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34. MALT.-In the year ending Sept. 30, 1862, there were made in England 4,741,071 quarters of malt, in Scotland 657,472 quarters, and in Ireland 314,259 quarters-a total of 5,662,802 quarters. Of this quantity 523,031 quarters were free of duty, either as being used for distilling purposes, or exported. The quantity used by wholesale brewers was 3,647,034 quarters, by victuallers 906,537 quarters, and by retail brewers 390,363 quarters.
35. HOPS.-There is no return now of the number of acres in cultivation, or of the quantity produced in the United Kingdom; but the import of foreign hops has rapidly increased with the reduction of the duty: in the year ending with March, 1860, only 1,845 cwt. arrived, but in the next year 1860-61, 83,379 cwt.; in 1861-62, 151,828 cwt.; and in 1862-63, 163,852 cwt. A return from the Inland Revenue-office shows that on Sept. 15, 1862, there were 26,661,946 lbs. of hops in stock, and the amount of duty returned thereon was 83,3181.
36. SUGAR.-The total quantity imported into the United Kingdom in 1862 was rather more than 10,200,000 cwts., being a decrease of 436,000 cwts. as compared with 1861, but an increase of above 1,000,000 over 1860. The decrease in 1862 is in sugar from the Mauritius, India, and Java, and the Philippine Islands. The supplies from India have decreased 50 per cent. since 1860. Those from the slave-owning countries have greatly increased. From Brazil we took above 1,250,000 cwts. last year, being more than in 1860 and 1861 added together. The West Indies and British Guiana are progressing favourably; in 1860 they sent us 3,375,610 cwts.; in 1861, 3,690,297 cwts.; in 1862, 3,864,771 cwts. The quantity of sugar entered for home consumption in the United Kingdom last year was 9,379,819 cwts., yielding to the revenue the sum of 6,215,346l. net, an increase both in quantity and in money over 1861.
37. COALS.-The quantities of coals, cinders, and culm shipped, and sent coastways to other ports of the United Kingdom in 1862, were only 10,874,276 tons. The quantity exported rose from 7,855,115 tons in 1861 to 8,301,852 tons in 1862. The export to France in 1862 was of 1,443,115 tons. The quantity brought into London fell from 5,232,082 tons in 1861 to 4,973,823 tons in 1862, whereof 3,442,402 were brought coastways, and 1.531,421 by inland navigation and land carriage.
IV.-CRIME, POLICE, AND LAW.
[The Judicial Statistics of England and Wales will be found at p. 241.] 38. CRIMINAL OFFENCES, SCOTLAND.-The returns of criminal offenders in Scotland, for 1862, show that the total number of persons committed for trial, or bailed, in Scotland, for the year were 3,630, of whom 2,627 were males and 1,003 were females. Of these 3,630 offenders, 683 could neither read nor write, and 2,192 could only read and write imperfectly, 636 could read and write well, 105 had received a superior education, and of the others the education was not known. As to the nature of the offences, they are thus classed in the tables:-Offences against the person, 919; against property, committed with violence, 495; against property, without violence, 1,841; malicious offences against property, 66; forgery and offences against the currency, 73; other offences not included in the foregoing classes, 236, showing an increase in every class, and an increase of 20 per cent. on the whole. Of the 3,630 offenders, 633 were discharged without trial; 2,997 were tried, and of these 2,693 were convicted, 5 were outlawed, 3 were found insane on arraignment, and I was found insane on trial, and there were 295 found not guilty, or "not proven." Of the punishments, there were 2 sentenced to death, of whom I was executed, 2 to penal servitude for life, 222 to various periods of
penal servitude, varying from 15 years to 3 years; 1,405 to various periods of imprisonment, varying from 2 years to 1 month; and 774 to less than 1 month; 51 were ordered to be detained in reformatory schools, and 206 to be whipped, fined, or discharged on sureties. Lanarkshire, with 761 offenders, and Edinburghshire, with 451, still stand in numbers at the head of the counties; Renfrew, with 308; Roxburgh, with 172; Fife, with 149; Inverness, with 174; and Aberdeen, with 115, follow; no others supply 100, while Kinross sends only 6, and Nairn 7. Argyle, Dumbarton, Forfar, Kirkcudbright, Selkirk, and Sutherland exhibit a decrease; every other county an increase. The year 1862 shows an increase of 401 committals, from those of 1861, and of 274 convictions.
39. CRIMINAL OFFENCES, IRELAND. - In 1862 the total mumber of persons committed for trial was 6,666, of whom 5,102 were males and 1,564 females; an increase of more than a thousand over 1861. Of these, 3,796 were convicted, and 2,846 acquitted, exclusive of those found and detained as insane.
40. POLICE, SCOTLAND.-On March 15, 1863, the police of Scotland consisted of 920 men and officers for the counties-being
I for every 993 of the population; and of 1,640 for the burghs and cities-a decrease of 8 from the previous year, and making them only I for every 709 of the inhabitants. All the counties except Ross-shire are reported as being efficiently provided with police; but 21 burghs, 5 of which have a
population above 5,000, are reported inefficient. The report complains of the great increase of vagrancy, the number of vagrants being 62,278, including women and children, showing an increase of nearly 5,000 over the returns ending March 15, 1862.
V.-POOR LAWS, POPULATION, ETC.
41. POOR RELIEF, SCOTLAND. there were 884 parishes from which returns were had of the registered paupers receiving relief: these numbered 78,724, with 40,204 dependents on them, making a total of 118,928, exclusive of the casual poor. Of the whole number chargeable on the parishes, 9,413 were persons born in Ireland.
42. POOR RELIEF, IRELAND.-In the year ending Sept. 29, 1862, the total expenditure on poor relief was 578,7891., of which 373,2161. were for in-maintenance and clothing, 14,750l. were for out-door relief, and 190,8231. for establishment and other expenses incidental to the management and repairs of workhouses, and of carrying out all the provisions of the Poor Relief Act. The total showed an increase of 62,020l. over the year ending Sept. 30, 1861. The number of persons relieved during the year was 267,807 in the house, and 30,046 out-door relief, an increase of upwards of 80,000 on the whole number over the preceding year. The deaths in the year had been 13,035. On Jan. 3, 1863, there were 60,038 inmates of workhouses, of whom there were 4,030 able-bodied males and 9,644 ablebodied females; 4.597 males and 6,596 females over 15, 16,750 children, and 18,421 sick, of whom the sexes are not specified, receiving in-door relief, and there were 5,809 paupers receiving out-door relief. In the year ending Sept. 30, 1862, there had been issued under the Medical Charities Act 660,456 dispensary tickets, and 179,723 tickets for visiting patients at their homes; the total cost for the year under this head had been 106,8587. This charge includes that for vaccination, of which the number of cases in the year had been 89,683.
In 1862 44. BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.-In
43. PAUPER LUNACY, SCOTLAND. - On Jan. 1, 1862 (the returns are made up to the Ist of each year), there were 5,289 pauper lunatics in Scotland, of whom 2,393 were males and 2,896 females, of whom 3,548 were in asylums and poorhouses and 1,741 in private dwellings; and there were 1,031 private insane persons in asylums, and 21 as single patients under the sheriffs' order. The total cost had been in the year 97,3321.; there had been 895 males and 1,158 females admitted in the year; 262 males and 362 females had recovered; 195 males and 228 females were discharged not recovered; and there had been 206 deaths of males and 185 of females.
ing the writing of their signatures as an educational test, there is no district that stands so high as London, where it is done by 89 men and 82 women out of 100; while in Berkshire, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Wiltshire, Cornwall, Herefordshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire the number of men able to write fell below 70 per cent., and in Monmouthshire and Wales ranged from 60 to 65 per cent. The northern counties, with Hampshire, Devonshire, and Rutlandshire are amongst the better-educated parts. In a few of the agricultural counties this test shows the women better educated than the The Deaths in the year numbered
435,114, of whom 222,281 were males and 212,833 were females; the mortality was greater than in 1860, but still below the mean rate. The excess of births over deaths was 261,292. With reference to this increase, the Report has given a curious comparative table of similar details in France. In this same year 1861, the population of France is estimated at 36,752,505 (not including the three newly-annexed departments); the marriages were 283,642, the births 987,830, and the deaths 848,174-an excess of births over deaths of 139.656. The marriage and birth rate are both lower in France than in England, while the death rate is higher; the death rate 2.308 against 2.163, the birth rate 2.688 against 3.461.
45. SUMMARY of the AMOUNTS EXPENDED for IN-MAINTENANCE and OUT-DOOR RELIEF, during the Half-Year ended at Lady-day, 1863, in 650 UNIONS and SINGLE PARISHES, under Boards of Guardians.
45. BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES IN THE CITY OF LONDON.-A Report presented by Dr. Letheby to the Commissioners of Sewers shows that in the year 1862 there were 3,046 births, 2,726 deaths, and 1,540 marriages in the City of London. These occurred among a population of 114,472 persons. The births, therefore, have been in the proportion of 26:4 for every 1,000 of the inhabitants, the deaths of 238, and the marriages of 134. The proportion of deaths and marriages in the City has been above the standard, that of the births somewhat below it. The highest of the birth rates has been in the eastern union of the City, where it has reached 318 per 1,000 of the people, and the lowest in the central union, or City proper, where it has amounted to only 214. The distribution of the deaths has been very unequal. In the eastern and western unions the general proportions have been at the rate of 25.8 per 1,000 of the population, whereas in the central district it has been but 206. The cause of this is referable not so much to the difference in the character of the population as to the density of it. The number of persons upon an acre, in the former districts, ranges from 200 to 266, and in the latter it is only 105. Nearly 18 per cent. of all the deaths in the City occurred among infants of less than 1 year old; 38 per cent. among children of less than 5 years; 49 per cent., or nearly half, were under 25 years of age; and only 16 per cent. had reached the age of 65: 190 persons, however, had passed the age of 75; 33 had reached that of 85; and 5 the age of 95.
47. BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES, SCOTLAND.-In the year 1862 there were 107,138 births, of which 55,322 were males and 51,816 were females, and of the total number 10,234 were illegitimate. The greatest number of births, 10,153, occurred in May; the smallest recorded number, 7,898, in November. The total of deaths was 67,159, an increase of 4,872 from the deaths of 1861. Of the total, 33,177 were males, and 33,982 were females. The greatest number of deaths occurred in January, 6,897; the fewest, 4,466, in August. The number of marriages was 20,544, of which 2,988 took place in June, and 1,049 in May; but December still keeps a high rank, having 2,790 marriages, while May continues to have the fewest.
43. REGISTRAR-GENERAL'S QUARTERLY REPORT.-The return, issued by authority of the Registrar-General, contains a record of the marriages during April, May, and June, 1863, and the births and deaths of
July, August, and September, 1863. After a season of depression which extended over two years, the marriage-rate rallied in the first quarter of the current year, and rose decidedly above the average in the subsequent quarter. The number of marriages was 44,058, against 42,012 and 40,771 in the corresponding quarters respectively of 1861-2. In London and in all the groups of counties into which England is divided in the tabular arrangement the marriages were more numerous than they had previously been in the June quarter of 1862. The annual birth-rate in the summer quarter (July, August, September) was 334 per cent. against an average of 3 29. The total number of births was 173,125; in the same quarter of 1853 the number was 147,602. 'That part of the English nation from which the natural supply of population is drawn has so far increased in ten years as to produce more children by 25,523 than it did in a similar period in 1853. As the births were 173,125 and the deaths 112,384, the natural increase of the population was 60,741. The increase was at the rate of 660 daily. Wheat and potatoes were both cheap: the latter esculent ranged for the best quality from 70s. to 105s. per ton at the waterside market, Southwark, a price which is lower than what has been obtained at the same place at any previous time since the September quarter of 1859. The average price of wheat was 458. 7d. per qr., which is less than at any other time since March, 1860: it has been falling during the last 18 months. The average price of the better and worse qualities of beef sold by the carcase in the city markets was 5d. per lb.; that of mutton 5d. The following figures show the average number of paupers relieved on the last day of each week in the last three summer quarters :-September quarter, 1861, indoor, 112,932; outdoor, 693,649: ditto, 1862, indoor, 119,592; outdoor, 789,914: ditto, 1863, indoor, 120,189; outdoor, 819,795. The weather in the quarter, as observed and described by Mr. Glaisher at Greenwich, was characterised by alternations of heat and cold till the middle of the period, and by cold attended with much wet during the last six weeks-circumstances which could hardly fail injuriously to affect the public health. The total number of deaths in the last quarter was 112,384, against 101,232 and 92,225 respectively in the two previous summer quarters. In the same period of 1860 the number was only 86,312, and if last summer had been as healthy, it may be stated in round numbers that at least 23,000 persons would have been living when autumn came whose names were enrolled in the registers.
VI.-EMIGRATION AND COLONIAL STATISTICS. 19. EMIGRATION.-The Twenty-third An- | nual Report of the Emigration Commissioners states that in the year 1862 the number of persons emigrating from the United Kingdom amounted to 121,214 souls, of whom
70,522 were males, and 50,692 females; 87,382 were adults, and 18,238 were children under 12 years of age; 23,579 of the adults were married, and 24,240 were single. Of the total number, 58,706, or upwards of 48