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: The sub-orders of this Class are well defined in all those occupations which we are accustomed to regard as strictly Professional. It is in the third Order that we encounter a vague and imperfect classification after we have passed the clear distinctions of the three learned Professions. Authors and Literary Persons," numbering only 3,580, cannot surely comprise all who write books, or are contributors to Reviews and Magazines, or are Journalists. If any of us look at the question by the light of our individual experience, we shall immediately see that there are countless numbers who are writers, but who take a more definite rank as clergymen, lawyers, or medical

In the same way we may judge of the return of “Scientific Persons.” At a period when female authors were never so numerous, it is startling to find only 185 ladies who claim to rank amongst literary persons.

The host of Novelists, Poetesses, Biographers, belong, no doubt, to the Domestic Class, and find their place in the Census amongst those who are engaged in the duties pertaining to the Wives, Mothers, or Children, of the English households. Let us hope and believe that the literary ambition does not exempt them from the due discharge of these family obligations. The female artists and musicians are strictly professional; but some addition must also be made to their number from the Domestic Class. The eighth sub-order is a large one, and exhibits some striking results. Out of a hundred and ten thousand Teachers, eighty thousand are females. The four great divisions of female Teachers comprise-Schoolmistress, 37,669; Teacher of Languages, 982 ; General Teacher, 16,290; Governess, 24,770. The period of life at which employment is found for educated women as teachers is worthy of note. Under 20 years of age there are-schoolmistresses, 2,257; general teachers, 9,499; and governesses, 3,202. We may ascribe the large proportion of the general teachers to the system of pupil teachers in national schools. The ages of those designated as governess—as we may trace them on the returns from under 20 years even to 90show that the notion of a governess having some affinity to the ancient duenna of comedy would now be an anachronism. The largest number are under 25 years; the next largest, under 30 ; whilst up to 40 the number rapidly decreases. From 40 to 55 there are not more than comprised in the return of those under 20. reasonably conclude, therefore, that the profession of governess is rarely a permanent occupation for life, and that the majority are gradually absorbed into the Domestic Class, and become the happier teachers of their own children. We say happier, because the true complement of a woman's happiness is in the position of wife and mother. But we do not believe that the condition of governess is one especially subject to the mortifications which are inflicted by ignorant and purse-proud employers. There has been, no doubt, good cause for the dark colours in which the haughty middle-class mistress has been painted. The position of an educated female, who is superior in intellect and acquirements to the rich people who pay her for her services, is an anomalous one, and has its unavoidable troubles. But good sense will soon obtain the victory over class prejudices and individual arrogance,

We may

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II. DOMESTIC CLAss. -- Of this largest division of the Population there are two Orders., viz., of persons engaged in the domestic offices or duties of Wives, Mothers, Mistresses of Families, Children's Relatives, and of persons engaged in entertaining, and performing personal offices for man, The one numbers 10,058,938 persons ; the other, 1,367,782.

The information contained in the tabular arrangement requires little illustration. We subjoin a brief analysis of the sub-order of Domestic Servants, &c. Of the male persons whose occupation is to be in attendance," there are—Domestic Servant (not particularly designated), 62,076; Coachman, 11,897; Groom, 21,396; Gardener, 14,621; Servant at Inn, Clubhouse, Dining-room, 24,453. Of female Domestic Servants, there areGeneral Servant, 644,271 ; Housekeeper, 66,406; Cook, 77,822 ; Housemaid, 102,462; Nurse, 67,785; Laundry-maid, 4,040; Hotel, Clubhouse, Dining-room Servant, 14,145; Hospital, Lunatic-Asylum, Attendant, Nurse, 2,797 ; Nurse, not Domestic Servant, 24,821; Charwoman, 65,273.

In England and Wales, in 1831, there were 104,370 male servants ; and 560,979 female. In 1861, there were 137,447 male servants, and 1,071,201 female. In 1831, the total population of England and Wales was about 14,000,000; in 1861, it was about 20,000,000.

We see, therefore, that the increase of female servants has been in a much greater proportion than the increase of population. The female population was about, 7,000,000 in 1831; the female servants were about sth of the total females. In 1861, the female population was about 10,000,000 ; the females servants were about oth of the total females. This is, in itself, a striking proof of the increase of the means of household expenditure amongst the middle classes.

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20 Years of Age and

Upwards.

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90,064
29,425
120,855
15.967
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Females.

1,683

46

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1,739

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Under 20 Years of Age.

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11,544

6,1281
20,550

4,1281
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III. COMMERCIAL CLASS.—This comprises two Orders. One, that of persons who buy or sell, keep, or lend money, houses, or goods of various kinds. The other, of

persons engaged in the conveyance of men, animals, goods, and messages. The Order, No. 6, with its two sub-orders, requires no comment. The Order, No. 7, with its six sub-orders, is suggestive of a great change that has taken place in this country since the Census of 1831. The sub-order, No. 1, that of Carriers on Railways, exhibits a large

of employment wholly created in little more than a quarter of a century. It comprises all direct Railway employments, viz., Enginedriver, Stoker, 10,414; Clerk, Station-master, &c., 14,547 ; Porter and other Railway-Company's Servant, 26,727; Railway Police, 1,444. The sub-order, No. 2, includes amongst

“ Carriers Roads,” Toll-collectors, Coach and Cab Owners, and Livery-stable Keepers. The actual ministers of the

wheel comprise-Coachman (not Domestic Servant), 17,251 ; Cabman, Flyman, 9,055; Carman, Carrier, Carter, Drayman, 67,070. The race of post-boy, if not wholly worn out, has no place in this catalogue. It is remarkable that, no doubt owing to the universal desire to have a genteel occupation recorded in the Census, we have only 87 donkey keepers and drivers.

The sub-order, No. 3, is equally significant of a great change. We have now, “engaged in Canal and Inland Navigation Service” only 4,165 persons, as compared with 53,542 in direct employment on Railways. The 35,817 persons of

this sub-order is made up by Bargemini

men, Lightermen, and Watermen, in number exceeding 31,000.

53,385

35,553
I41, 405
20,095

79,140
104,054 101,608

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24,416
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Persons.

53,542)

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IV. AGRICULTURAL CLASS. — This Class is divided into two Orders, the first amounting to 1,924,110 persons; the second, to 86,344. The sub-orders sufficiently define the orders. It is noted, however, in the Census, that in addition to those here returned, many persons connected with the land, as proprietors or

occupiers, are returned under other heads, ő according to their professions or occupa

tions. The distinctive employments of males in the first sub-order are—Land Proprietor, 15,131 ; Farmer, Grazier, 226,957; Farmer's son, grandson, brother, nephew, 92,321; Farm-bailiff, 15,698; Agricultural Labourer, out-door, 914:301; Shepherd, out-door, 25,559; Farm-servant, in-door, 158,401. There are also of Land Surveyors, &c., 4,702; and, an entirely new denomination, --Agricultural Student, 490. The mechanised improvements of modern husbandry are indicated by 236 Agricultural-Implements Proprietors, and 1,205 Agricultural Engine and Machine workers. 1,761 persons are also returned as belonging to Land Drainage service, not in towns. Of the two other suborders, there are Woodman, 8,907; Gardener, not domestic servant, 76,760. Of fernale Agriculturists, there are, Land Proprietor, 15,635; Farmer, Grazier, 22,778; Farmer's, Grazier's Wife, 163,765; relatives living on the farm, 83,830 ; Agricultural Labourer, out-door, 43,964 ; Farm servant, in-door, 46,561.

The great fact connected with the Agricultural Class is, that the Labourers are not increasing relatively to the increase of population. It has been held, indeed, that there is a positive decrease within the last few years. Some apprehension has been felt that this fact is one of the symptoms of national decay. It may be viewed as an evidence of the direct contrary. Scientific improvements are turning the mere physical labour into skilled labour, and the condition of the farm labourer will be proportionately improved. As the improvement goes on he will obtain better wages, more food, and some better home than a ruinous hovel.

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V. This Class is denominated INDUSTRIAL. The name is not very happily chosen; for it might seem to imply that other Classes are not so emphatically engaged in carrying on the Industry of the country. It comprises all our manufacturing community, as well as those who follow the production of the material to work it up into almost infinite forms of utility and beauty. The principle upon which the six orders of this class are formed is clearly shown in the following synopsis :

Persons.

953,289

2,231,617

V. Industrial Classes.
10. Persons engaged in ART and MECHANIC Pro-

ductions, in which Matters of various kinds

are employed in combination
11. Persons working and dealing in the TEXTILE

FABRICS and in DRESS -
12. Persons working and dealing in Food and

DRINKS
13. Persons working and dealing in ANIMAL SUB-

STANCES
14. Persons working and dealing in VEGETABLE

SUBSTANCES
15. Persons working and dealing in MINERALS

430, 220

56,092

144,184 1,012,997

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Nearly five millions of people we thus see are engaged in ministering to the wants of the community and to their own wants, in employments which in their boundless ramifications are the wonders of civilization. We may be enabled to comprehend from this glance how it is that the sudden misfortune which befell our cotton manufacture did not leave the nation prostrate; how, on the contrary, its commercial power has seemed undiminished.

We have no direct means of comparing the occupations comprised in the 48 sub-orders of Class V., with the industrial pursuits of the producers and distributors at any early period of our history. As a matter of curiosity, let us see what the Trades of London were, as represented by its Companies, of which the following is a list :

Mercers.

Grinders. Grocers.

Butchers. Drapers.

Saddlers. Fishmongers.

Carpenters. Goldsmiths.

Cordwainers. Skinners.

Painter-stainers. Merchant Tailors. Curriers. Haberdashers.

Masons, Salters.

Plumbers. Ironmongers.

Innholders. Vintners.

Founders. Clothworkers.

Poulterers. Dyers.

Cooks. Brewers.

Coopers Leathersellers. Bricklayers. Pewterers.

Boyers. Barbers.

Fletchers, Cutlers.

Blacksmiths. Bakers.

Joiners. Wax Chandlers. Weavers. Tallow Chandlers. Woolmen. Armourers and Bra- Scriveners. ziers.

Fruiterers,

Plasterers.

Needle-makers.
Stationers.

Gardeners.
Broderers.

Soap-makers.
Upholders.

Tinplate-workers.
Musicians.

Wheelwrights.
Turners.

Distillers.
Basket-makers. Hat-band makers.
Glaziers.

Patten-makers.
Horners.

Glass-sellers.
Farriers.

Tobacco Pipe-makers.
Paviors.

Coach and HarnessLorimers.

makers.
Apothecaries.

Gun-makers.
Shipwrights.

Wire-drawers.
Spectacle-makers. Long Bowstring-ma-
Clock-makers.

kers. Glovers.

Playing-card-makers.
Comb-makers.

Fan-makers.
Felt-makers.

Woodmongers.
Frame-workKnitters. Starch-makers.
Silk-throwers.

Fishermen.
Silkmen.

Parish Clerks.
Pin-makers.

Carmen.

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