spend all their days in lonesome deserts, and to give themselves up to religious contemplations and exercises of devotion. Some sorts of them had no dwellings, but the caves and the vaults of the mountains, and no food, but the spontaneous productions of the earth. I once lived, for many months, next door to a Jew, (the houses adjoining one to another,) and had much opportunity daily to observe him ; who appeared to me the devoutest person that ever I saw in my life; great part of his time being spent in acts of devotion, at his eastern window, which opened next to mine, seeming to be most earnestly engaged, not only in the day-time, but sometimes whole nights.


Nothing can be certainly known of the nature of religious Affec

tions, that they may much dispose persons with their mouths to praise and glorify God.

This indeed is implied in what has been just now observed of abounding and spending much time in the external exercises of religion, and was also binted before ; but because many seem to look upon it as a bright evidence of gracious affection, when persons appear greatly disposed to praise and magnify God, to have their mouths full of his praises, and affectionately to be calling on others to praise and extol him, I thought it deserved a more particular consideration.

No Christian will make it an argument against a person, that he seems to have such a disposition. Nor can it reasonably be looked upon as an evidence for a person, if those things which have been already observed and proved be duly considered, viz. that persons without grace may bave high affections towards God and Christ, and that there may be counterfeits of all kinds of gracious affection. But it will appear more evidently and directly, that this is no certain sign of grace, if we consider what instances the scripture gives us of it in those that were graceless. We often have an account of this in the multitude that were present when Christ preached and wrought miracles; Mark ii. 12. And immediately he arose, took up his bed, and went forth before them all, insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion. So Matt. ix. 8. and Luke v. 26. Also Matth. xv. 31. Insomuch that the multitude wondered when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see : and they glorified the God of Israel. So we are told, that on occasion of Christ raising the son of the widow of Nain, Luke vii. 16. There came a fear on all; and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us ; and, That God hath visited his people. So we read of their glorifying Christ, or speaking exceeding highly of him, Luke iv. 15. And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all. And how did they praise him with loud voices

, crying, Hosanna to the son of David, hosanna in the highest; blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, a little before he was crucified! And after Christ's ascension, when the apostles had healed the impotent man, we are told, that all men glorified God for that which was done, Acts iv. 21. When the Gentiles in Antioch of Pisidia, heard from Paul and Barnabas, that God would reject the Jews, and take the Gentiles to be his people in their room, they were affected with this goodness of God to the Gentiles, and glorified the word of the Lord. Yet, all that did so were not true believers; but only a certain elect number of them; as is intimated, Acts xiji. 48. And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord ; and as many as were ordained to eternal life, believed. Israel, at the Red sea, sang God's praise; but soon forgat his works. And the Jews in Ezekiel's time, with their mouth shewed much love, while their heart went after their covetousness. And it is foretold of false professors, and real enemies of religion, that they should shew a forwardness to glorify God; Is. lxvi. 5. Hear the word of the Lord, ye that tremble at his word, Your brethren that hatcd

you, that cast you out for my name's sake, said, Let the Lord be glorified.

It is no certain sign that a person is graciously affected, if in the midst of hopes and comforts he is greatly affected with God's unmerited mercy to him that is so unworthy, and seems greatly to extol and magnify free grace. Those that yet remain with unmortified pride and enmity against God, may–when they imagine that they have received extraordinary kindness from God-deplore their unworthiness, and magnify God's undeserved goodness to them. Yet this may arise from no other conviction of their ill-deservings, and from no higher principle, than Saul bad, who-while he remained with unsubdued pride and enmity against David-was brought, though a king, to acknowledge his unworthiness, and cry out, I have played the fool, I have erred exceedingly. And with what great affection and admiration does he magnify and extol David's unmerited and unexampled kindness to him, 1 Sam. xxvi. 16-19. and xxvi. 21. Nebuchadnezzar is affected with God's dispensations, and praises, extols and honours the King of heaven; and both he, and Darius, in their high affections, call upon all nations to praise God, Dan. iii. 20—30. and iv. 1-3. 34, 35, 37. and vi. 25-27.


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It is no sign that Affections are right, or that they are wrong, that

they make persons exceeding confident.

It is an argument with some, that persons are deluded if they pretend to be assured of their good estate, and to be carried beyond all doubting of the favour of God; supposing that there is no such thing to be expected, as a full and absolute assurance of hope ; unless it be in some very extraordinary circumstances; as in the case of martyrdom. But this is contrary to the doctrine of Protestants, which has been maintained by their most celebrated writers against the Papists; and contrary to the plainest scripture-evidence. It is manifest, that it was a common thing for the saints of whom we have a particular account in scripture, to be assured. God, in the plainest and most positive manner, revealed and testified his special favour to Noab, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Daniel, and others. Job often speaks of his sincerity and uprightness with the greatest imaginable confidence and assurance, often calling God to witness it; and says plainly, I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that I shall see him for myself, and not another, Job. xix. 25, &c. David, throughout the book of Psalms, speaks without hesitancy, and in the most positive manner, of God as his God; glorying in him as his portion and heritage, his rock and confidence, his shield, salvation, high tower, and the like. Hezekiah appeals to God, as one that knew

. he had walked before him in truth, and with a perfect heart, 2 Kings xx. 3. Jesus Christ, in his dying discourse with his eleven disciples, John xiy-xvi. (which was as it were Christ's last will and testament to his disciples, and to his whole church) often declares his special and everlasting love to them, in the plainest and most positive terms; and promises them a future participation with him in his glory, in the most absolute manner. And he tells them, at the same time, that he does so to this end, that their joy might be full; John xv. 11. These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full. See also at the conclusion of his whole discourse, chap. xvi. 33. These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation : but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world. Christ was not afraid of speaking too plainly and positively to them; he did not desire to hold them in the least suspense. And he concluded that last discourse with a prayer in their presence; wherein he speaks positively to his Father of those eleven disciples, as having savingly known him, believed in him, and received and kept his word. He de


clares, that they were not of the world ; that for their sakes he sanctified himself; and that his will was, that they should be with him in his glory. And tells his Father, that he spake these things in his prayer, to the end, that his joy might be fulfilled in them, ver. 13. By these things it is evident, that it is agreeable to Christ's designs, that there should be sufficient provision made, for his sainis to have full assurance of their future glory.

The apostle Paul, through all his epistles, speaks in an assured strain ; ever asserting his special relation to Christ, his Lord, Master, and Redeemer, with his interest in, and expectation of the future reward. It would be endless to take notice of all places that might be enumerated; I shall mention but three or four: Gal. ii. 20. Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. Phil. i. 21. ,

Phil. i. 21. For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 2 Tim. i. 12. I know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day. 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me at that day.

The nature of the covenant of grace, and God's declared ends in the appointment and constitution of things in that covenant, plainly shew it to be God's design to make ample provision for the saints having an assured hope of eternal life, while living bere upon earth. For so are all things ordered in that covenant, that every thing might be made sure on God's part. The covenant is ordered in all things and sure: the promises are most full, very often repeated, and various ways exhibited; there are many witnesses, and many seals; and God has confirmed his promises with an oath. God's declared design in all this is, that the heirs of the promises might have an undoubting hope, and full joy, in an assurance of their future glory. Heb. vi. 17, 18. Wherein God willing more abundantly to show unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us. But all this would be in vain, for any such purpose as the saints strong consolation, and their hope of obtaining future glory, if their interest in those sure promises in ordinary cases were not attainable. For God's promises and oaths, let them be as sure as they will, cannot give strong bope and comfort to any particular person, any further than he can know that those promises are made to him. And in vain is provision made in Jesus Christ, that believers might be perfect, as pertaining to the conscience, Heb. ix. 9. if assurance of freedom from the guilt of sin is not attainable.

It further appears, that assurance is attainable in ordinary cases, in that all Christians are directed to give all diligence to make their calling and election sure, and are told how they may do it, 2 Pet. i. 5-8. And it is spoken of as a thing very unbecoming Christians, and an argument of something very blameable in them, not to know whether Christ be in them or no, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Know ye not your ouenselves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates ? And it is implied, that it is a very blameable negligence in Christians, if they practise Christianity after such a manner as to remain uncertain of the reward, 1 Cor. ix. 26. I therefore so run, as not uncertainly. And, to add no more, it is manifest, that Christians knowing their interest in the saving benefits of Christianity, is a thing ordinarily attainable, because the apostles tell us by what means Christians (and not only apostles and martyrs) were wont to know this ; Cor. ii. 12. Now we have received, not the Spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. And i John ii. 3. And hereby we do know

. that we know him, if we keep his commandments. And ver. 5. Hereby know we that we are in him. Chap. iii. 14. We knowo that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. Verse 19. Flereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. Verse 24. Hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he has given us. (So Chap. iv. 13. and Chap. v. 2, 19.)

Therefore it must needs be very unreasonable to determine, that persons are hypocrites, and their affections wrong, because they seem to be out of doubt respecting their own salvation, and their affections seem to banish all sears of hell.

On the other hand, it is no sufficient reason to determine that men are saints, and their affections gracious, because they are attended with confidence that their state is good, and their affections divine*. Nothing can be certainly argued from their confidence, how great and strong soever it be. A man may boldly call God

* "O professor, look carefully to your foundation : be not high-minded, but fear. You have, it may be; done and suffered many things in and for religion; you have excellent gifts and sweet comforts: a warm zeal for God, and high confidence of your integrity: all this may be right, for ought that I, or (it may be) you koow; but yet, it is possible it may be false also. You have sometimes judged yourselves, and pronounced yourselves upright; but remember your final sentence is not yet pronounced by your Judge. And what if God weigh you over again, in his more equal balance, and should say, “Mene, Tekel, Thou art weighed in the balance, and art found wanting ?" What a confounded man wilt thou be, under such a sentence! Quæ resplendent in conspectu hominis, surulent in conspectu Judicis ; Things that are highly esteemed of men, are an abommation in the sight of God; he seeth not as men seeth. Thy heart may be false, and thou not know it : yea, it may be false, and thou strongly confident of its integrity.” (Flavel's Touchstone of Sincerity, Chap. ii. sect. 5.

“ Some hypocrites are a great deal more confident than many saints.” (Stoddard's • Discourse on the way to know Sincerity and Hypocrisy,' p. 128) VOL. V.


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