Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations
Oxford University Press, 1992. okt. 22. - 496 oldal
Not everything that can be said in one language can be said in another. The lexicons of different languages seem to suggest different conceptual universes. Investigating cultures from a universal, language-independent perspective, this book rejects analytical tools derived from the English language and Anglo culture and proposes instead a "natural semantic metalanguage" formulated in English words but based on lexical universals. The outcome of two and a half decades of research, the metalanguage is made up of universal semantic primitives in terms of which all meanings--including the most culture-specific ones--can be described and compared in a precise and illuminating way. Integrating insights from linguistics, cultural anthropology, and cognitive psychology, and written in simple, non-technical language, Semantics, Culture, and Cognition is accessible not only to scholars and students, but also to the general reader interested in semantics and the relationship between language and culture.
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adjective affectionate appears applies aspects attitude Australian basic believe called chapter character clearly close combination component concept construction contrast convey courageous course culture defined definitions derived described destiny diminutive discussion duša emotion English equivalent example explication expressive fact fate FATHER feel felt feminine formula French German girl given happen hard heart human idea imply important interpretation kind language less lexical linguistic linked masculine meaning mind moral MOTHER names natural one's particular perhaps person Polish positive possible present proposed question quoted reason reference reflected relationship respect Russian Schicksal seems seen semantic sense sentences short forms similar social soft someone sorte soul sound speaker stem sudba suffix suggest things thought tion translated universal unmarked usually verbs want to speak whereas woman word
4. oldal - It was found that the background linguistic system (in other words, the grammar) of each language is not merely a reproducing instrument for voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas, the program and guide for the individual's mental activity, for his analysis of impressions, for his synthesis of his mental stock in trade.
4. oldal - It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language, and that language is merely an incidental means of solving specific problems of communication or reflection. The fact of the matter is that the "real world" is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.
4. oldal - We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way — an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language.
4. oldal - Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. . . . The fact of the matter is that the "real world" is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.
4. oldal - The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds — and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds.
4. oldal - social reality'. Though language is not ordinarily thought of as of essential interest to the students of social science, it powerfully conditions all our thinking about social problems and processes. Human beings do not live in the objective world alone...