countries proposed to resume a is to provide for an eventual modificadiscussion of the subject later. The tion of treaties without a rupture of Spanish delegate stated that his Gov- amicable relations.' Pending an opernment stood pat on the Protocol. The portunity to resume the discussion of two Latin Americans present, while less the Protocol with better chances of sucspecific, seem to be sympathetic with cess, this journal advocates a security that attitude. Japan, Sweden, and pact including England, France, Italy, Italy were noncommittal.

Germany, Belgium, and perhaps PoMeanwhile in Great Britain Ramsay land and Czechoslovakia. If this could MacDonald makes a Party issue of the be brought about, 'all Europe would

A WEEK OF THE WORLD

129

have attained the substance of unity representatives of two Great Powers made and would at last be able to settle down public profession of their belief in the only with the sense of safety indispensable principle that offers any practical possibility for any real economic recovery.'

of the peaceful settlement of unavoidable Naturally the press of Switzerland, a

controversies and the abolition of war. .

But a rude spring frost has blighted this country which owes its very existence

promising programme. to a sort of Protocol, refuses to believe that the Geneva Pact is dead. Journal This correspondent interprets Great de Genève protests that when the Eng- Britain's maneuvres at Geneva as a lish begin to imagine things they have recurrence of her old device of making a terrible time of it. Ask your phleg- some other fellow do her work for her. matic Britisher what he thinks of the Instead of guaranteeing France security Protocol and his morbid imagination at herself, she now proposes to get Geronce begins to boil. 'He discovers the many to do the job. most extraordinary and unbelievable Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, which possibilities. . . . He pictures the Brit

He pictures the Brit- represents Conservative industrial inish fleet in dire peril. Before his terri- terests of the Stinnes type, fairly gloats fied eyes the responsibilities of the over the 'irrefutable logic and frequent

which are British Empire swell to apocalyptic shafts of biting sarcasm dimensions.' He refuses to see the even

said to have had a crushing effect upon greater possibilities of peril in another

the French delegation — with which world-conflagration, and persists in

Chamberlain fought over the English conceiving his country as a placid oasis

thesis.' Frankfurter Zeitung, which of verdure in the midst of a storm

stands at the opposite pole of Germany's wrecked world. What is to be the re

bourgeois press world from the journal sult? ‘Britain will come back to the just quoted, likewise sees much sense Protocol or something similar. That is

in Chamberlain's objection to the Proinevitable. She will liberate herself

tocol. Unless the United States is a from the tutelage of her Dominions, party to that agreement, it is not worth which will eventually become intoler

much. Furthermore, the English naable, and we shall hear Mr. Chamber

tion can hardly be expected honestly to lain again, better informed than this pledge the support of its army and navy time, read a speech that will not have

in a possible war to defend political been penned by Lord Balfour.'

boundaries or to impose political sancNeue Zürcher Zeitung's Geneva cor

tions on other nations which the moral respondent less picturesquely describes

instincts of the people disapprove. But the situation as follows:

there were other considerations lurking

in Chamberlain's mind which he did not The setback is painful. Last September put into his address. In conversing the birth of the Geneva Protocol was greeted with a party of journalists at his hotel, here as a well-calculated effort to solve the

he pointed out that England, whose cardinal issue of security, not by the territories were coterminous in many dangerous device of military alliances and

places with those of countries having a special treaties, but upon a basis of compulsory arbitration. MacDonald's stirring

very different and a lower-grade civilispeech endorsing this plan and Herriot's

zation, could not possibly bind herself equally eloquent advocacy the following

to submit every dispute with her neighday still echo in our ears. At that moment

bors to an international court of jussomething really new seemed to have issued tice. 'When he said that, Chamberlain out of high diplomacy, for the responsible was surely thinking of Egypt, although that country is not yet a member of criticisms, it deplores his attitude as a the League. At the same time he obvi- whole. 'What the British Government ously forgot that under the League has repudiated with an energy singuCovenant England is already obligated larly surprising in discussing measures to submit to the League Council a con- to guarantee better general security is troversy with any other League member the very spirit in which the Protocol that is likely to cause a war, whether was conceived and drafted - is the that other League member be on the very gist of the solution that was consame level of civilization with Great templated at Geneva and that the deleBritain or not.' The kernel of the situa- gates of the forty-six Powers repretion is that Great Britain is unwilling sented there unhesitatingly accepted.' to bind herself to accept the decrees of What next? Le Figaro heads its an international court of justice. answer to this question, 'From Geneva

Turning to France, Le Figaro says to Washington. It speaks of the that the Geneva decision resolves itself Dominions who vetoed British acceptinto this:

ance of the Protocol as ‘imbued with England and her friends have not the

American ideas.' The same people in same ideas as France and her allies on the

Great Britain who oppose the Protocol way to establish peace. Their respective oppose a guaranty treaty with France. ideals as well as their practical proposals 'Lord Balfour, who presided over the differ widely. England is filled with the British delegation at Geneva and also spirit of moralizing imperialism, France played a leading rôle at the Washington with a spirit of juridico-parliamentary Conference, is an

Conference, is an outright enemy of internationalism.

both the Protocol and an Anglo-French But, after all, these different points pact. . . . Are we too bold in affirming of view are as much the product of that there is an understanding between physical conditions as of temperament. the adversaries of the Protocol in Eng'We do not think that our English land and the American partisans of friends would evacuate Gibraltar, a new Disarmament Conference? Malta; Egypt, and Singapore in that, in the same way that the invitaexchange for a collective pact of the tion to the Conference in 1921 came riparian governments along the way from Washington but had been sugguaranteeing her her route to India gested by London, so in 1925 political and the Orient.'

opinion in America is manæuvred by Journal des Débats, which is fighting certain leaders of opinion in England – M. Herriot's Government, is inclined by those men who consider the British to compliment Mr. Chamberlain. It Empire something utterly aloof from says his speech, 'barring a few passages Europe?' of British humor,' was such a speech as Of course, this does not mean all . France ought to have made on several Englishmen. The London Outlook says occasions, notably last September, and the feelers thrown out by Washington it calls upon MM. Herriot and Briand for a new Conference have been reto take note of the situation and change ceived hospitably by Downing Street their course accordingly.

and favorably by Italy. 'France, on 'Le Temps was particularly struck by the other hand, having security on the a certain harshness and asperity in Mr. brain, is raising obstacles; while Japan Chamberlain's address which it says is noncommittal, waiting to see which ‘was quite outside of his usual manner.' way the wind will blow. To which the While agreeing with some of his specific editor adds:

A WEEK OF THE WORLD

131

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As a whole I can see no objection to the satisfactory, partly because such an proposed Conference, but at the same time outcome would profit the party in it would be idle to expect any very important results. I don't think that we need points in the award which it regarded

power. That journal published ten suspect America of any ulterior motive. But the organizers of 'peace conferences,'

as favoring Peru's contention. But dishowever idealistic their intent, have a habit patches from La Paz in the Buenos of not recognizing facts as facts. You can- Aires press reported popular maninot get rid of the Atlantic and Pacific festations in Lima against the decision, Oceans by covenants or protocols, nor of and a fall of several points in Peruvian 'tradition, customs, institutions, habits, exchange was attributed to the same race,' as Senator Borah once wisely said, cause. On the other hand, no alloy of ‘through the necromancy of words.'

uncertainty tempered Chile's approval The Nation and the Athenæum thinks of the award. Even El Diario Ilustrado, the rejection of President Coolidge's President Alessandri's most belligerent nomination of Mr. Warren to the At- and uncompromising critic, at once detorney-Generalship is a bad omen for clared that the successful outcome of such a Conference, because it suggests the arbitration would strengthen the that America as a whole may not back Executive's position and hasten a reup what her delegates agree to at such turn to normal political conditions in a meeting:

that country. Some Brazilian papers

were critical. A Noticia of Rio de In casting the horoscope of the Disarma- Janeiro said that such a plebiscite as ment Conference that Mr. Coolidge now

was proposed would not settle the conseems likely to call, we must not forget

troversy, because it was a foregone contoo many of us did when Mr. Wilson was at Paris — the dependence of an American

clusion that the voting would favor President the good-will of the Senate upon

Chile. if his international policies are to become effective.

THE Netherlands is indulging in a lively controversy over the reported offer

of certain wealthy concerns having MINOR NOTES

property interests in the Dutch East THE first reception of President Cool- Indies to endow a school for training idge's award covering the conditions of colonial servants at the University of a plebiscite in the disputed provinces of Utrecht. Hitherto the aspirants for Tacna and Arica, to decide whether that service have been trained at the they shall remain under the jurisdiction University of Leyden, which has a of Chile or be returned to Peru, ap- faculty of six professors of high repute parently was more favorably received to deal with different aspects of colonial in the latter country than the tele- administration. Business interests, it graphic reports of subsequent protests is said, are finding fault because the would suggest. Bolivia, which sees no Leyden professors give undue emphasis likelihood of regaining a corridor to to questions of ethics, and their teachthe sea by the Washington decision, ings on the responsibility of foreign looked coolly upon it from the first. capitalism to the natives are liable to Lima opinion was probably divided misinterpretation.' The result, it is along political lines. Supporters of the said, is to encourage 'a revolutionary present administration, whose mouth- atmosphere against Dutch rule among piece is La Prensa, were predisposed to the natives,' and in general an attitude regard the results of the arbitration as hostile to big capitalism. The contro

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