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7. oldal - ... habits ; in other words, it must have its laws and institutions adapted to the accomplishment of its great end. On these the characters of its people so mainly depend, that if these be faulty, the whole inner life is corrupted ; if these be good, it is likely to go on healthfully. The history then of a nation's internal life, is the history of its institutions and of its laws...
1. oldal - is the ideal they propose to themselves/ To estimate the vast importance of the Reformation as a political and social movement, we need only to study carefully the History of France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It appears trite and commonplace to remark that a living unity is better than a dead uniformity, or that an enduring national prosperity can co-exist only with the perfect liberty of the subject. But from the...
3. oldal - Churcn was transformed into a spiritual State, and the State into a kind of temporal Church. In a struggle between two great powers, the interests of one or the other become necessarily dominant. France, even daring the most brilliant period of the Gallican* Church, never attempted the most feeble approximation to a pure theocracy : the interests of the State remained always the most powerful. But in its centralized administration the uniform government was eager to avail itself of the assistance...
8. oldal - ... theology, simple and artless, believing in the Pope, and at the same time waging war with his agents. The moral of these Chronicles was the will of God, chastising all sin by temporary reverses ; while success in war was considered as synonymous with His favour. A century elapsed between these Memoirs and those of De Joinville, during which time two hundred poets and troubadours sang of love or the glories of the monarchy, and Christianity was allowed to rule over Christendom in one hierarchy...
8. oldal - Geofiry de Villehardouin, who gives an account of the Crusades under Innocent III., allow us a curious insight into the history of this period. The spirit of the thirteenth century, the romantic age of religion and war, when everything was done by impulse, was calculated to manifest the peculiar traits of French character. The knights of these times were Christians without theology, simple and artless, believing in the Горе, and at the same time waging war with his agents.
8. oldal - ... observed, a striking analogy to those religious revolutions whose intense excitement will bring together or separate the most various characters of every language and climate. Just as Schiller has remarked, that the Thirty Years' War had the effect of uniting the most different people in the closest bonds of sympathy ; so the French Revolution operated in a similar manner through the violent passions of the time. In studying the early history of the European nations, we have remarked that England...
6. oldal - The absorption of the individual by the State is fatal to the independence of the subject. We have no better instance of the excessive uniformity which renders the productions of their best writers fatiguing and monotonous, than in the brilliant literary mechanism of the age of Louis XIV. All progress, as Mr. Buckle has remarked, is impossible with an exaggerated centralization. The sentiment of a paternal government, anxious for the welfare of its children, is charming only at a distance. On a nearer...
11. oldal - ... drawn by our popular novelist, and who was an instrument destined to realize the ideas and to satisfy the anticipations of the burgesses. Philip de Comines has left us an impartial picture of the character of that master whom he regarded with a mixture of admiration and fear, of affection and defiance. He gives us the most exact idea of this singular man, who so abased his subjects that he went in his severity beyond the most cruel exigencies of envy ; and who so humbled his victims that no generous...
8. oldal - ... so the French Revolution operated in a similar manner through the violent passions of the time. In studying the early history of the European nations, we have remarked that England is the country where feudality has borne the most lasting fruit in its parliamentary government and equable division of power. Thus, in examining the political institutions of the Middle Ages in England, France, and Germany, we are struck by the marvellous similitude between the laws and institutions of peoples so...