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portance, is to be erected. As a contrast, to the present rapidity of travelling, we append the following. In 1738, the Gloucester Journal stated that the “ Gloucester Flying Machine" set out every Monday morning from Gloucester, and would arrive on the Wednesday night at the Saracen's Head, Snow Hill, London, “ if God permitted,” thus performing the journey in the short space of three days; the performance of so long a journey in so short a time was then considered a great achievement. In the Registrar's office are some old wills, which run thus: “Whereas, I am about to take a journey to London, and whereas, it is uncertain whether or not I may live to return, I do therefore think it necessary to make my last will and testament,” &c. Such however is the revolution which has taken place in little more than a century, that a journey which then took three days to complete with labour and difficulty, is now accomplished with ease and facility in as many hours.
Gloucester is a place of great antiquity, and previous to the Roman invasion was called by the ancient Britons Caer Glowe, the "fair city,” or the ® bright city:" it is said to have been a city when London was but a borough; the venerable Bede says in the eighth century,“ it was one of the noblest in the kingdom.” The origin of the words Caer Glowe, has been a subject of dispute with antiquarians. In Saxon Chronicles it is variously styled Glewan-cester, Gleaw-cestre, Glew-ceastre, and Glowe-ceastre. In the abbey records of the fourteenth century, Gloucestria, and Gloucestriensis, now contracted to Gloucester, and by some styled Glocester.
In the 44th year of the Christian era, it came under the dominion of the Romans, and the Emperor Claudius visited the island, in order, as his victorious general Plautius expresses it, “ to reap the glory of putting an end to the war.” Gloucester became an important Roman garrison, and according to the itinerary of Antoninus was called by that people Glevum. About the year 426 or 427, the last legion of the Romans left the island, the Saxons were invited as friends and protectors against the irruptions of the Picts and Scots; but these soon proved their worst enemies. Hengist, the brave leader of the Saxons, is said to have been beheaded here in 488. Ceaulin, the Saxon king of Wessex, in 577 defeated Commail, Condidan, and Farinmail,
three British princes, and in 584 the conquest was completed by Crida, another Saxon adventurer, who drove the Britons across the Severn into Cambria, and took possession of the empire. Gloucester then formed one of the fifteen cities of the kingdom of Mercia. About 940, Elgiva, the unfortunate wife of Edwy XI. Saxon king of England,was intercepted here, and being seized by a party of armed men, was branded in the face with a red-hot iron, and sent to Ireland : during her stay there, she contrived to obliterate the marks of cruelty, and escaped to England, but was once more taken prisoner here, ham-stringed and cruelly put to death by order of Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Dunstan, her mortal enemies. King Edgar in 964 resided here for a short time, and it is said fought one of his battles against the Danes, who in 997 ravaged the town for the third time. Edmund Ironside, in 1016, having been defeated at Ashdown in Essex or Essedin, came to Gloucester to recruit his forces; Canute followed him, and in a short time the two armies, headed by their respective kings, came in sight of each other at Derhurst, five miles up the Severn; here Edmund challenged the Danish chief to single combat, which Canute declined, urging, “ that under present circumstances, it might be prudent for both to lay aside their resentments and divide the kingdom.” In 1051, Edward the Confessor took up his residence at Gloucester, where Eustace, Earl of Bulloign, who had married the King's sister, magnificently entertained him; and in 1053, Edward held a great assembly of his nobles here, in the ancient building of the monastery; this Monarch also visited Gloucester in 1063, while Harold was employed in reducing the Welch, who had long been accustomed to harass the western borders, and then retire to the safe fastnesses of their mountains. Griffith or Griffin, the reigning Prince, in consequence of the vigorous measures pursued by Harold, was taken, and his head being cut off, was sent on the gilded stern of his own ship to the King at Gloucester. William the Conqueror often held his court and generally spent the Christmas here, attended by the principal nobility and ecclesiastics of the kingdom. From the distinguished selection of Gloucester for these purposes, it seems at that time to have been a place of considerable importance, and in Domesday book the population is stated to be about 1086.
About 1087, the town was nearly consumed by fire, through the disputes which arose between William Rufus and his brother Robert. The city was much injured by the Welch in 1094. In 1101 it was again nearly destroyed by fire, and 25 years after, it experienced a similar calamity; the frequent recurrence of these conflagrations may be attributed to the buildings of that day being chiefly constructed of timber.
It was in this city the Empress Matilda was residing when the Duke of Gloucester brought in prisoner her rival, Stephen, after his defeat at Lincoln; he was confined in the castle of Bristol, till he was exchanged for the Duke, who was captured two years after by the king's troops.
The city again suffered by fire in 1150; and 25 years after, Jorworth, Lord of Caerleon upon Usk, destroved all the country to the gates of Hereford and Gloucester with fire and sword. Henry III., in 1216, then 10 years of age, was crowned in this city, on which occasion a plain circlet or chaplet of gold was used, the crown that the late king had worn having been lost at Wallstream, with the other regalia, in an inundation. King Edward I. held a parliament here, A.D. 1278; the laws then enacted are styled to this day the statutes of Gloucester. Edward II., after having suffered a long and cruel imprisonment, was put to death in Berkeley castle, and buried in the Abbey Church of Gloucester, in 1327. Richard III., immediately after his coronation, came to Gloucester, and continued for some time; from this place he sent an express order to Brackenbury, Governor of the Tower of London, to destroy Edward V. and his brother the Duke of York, but he refusing to comply, the government was entrusted for one night to Tyrrel, who executed the horrid deed. On Whitsun even, 1485, Henry VII. came from Worcester to Gloucester, when he was met three miles from the town, by the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, in scarlet gowns, and a great multitude of people on horseback. A procession of friars and ecclesiastics attended him from between the two bridges; and the abbot and other members of the monastery, at the church door. On the Sunday, the abhot, wearing his mitre, sung high mass, and the bishop of Worcester preached the sermon; on Monday the king left the city.
During the civil wars in the 17th century, Gloucester declared against the royal cause, and various unsuccessful attempts were made to gain possession of the city, one of which was attended by Charles I., who, with the most celebrated of his generals, and a well-appointed army of 30,000 men, besieged it, when there were but 1500 men within the garrison, ill-conditioned, and worse supplied, having only three barrels of gunpowder when unexpectedly relieved by the arrival of the Earl of Essex with his army at a time when the king's forces were prepared for a general storm; and, although the royalists were abundantly provided with battering cannons and ammunition, they fired but few shots in comparison of what might have been expected, and the granadoes which were thrown into the town neither set fire to a house nor killed a person. The last effort made to reduce Gloucester, was by Sir William Vavasour, “who having obtained two culverins from Oxford, with a proportion of powder, advanced with a strong brigade towards Painswick." He made no further progress towards accomplishing his object, except skirmishing with a small guard; either not venturing into the vale where the enemy lay in considerable force, or being recalled to Oxford, in consequence of the defeat of Lord Hopton by Waller, on the 29th March, 1644, between Farnham and Winchester.
His Majesty King George 111. visited the city on the 24th July, 1788. The royal party consisted of the King, Queen, and four Princesses, who alighted at the Bishop's Palace, where a most splendid collation was prepared; his Majesty was graciously pleased to receive the Dean and Chapter, and the Clergy of the diocese; the Mayor and Corporation also attended, with their town-clerk, who addressed his Majesty in the name of that body. The royal party paid visits to the pin manufactory of the late Messrs. Weaver and Co., the Infirmary, and County Gaol, then building. On July 27th, in the same year, their Majesties again came to Gloucester, and attended divine service in the Cathedral; at two o'clock they left for Cheltenham, amid the acclamations of an immense concourse of spectators. The late Prince of Wales honoured Gloucester with a visit October 5th, 1807. His Royal Highness was on a visit at Berkeley Castle. Here the Mayor and Corporation had previously attended, humbly requesting that he would graciously accept the freedom of the city, and honour them with his company to dinner; in consequence of which he received the freedom, in an elegant gold box, at the Tolsey, from the hands of Daniel Willey, Esq. Mayor, and afterwards dined with the Corporation at the King's Head.
Gloucester was made into a bishop's see by Henry VIII. in 1541; it was suppressed by Queen Mary, but re-established by Queen Elizabeth. In the diocese are 393 benefices. The bishop is elected alternately by the respective deans and chapters of Bristol and Gloucester.
The city and suburban parts comprise the parishes of St. Mary De Crypt, St. John the Baptist, St. Michael, St. Mary De Lode, St. Aldates, St. Nicholas, St. Mary De Grace, St. Owen, All Saints or All Hallows, St. Catherine's and Holy Trinity, each of which, the four last excepted, has its respective church.
The Cathedral, which greatly ornaments the city, is justly esteemed one of the finest specimens of Gothic architecture in this kingdom, and was originally the church of a Benedictine abbey, but converted into a cathedral at the Reformation. It is cruciform in its structure, and affords fine examples of the Saxon, Norman, and English styles of architecture. The present building was finished in 1100, by Robert bishop of Hereford, since which it has received divers additions and ornaments. The nave is entered by the west door, and presents every perfection of the architecture of the Norman style.
“The arched and ponderous roof,
By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable,
Looking tranquillity.” Fourteen circular pillars on each side, twenty one feet in circumference, separate the nave from the aisles ; the west window is of large dimensions, and was once ornamented with fine painted glass, which probably got reduced to its present imperfect state during the interregnum. At the termination of the nave is the choir, which presents a beautiful specimen of pointed architecture ; the east window deserves particular notice, it having been built in the grand era of stained glass, and contains 2798 square feet, which at that time was ls. per foot, so that it originally cost £139. 18s. The north transept was built by abbot Horton, about 1370, in the chaste style of that era, while the south, which is of nearly Norman architecture, was built about 1163. Connecting the upper side aisles with the choir is the