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XIV.-CHRONICLE OF OCCURRENCES.
From October 1862 to November 1863. Oct. 23, 1862. In China the Imperialists sent a force from Ningpo, which succeeded in beating the Taepings out of Kah-sing, and on the 24th they took another town.
Nov. 7. A financial statement of the Empire of Austria for the year 1863, and the Report of a Special Committee, were laid before the Chamber of Deputies at Vienna, thus practically acknowledging the right of the representatives of the people to control the finances of the Empire.
9. An address to the Pope published at Turin, signed by 8,943 members of the Italian clergy, praying him to give up Rome as the metropolis of the new kingdom, and restore peace to Italy.
23. Prince Alfred declared King of Greece at Athens; but Russia declared, as early as Oct. 19, that all the families of the Protecting Powers were excluded from the throne. On Dec. 1, the Government ordered a plebiscite to be taken for the election of a King, the reason for the order being stated to be, that the English Government had declared that Prince Alfred would not accept.
Dec. 1. Message of President Lincoln to the Congress of the United States. In it he proposes a convention of all the States to revise the Constitution; enounces the freedom of slaves who have made their way within the lines of the Federal army; informs it that he has a balance of 14 million dollars in the treasury; that the expenditure had been 570 million dollars, of which, however, only a small part had been raised by taxation, and the rest by loan.
20. After a continuous increase of pauperism for eight months in the Cotton Districts, from this date began a slow and not always uninterrupted decrease. In April the number of persons on the relief books of the suffering Unions was 105,000; at the end of November it was 270,000, with, in the early part of December, a farther increase of between 4,000 and 5,000. To relieve this distress, on Dec. 20, the amount received by the Central Relief Fund had been 407,8301., and by the Mansion House Fund 236,9261. ; in addition to contributions in other forms than that of money, and of that raised by assessment. The number receiving relief, as stated above, only includes those on the parish books; but many thousands struggled on without applying to the parish, though not refusing to accept relief from the Voluntary Contribution Funds.
Jan. 9, 1863. Buncher, Burnett, Williams, and Griffiths, four men charged at the Central Criminal Court with committing forgeries to a large amount on the Bank of England, chiefly by means of paper expressly manufactured for the Bank, which had been stolen, were found guilty, and sentenced to penal imprisonment.—The British Legation at Rio Janeiro having demanded in vain an indemnity for the plunder of a British vessel wrecked on the coast, and also an apology for the imprisonment of some British naval officers, caused five merchant vessels to be seized. The vessels were given up, on an undertaking to pay the indemnity to be settled in London ; the other question was referred to the arbitration of the King of the Belgians.
14. The Prussian Chambers opened their session at Berlin. The King's message stated that the financial condition of the country was satisfactory; that sanction would be asked for expenses incurred without their previous concurrence; and hoped that a durable understanding might be arrived at on the questions which had remained unsolved in the previous session. On the 22nd, in the Chamber of Deputies an address to the King was proposed, complaining that “the ministers have carried on the public administration against the constitution, and without a legal budget;" adding, that “our position imposes on us the most urgent duty of solemnly declaring that peace at home and power abroad can only be restored to the government by returning to a constitutional state of things." This
address was the subject of debate on several days, and was carried, although the President of the Council, Herr von Bismark, said, “The Prussian ministry is quite different from the English. The latter, call it what you will, is only the ministry of the Parliament, but we are the ministers of the King."
22. The insurrection in Poland began on this day. A conscription for the Russian army had been carried on for two or three days, and had been submitted to quietly, until it was discovered in Warsaw that, instead of the usual plan, a selection was being made of all the young men of education and suspected of patriotic feelings. On this being ascertained, the young men left their homes in the town, withdrew to the woods, provided themselves with arms, and prepared for resistance. The discovery of the plan pursued by the Russian government aroused such general indignation, that in many places the Russian soldiers, stationed in small
numbers, were massacred on this and the two or three following nights. The insurrection spread rapidly throughout the kingdom. The insurgents broke up the railways, cut the telegraph wires, and dispersing themselves in small bodies, embarrassed the movements of the Russian military forces, and frequently succeeded in defeating them with considerable loss.
Feb. 3. The King of Prussia replies to the Lower Chamber: he refuses to the people the right to control the financial expenditure by means of their representatives.
4. The National Assembly of Greece declared the throne to be forfeited by Otho and his family; and that Prince Alfred of England had been elected King of the Greeks by 230,000 votes. On the same day it was
stated in the Coburger Zeitung' that the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, who had e been proposed, had finally declined its acceptance.
March 6. The Princess Alexandra of Denmark arrived at the Nore, and on the 7th landed at Gravesend, where she was received with every demonstration of delight. The Prince of Wales met her there, and the
corporation and inhabitants presented an address to each. They came to *the Bricklayers' Arms station by rail, and thence proceeded in an open
carriage, with a large suite of attendants, through a continued crowd of welcoming spectators. At London Bridge, where a triumphal arch had been erected, they were met by the City Corporation in state, who pre
ceded the procession, which had literally to force its way through the * immense crowd which had flocked to meet them. Almost every house
was adorned with banners or devices, and at length the procession reached Temple Bar. Here, disencumbered of the civic pomp, a quicker progress was made, and through applauding multitudes the royal carriages passed
the Strand, and by Hyde Park, which was lined by Volunteers, they * arrived at the Great Western Station, like that of the Bricklayers' Arms, » richly decorated, and thence by rail to Windsor. The only drawback to $the general joy was that, through mismanagement, the crowd in the City had been so dense that several persons lost their lives.
10. The marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Princess Alexandra ( took place at Windsor, which they left in the afternoon for Osborne,
receiving at Southampton addresses from the town. The event was cele
brated by illuminations and festivities in every town and almost every de village in the United Kingdom. In the City of London lives were again
lost, through the pressure of the crowd.-Langiewicz, proclaimed Dictator i of Poland, issues a proclamation calling on all Poles to arm against the domination of Russian barbarism.
18. After two successful engagements with the Russians, on the 16th and 17th, Langiewicz was again attacked at Zagoscie, and, after a desperate fight, the insurgents were defeated and dispersed. Langiewicz, with about 900 of his adherents, succeeded in crossing the Austrian frontier. He was lodged in the castle of Cracow, and the men were disarmed and imprisoned.-Prince William George of Denmark elected King of Greece by the National Assembly, and on the 30th unanimously proclaimed as George the First, and France and England approve of the nomination.
30. The King of Denmark issues a proclamation for consolidating and giving a constitution to all his European dominions, exclusive of those belonging to the Confederation of Germany. Holstein is to have an independent army, and to share with the rest of the monarchy in the general burthens, of which the details are to be laid before the Ěstates for their decision.—The Bilbao-Tudela railway in Spain opened for traffic.
31. The French enter Puebla after a bombardment of four days. On May 17 the whole town surrendered to the French. April 3. The Sultan of Turkey left Constantinople on a visit to Egypt
, having first decided to adhere to his present policy regarding the Suez Canal, and to forbid forced labour. He arrived at Alexandria on the Sth. The town was illuminated in his honour, and he declared that he came but as a guest. He left Egypt on May 18.
5. Birth of a Prince to the Princess Louisa of Hesse. 6. Grand field-day of the Volunteers at Brighton.
7. England, France, and Austria send separate notes to Petersburg, in a joint sense, respecting Poland, remonstrating against the cruelties of Russia.--The siege of Charleston commenced by the Federals.
14. Replies of Prince Gortschakoff to the notes of England and France in favour of Poland. In both he attributes the revolt to the revolutionary tendencies with which Europe is infected, “which are the curse of our age, and are now concentrated in this country.” To England he complains of the continual conspiracy which is being organized and armed abroad, to keep up disorder in the kingdom.”
16. The German Federal Diet at Frankfort had under consideration the ordinance of the King of Denmark, when the President entered a protest, to which the Diet assented, against the assertion of the King that the Diet had no right to interfere in the question of the Duchies.
22. Prince Christian of Denmark announced that, the obstacles being removed, he accepted definitively the crown of Greece for his son. The King informed the Rigsraad that his ordinance of March 30 had been opposed by the Great Powers of Germany, but that Denmark would not allow itself to be diverted from the intentions it had adopted by that circumstance.- An earthquake at Rhodes, causing the destruction of 2,000 houses, and killing and injuring thousands of the inhabitants.
May 12. Radama II., King of Madagascar, assassinated, and his widow, Rabidon, proclaimed queen. Religious liberty was to be maintained; but the parties supporting the queen were the adherents of the old religion.
26. Herat captured by the forces of Mahomet Khan of Afghanistan, who died within a few weeks of this his last success, leaving the succession to his throne to be disputed by two of his sons.
June 1. The elections for the French Legislative Chamber were closed this day, and the result was that opposition members were chosen for each of the arrondissements of Paris, and in several departments of the country, so that the opposition is raised from five to between forty and fifty.
10. Inauguration of the Great Exhibition Memorial to Prince Albert in the Horticultural Gardens by the Prince of Wales, with an imposing ceremony: the Queen had privately inspected the Memorial on the previous day.-The French, under Gen. Forey, enter the city of Mexico, the Presi. dent, Juarez, and the legislature retiring to San Juan Potosi. Gen. Forey reports that the French army received an enthusiastic welcome.
18. The King of the Belgians, in his award on-the Brazilian dispute regarding the arrest of some naval officers in undress, said, “That in the mode in which the laws of Brazil have been applied towards the English officers there was neither premeditation of offence nor offence to the British Navy.”
22. Captains Grant and Speke were received at an extra meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, on their return from exploring the source of the Nile.
24. After a trial in the Court of Exchequer, lasting three days, the case of the Alexandra, seized for an infringement of the Foreign Enlist
ment Act, was decided in favour of the defendants, and against the seizure.
July 1. Prince Gortschakoff replies to the English note, rejecting the six propositions in favour of Poland, which had been submitted by the English ministry to the Russian Government.
1, 2, & 3. Battle of Gettysburg, in which the Confederates failed to defeat the Federals, and retired on the 4th. On the 4th Port Hudson, on the Mississippi, surrendered.
2. An earthquake at Manilla, by which a great part of the town was destroyed, and about a thousand lives lost.
15. The tribe of the Waikatoes, dwelling near Auckland, New Zealand, commence an outbreak by murdering two settlers. On the 17th, General Cameron, with 500 men, had an action with a large force of the natives, who fought desperately, availing themselves of rifle-pits, but who were at length defeated with great loss. On the same day a small party, forming an escort to a convoy of stores, were attacked by a native ambuscade, and forced to retreat, after having three of the party killed and ten wounded. On the 22nd the native settlement of Kiri-Kiri was attacked and taken, after a vigorous defence, by Gen. Cameron's troops, who in the two actions
had four killed and fourteen wounded. From this time the Maoris would : not meet the British forces in the field, but through July and August con
tinued to ravage the province. The colonists, however, rose in their own defence, and in a few weeks there were 4,000 volunteers and militia, fully armed. The native warriors were estimated at 7,500.
20. Mexico proclaimed as an Empire by an Assembly of Notables, with the Archduke Maximilian of Austria as Ėmperor. A deputation was appointed to wait on him and tender the crown.
24. After a trial lasting eight days, the cause of Roupell and another versus Haws and another (in which William Roupell, late M.P. for Lambeth, came forward from prison, again to avow the commission of forgeries, by which property transferred thereby would have been regained by his family) was terminated by the jury finding the second will and the deed of gift to be forgeries; but differing as to the signature of the testator, and whether the first will devised the estate to the plaintiff, they had to be discharged without a verdict.
Aug. 15. No satisfaction having been obtained from either the Mikado or Tycoon of Japan, for the murder of Mr. Richardson in Sept. 1862 by the adherents of the Prince of Satsuma, who had withdrawn to his principality, a British squadron was despatched, under Admiral Kuper, to reduce bis fortified town of Kagosima. On this day it commenced a bombardment, which was vigorously replied to by the forts; but by dusk the town was in flames, and three of the forts silenced. On the following day the attack was renewed; the town was reduced to a mass of ruins; the palace, arsenal, factories, and three steam-vessels utterly destroyed.' The British lost two captains and eleven seamen killed, and thirty-nine wounded.
17. First meeting of the Frankfort Congress, assembled by the Emperor of Austria, to consider of a plan for the reformation of the federal condition of Germany. Prussia declined to appear.
Sept. 1. The Congress of Princes held at Frankfort terminated; but the Emperor expressed satisfaction with the result, and hoped that a second Congress would soon follow. In the General Congress six states voted against the Austrian project.
3. A body of about 700 Poles, under Lelewel, made an attack on a much superior force of the Russian army. After a severe contest the Russians retreated, but the loss of the Poles was severe: of their whole number 100 were killed. On the 6th, the Poles found themselves again surrounded by a superior force. Another battle was fought, in which Lelewel was killed, and the insurgents, scattered, withdrew into Galicia after a gallant defence, inflicting much damage on the Russian army.
4. The Prussian Chamber of Deputies dissolved by the King, and a new election ordered.
7. Reply of Prince Gortschakoff to the note of the Foreign Minister of
France respecting Poland, rejecting the proposal for a conference, professing a desire to promote the welfare of the Poles, as to all his subjects
, to which the Emperor devotes all his solicitude.
23. The Ionian Assembly declares in favour of uniting the Islands to the Kingdom of Greece, returns thanks to Great Britain and to Queen Victoria for benefits received, and for the realization of the wishes of the people for a restoration of their nationality; and to the other Protecting Powers, for their ready concurrence in the measure; but it declined the pecuniary stipulations, and was prorogued.
30. At the end of this month the distress in the cotton manufacturing districts had much decreased, though still large. From 456,786 persons in receipt of relief in the month of January, the number was reduced to 184,265 at this date. Of this number 87,079 were relieved by the Poor Law Guardians, 41,916 both by the Guardians and by Local Committees and the remainder by Local Committees only. The number relieved by Guardians was, however, greater by nearly 5,000 than in January: this arose chiefly from the discontinuance of many of the Local Committees.
Oct. 6. A shock of an earthquake felt throughout the south-west of England, between 3 and 4 a.m. No damage of any consequence was done; but the sensation experienced was described by many who were awakened from their slumber as very peculiar and awful.
7. The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, in a progress_through Galway, is shut out from a hotel at Maam, by direction of the Earl of Leitrim, for: which the Earl is shortly after dismissed from the commission of the peace in the counties of Leitrim, Donegal, and Galway.
29. A violent storm, beginning in the morning of this day, occasioned much damage by sea and land. At the New Cross Railway Station a shed was blown down, two men killed, and several injured. On the river many craft were driven into collision; and at sea there were a number of wrecks, with considerable loss of life. The gale continued to blow at intervals with great force until Nov. 2.
30. The King of Greece, after having visited the courts of France and England, arrives at Athens, and is enthusiastically received.
Nov. 4. The Emperor of the French addresses the Sovereigns of Europe, proposing a General Congress for the purpose of regulating the questions now agitating their peoples, and thus avoiding war.
6. Czachowski after having maintained a successful contest for a considerable time against the Russians in the Government of Radom in Poland, was at length defeated, his small corps dispersed, and himself taken
prisoner, but he died of his wounds within a day or two. 7. On the evening of this day a woman and two little girls were found dead in a cab on arriving at the Royal Oak, Westbourne-grove. The cab had been hired at the Shoreditch Railway Station by a man who had accompanied them as far as Furnival's Inn, Holborn, where he alighted and paid the cabman, having, during the journey, caused the cabman to stop and get a pint of porter in Bishopsgate-street. It was subsequently ascertained that they had been poisoned with prussic acid, that they were the wife and children of a man named Hunt, living at Camberwell
, and who had accompanied them as far as Furnival's Inn. On his being arrested on suspicion of the murder, he swallowed aconite, and died. The coroner's inquest found a verdict of felo-de-se.
9, The Prussian Chamber of Deputies commences its session, and is addressed in a speech by the King. He expresses a desire to act in con. cord with the Chamber and announces the future measures, similar in the main to those for the rejection of which the previous Chamber had been dissolved.
15. Frederick VII. King of Denmark, died, aged 55, and the direct male line became extinct. He is succeeded by Christian IX. (the father of the Princess of Wales and the King of Greece), in virtue of a treaty of May, 1852, by which the Princess Christian, the heiress of the monarchy, and the Duke of Holstein-Augustenburg, the heir of the duchies, resigned their claims in his favour in order to avoid a separation of the provinces.