22. IRELAND, ExroriTS TO GREAT BRIO | ing vessels, 41, tonnage 8,719; steam vesTAIN.-In 1862 there were sent to Great sel, i, tonnage 397. Isle of Man, sailing Britain 387,161 oxen and cows, 41,868 calves, vessels, 745, tonnage 50,707; steam vessels, 538,631 sheep, and 364,634 swine; these 87, tonnage 18,535. Total-Inwards, British, numbers are not strictly official, no record 154,935 vessels, tonnage 17,498,683 ; foreign, being kept as no duty is payable, but are 409 vessels, tonnage 72,673." Outwards, Bricollected by the customs' officers at the ports tish, 157,008 vessels, tonnage 17,442,765; of shipment. Of wheat and wheat flour foreign, 380 vessels, tonnage 51,717. There there were sent 92,345 quarters; of oats has been an increase of the British shipping, and oatmeal 1,247,926 quarters; and of on the whole, of 1,906 vessels and 205,624 home-made spirits 1,037,734 gallons. tons; but the foreign vessels, both inwards

and outwards, show a material decrease, 23. EXPORTS TO FRANCE.-The aggregate value of the imports from France, including 26. COLONIAL TRADE.-The number and her possessions, in 1862, was 21,709,9427. tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared The exports for the year had not been made from the various ports in the United Kingup completely; but the value of the exports dom in the year 1862, from and to the of English and Irish produce was 9,264,4721. British colonies, wereInwards, in Eng

land, British, 4,431 sailing vessels, tonnage 24. VESSELS BUILT, &c.-In 1862 there 1,796,273 ; steam vessels, 673, tonnage were built and registered in the United King- 208,852; foreign, 473 sailing vessels, ton. dom 704 timber sailing vessels, tonnage nage 273,386, and i steam vessel, tonnage 115,040, and 36 timber steam vessels, tonnage 517. In Scotland, British, 486 sailing ves915; 63 iron sailing vessels, tonnage 40,596, sels, tonnage 202,925; steam vessels, 23, and 156 iron steam vessels, tonnage 65,901; tonnage 22,002; foreign, 14 sailing vessels, a total of 959 vessels, tonnage 222,452; a de tonnage 6,213. In Ireland, British, 266 crease of 16 vessels, but an increase of 21,613 sailing vessels, tonnage 100,262. In the tons. The ships built in British possessions, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, and registered as British, were 523, with a British, 36 sailing vessels, tonnage 5,413 ; tonnage of 118,421, of which only 2 were of foreign i, tonnage 213. Outwards, from iron, tonnage 181. The number of colo- England, 4,334 sailing vessels, tonnage nial-built vessels, registered in British ports, 1,916,251; steam vessels, 710, tonnage was 28, tonnage 22,532, all from North Ame- | 217,353; foreign, sailing vessels, 501, tonrican colonies. Of foreign-built vessels re- nage 267,365; steam vessels, 2, tonnage 837. gistered 152, tonnage 74,629. There were From Scotland, British, 613 sailing vessels, 42 sailing vessels and 14 steam vessels, of an tonnage 281,684; steam vessels, 39, tonnage aggregate tonnage of 8,100, broken up in 28,845; foreign, 28 sailing vessels, tonnage the course of the year, and 674, tonnage 14,373. From Ireland, British, 241 sailing 172,236, were wrecked.

vessels, tonnage 99,835; steam vessel, 1,

tonnage 70; foreign, 38 sailing vessels, ton25. COASTING TRADE.—The number and nage 14,513. From the Isle of Man and the tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared Channel Islands, British, 64 sailing vessels, coastwise, during the year 1862, was, to tonnage 8,496. The total number of British various ports in England, including their ships entered inwards was 5,915, tonnage repeated voyages-Inwards, British, 87,667 | 2,335,757; of foreign there were 516 vessels, sailing vessels, tonnage 6,891,436; steam tonnage 289,880,-a decrease of 283 vessels, vessels, 17,739, tonnage 4,517,896; foreign but an increase of 29,325 tons over 1861, sailing vessels, 367, tonnage 67,618; steam and a decrease of 360 foreign vessels, and vessels, 2, tonnage 668. In Scotland, British, of tonnage 204,810. of British ships sailing vessels, 14,339, tonnage 945,769; cleared outward, there were 6,002, tonnage steam vessels, 6,712, tonnage 1,458,237 ; fo- 2,552,534 ; of foreign: 569 ships, tonnage reign, sailing vessels, 33, tonnage 2,417. In 297,088,-a decrease of 206 British vessels, Ireland, British sailing vessels, 20,116, ton- but an increase of 26,425 tons; there was a nage 1,549,843 ; steam vessels, 6,817, tunnage decrease of 342 foreign vessels, tonnage 2,034,506 ; foreign sailing vessels, 6, tonnage 241,781. 1,573. In the Isle of Man, sailing vessels, 1,454, tonnage 81,605; steam vessels, 89, ton- 27. BRITISH FISHERIES.- The annual renage 19,388. There were no foreign steam port of the Fishery Commissioners shows vessels, either inwards or outwards, to or that the herring fishing off the coasts of from Scotland, the Isle of Man, or the Channel Scotland and the Isle of Man was very proIslands, and only 1 from Ireland of 397 tons ductive in 1862; 830,934 barrels were cured, outward. Outwards, from various ports in an increase of above 162,000 barrels over the England, British, sailing vessels, 102,386, ton- previous year; and 494,910 barrels were exnage 8,124,643 ; steam vessels, 16,858, tonnage ported, an increase of 104,596 barrels. The 4,210,901 ; foreign, sailing vessels, 299, ton. quantity branded increased by 81,365 barnage 48,961; steam vessel, 1, tonnage 397. rels, showing the increasing reliance of the From Scotland, British, sailing vessels, 16,417, Continent upon the brand. The Continent tonnage 1,044,085; steam vessels, 6,660, ton is the only important foreign market; the nage 1,454,042; foreign, sailing vessels, 38, large trade to the West Indies before emantonnage 3,233. From Ireland, British, sailing cipation has shrunk into nothing. Last year vessels, 6,650, tonnage 412,087; steam ves- for the first time several boats fished off sels, 7,205, tonnage 2,127,765 ; foreigu, sails | Wick for herrings in the winter. They were found with milt and roe, with the ap- 31. British Spirits.- In the year 1862 pearance of becoming full fish in three or there were distilled 7,552,037 gallops of proof four weeks. The experiment will probably spirits in England, 13,113,384 gallons in Scotbe repented and extended. The opinion is land, and 4,301,539 gallons in Ireland; & now very generally entertained that the hero total of 24.966,960 gallons; an increase of ring spawns twice in the year. The cod and 1,024,237 gallons over that of 1861. The ling fisbery of 1862 was about an average duty was paid on 19,700,250 gallons for the fishing. Several vessels went to Rockall, United Kingdom, producing the sum of but the adventure does not appear to have 9,850,1261. The consumption was 10,452,892 been very successful: severe weather was gallons in England, 4,400,271 in Scotland, experienced there, and it was thought that and 3,977,024 in Ireland, showing a great too many attempted the enterprise at once, decrease since the rise of the duty in the and that this caused several to come away two last-named kingdoms

The total quandisappointed. 13,144 boats, manned by tity of British spirits exported in the year 43,508 fishermen and boys, were employed was 4,162,454 gallons, and 551,916 gallons of in the herring and cod and Jing fisheries in British compounds and spirits of wine. The 1862, an increase of 183 boats and 757 men; quantity bonded amounted to 9,076,666 gal: and the estimated value of the boats, pets, lons, of which 5,417,839 were in Ireland and and lines was 811,3551. It is estimated that 2,985.854 in Scotland. There were also pro. these fisheries also gave employment to duced 51,897 gallons of methylic alcobol sold above 53,coo other persons.

by the excise, and 538,088 gallons sent out

by persons licensed to sell the same. 28. WRECKS.-The Board of Trade returns give the total number of wrecks in the year 32. COTTON.-The total amount imported 1862 belonging to the United Kingdom as in 1862 was

523,973,296 lbs. against 674, of which 638 were sailing vessels and 1,256,984,736 lbs. in 1861. Of the total, 36 steam vessels, of an aggregate burthen of 13,524,224 lbs. only came from the United 172,236 tons. The Annual Report of the States, 392,654,528 lbs. from British possesNational Life-boat Institution supplement sions in the East Indies, 5,563,376 lbs. from this information by stating that the number the British West Indies and Guiana, of wrecks on our own coasts in the year was 65,238,320 lbs. from the Mediterranean, 1,827; that 690 lives were lost in them; chiefly from Egypt, 23,3 39,008 lbs. from and i hat 4,039 were saved : of these 327 were Brazil, and 23,653,840 lbs. from other counsaved by life-boats, 310 by rocket and mortar tries. The usual proportions are here apparatus, 3,389 by ships' own boats, shore strangely reversed; only one-fortieth from boats, steamers, &c., and 13 by individual the United States, and nearly three-fourths exertion. It must be remembered, how- from the East Indies. The exports in the ever, that the services of the life-boats are year amounted to 214,714,528 lbs., more than available principally at times when no other two-fifths of the total quantity imported. craft could render assistance, which accounts The quantity of raw cotton imported in for the comparatively small number saved each year since 1842 has been as follows:by them. The institution had supplied 14 1843

673,193,116 lbs. new boats to its establishment during the


646,111,304 year, and have now 124 on its list, manned


721,979,953 by about 6,000 men, and it distributed 9161.


467,856,274 in rewards for life-boat services.


474,707,615 1848

713,020,161 29. WINE.—The total quantity of wine


755,469,012 taken for home consumption in Great Britain


663,576,861 in 1862 was 9,803,046 gallons, as against


757,379, 749 10,787,091 gallons retained in 1861. Of the


929,782,448 total quantity 4,375,466 gallons were red,


895,273,749 and 5,427,580 were white wines; of these


887,333,149 wines, 3,956,213 gallons came from Spain,


891,751,952 2,349,954 gallons from Portugal, 1,900,344 1856 • 1,023,886, 304 gallons from France, and 176,732 gallons


969,318,896 from British possessions in South Africa. A

1858 decrease had taken place in the consumption


1859 from every country. The total quantity

• 1,225.989,072 1860

1,390,938,752 imported had been 11,962,328 gallons, an in


1,256,984,736 crease of 909,892 gallons over that of 1861.

33.-WOOL.- The total quantity imported 30. FOREIGN SPIRITS.- The total quanti- in 1862 was 171,943,472 lbs., an increase tics of foreign spirits imported into Great over the importation of 1861 of 24,770,631 Britain in 1862 were, of brandy, 2,375,835 lbs. Of the whole, 71,339,842 lbs. were from gallons; of rum, 7,765,099 gallons; and of Australia, 17,959.404 lbs. from British posother foreign and colonial spirits, 417.279 gal sessions in the East Indies, 18,930,886 lbs. lons. There were entered for home consump- from British possessions in South Africa, tion 1,698,426 gallons of brandy, 3,319,579 395,699 lbs. from Spain, 8,378,329 lbs. from gallons of rum, and 175,324 gallons of other Germany, 34,755,393 lbs. from other coun. foreign and colonial spirits; a decrease on tries of Europe, 12,663,805 lbs, from South

e whole from the consumption of 1861. America, and 7,520,114 lbs. from other coun

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tries. Alpaca wool is included in this re- 36. SUGAR.–The total quantity imported turn. The increase in the importation has into the United Kingdom in 1862 was rather been chiefly from foreign countries, the im- more than 10,200,000 cwts., being a decrease ports from British possessions forming now of 436,000 cwts. as compared with 1861, but scarcely five-eighths, though the actual an increase of above 1,000,000 over 1860. quantities have increased from Australia The decrease in 1862 is in sugar from the and South Africa. The exports during the Mauritius, India, and Java, and the Philipyear were 48,076,499 lbs. of foreign and colo- pine Islands. - The supplies from India have nial wool, and 10,097,100 lbs. of British. decreased 50 per cent, since 1860. Those

from the slave owning countries have greatly 34. MALT.-In the year ending Sept. 3o, increased. From Brazil we took above 1862, there were made in England 4,741,071 1,250,000 cwts. last year, being more than quarters of malt, in Scotland 657,472 quarters, in 1860 and 1861 added together. The West and in Ireland 314,259 quarters—a total of Indies and British Guiana are progressing 5,662,802 quarters. Or this quantity 523,031 favourably; in 1860 they sent us 3,375,610 quarters were free of duty, either as being cwts.; in 1861, 3,690,297 cwts.; in 1862, used for distilling purposes, or exported. 3,864,771 cwts. The quantity of sugar enThe quantity used by wholesale brewers tered for home consumption in the United was 3,647,034 quarters, by victuallers 906,537 Kingdom last year was 9,379,819 cwts., quarters, and by retail brewers 399,363 yielding to the revenue the sum of 6, 215,3461. quarters.

net, an increase both in quantity and in

money over 1861, 35. Hops. There is no return now of the number of acres in cultivation, or of the quan- 37. COALS.-The quantities of coals, cintity produced in the United Kingdom; but ders, and culm shipped, and sent coastways the import of foreign hops has rapidly into other ports of the United Kingdom in creased with the reduction of the duty: in the 1862, were only 10,874,276 tons. The quanyear ending with March, 1860, only 1,845 tity exported rose from 7,855,115 tons in cwt. arrived, but in the next year 1860-61, 1861 to 8,301,852 tons in 1862. The export 83,379 cwt.; in 1861-62, 151,828 cwt.; and to France in 1862 was of 1,443,115 tons. in 1862–63, 163,852 cwt. A return from the The quantity brought into London fell from Inland Revenue-office shows that on Sept. 5,232,082 tons in 1861 to 4,973,823 tons in 15, 1862, there were 26,661,946 lbs. of hops 1862, whereof 3,442,402 were brought coastin stock, and the amount of duty returned ways, and 1.531,421 by inland navigation thereon was 83,3181.

and land carriage.


IV.-CRIME, POLICE, AND Law. [The Judicial Statistics of England and Wales will be found at p. 241.] 38. CRIMINAL OFFEXCES, SCOTLAND.-The penal servitude, varying from 15 years to 3 returns of criminal offenders in Scotland, I years; 1,405 to various periods of imprisonfor 1862, show that the total number of per- ment, varying from 2 years to i month; and sons committed for trial, or bailed, in Scot- 774 to les


I month; 51 were ordered land, for the year were 3,630, of whom 2,627 to be detained in reformatory schools, and were males and 1,003 were females. Of these 206 to be whipped, fined, or discharged on 3,630 offenders, 683 could neither read nor sureties. Lavarkshire, with 761 offenders, write, and 2,192 could only read and write and Edinburghshire, with 451, still stand in imperfectly, 636 could read and write well, numbers at the head of the counties; Ren10; had received a superior education, and frew, with 308; Roxburgh, with 172; Fife, of the others the education was not known. with 149; Inverness, with 174; and AberAs to the nature of the offences, they are deen, with 115, follow; no others supply 100, thus classed in the tables :-Offences against while Kinross sends only 6, and Nairn 7. the person, 919; against property, committed Argyle, Dumbarton, Forfar, Kirkcudbright, with violence, 495; against property, with. Selkirk, and Sutherland exhibit a decrease; out violence, 1,841; malicious offences every other county an increase. The year against property, 66; forgery and offences 1862 shows an increase of 401 committals, against the currency, 73; other offences not from those of 1861, and of 274 convictions. included in the foregoing classes, 236, showing an increase in every class, and an in- 39. CRDINAL OFFENCES, IRELAND. In crease of 20 per cent. on the whole. Of the 1862 the total mimber of persons committed 3,630 offenders, 633 were discharged with for trial was 6,666, of whom 5,102 were males out trial ; 2,997 were tried, and of these and 1,564 females; an increase of more than 2,693 were convicted, 5 were outlawed, 3 a thousand over 1861. Of these, 3,796 were were found insane on arraignment, and i convicted, and 2,846 acquitted, exclusive of was found insane on trial, and there were those found and detained as insane. 295 found not guilty, or “not proven.” Of the punishments, there were 2 sentenced to 40. POLICE, SCOTLAND.-On March 15, death, of whom I was executed, 2 to penal 1863, the police of Scotland consisted of 920 servitude for life, 222 to various periods of men and officers for the counties--being

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I for every 993 of the population; and of population above 5,000, are reported ineffi1,640 for the burghs and cities--a decrease cient. The report complains of the great of Ở from the previous year, and making increase of vagrancy, the number of vagrants them only 1 for every 709 of the inhabitants. being 62,278, including women and children, All the counties excepi Ross-shire are re showing an increase of nearly 5,000 over the ported as being efficiently provided with returns ending March 15, 1862. police ; but 21 burghs, 5 of which have a

V.-Poor Laws, POPULATION, ETC. 41. POOR RELIEF, SCOTLAND. - In 1862 44. BIRTIS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.-In there were 884 parishes from which returns the year 1861, according to the Registrarwere bad of the registered paupers receiving General's Twenty-fourth Annual Report, relief: these numbered 78,724, with 40,204, there were registered in England 696,406 dependents on them, making a total of Births, a larger number than they had ever 118,928, exclusive of the casual poor. Of reached in England. Of the total number the whole number chargeable on the pa- 355,972 were males and 340,434 were ferishes, 9,413 were persons born in Ireland. males, and of these 22,728 males and 21,429

females were illegitimate, or 6'3 per cent

of the whole. In London it was only 44 per 42. Poor RELIEF, IRELAND.-In the year ending Sept. 29, 1862, the total expenditure land, 'a well-educated county, it is 10:6; and

cent.; in Cumberland 112; in Westmore on poor relief was 578,7291., of which 373,2161. were for in-maintenance and cloth in Monmouthshire and Wales, less educated ing, 14,7501. were for out-door relief, and parts, it is only just above 5 per cent, and 190,8231. for establishment and other ex: Surrey ; while in the agricultural county of

in the extra-metropolitan parts of Kent and penses incidental to the management and Norfolk it is 10°3 per cent. There had been repairs of workhouses, and of carrying out in the year 163,706 Marriages registered, all the provisions of the Poor Relief Act. 6,450 less than in 1860; of the total number

, The total showed an increase of 62,0701

. 130,697 were solemnized according to the over the year ending Sept. 30, 1861. The rites of the Established Church; and of these number of persons relieved during the year was 267,807 in the house, and 30,046 out-door 102,955 were by banns, 20,090 by licence

, relief, an increase of upwards of 80,000 4,048 by superintendent-registrars' certifon the whole number over the preceding stated : of the 33,009 not married with the

cate, 16 by special licence, and 3,588 riot year. The deaths in the year had been 13,035. On Jan. 3, 1863, there were 60,038 rites of the Church of England, 7,782 were

of Roman Catholics, 13,182 were marriages inmates of workhouses, of whom there were 4,030 able-bodied males and 9,644 able- at various dissenting places of Worship

, bodied females; 4,597 males and 6,596 fe- 11:725 were at the superintendent-registrars' males over 15, 16,750 children, and 18,421 These numbers are slightly inaccurate, as,

office, 262 were of Jews, and 58 of Quakers. sick, of whom the sexes are not specified, when the parties to a marriage are of difreceiving in-door relief, and there were ferent religious persuasions, it sometimes 5,809 paupers receiving out-door relief. In the year ending Sept. 30, 1862, there had happens that the ceremony is performed acbeen issued under the Medical Charities Act / cording to the rites of both, and is entered 660,456 dispensary tickets, and 179,723 tickets as two marriages. The greatest number of for visiting patients at their homes; the marriages took place in the quarter ending total cost for the year under this head bad in December, 48,536; the smallest in the been 106,8581. This charge includes that quarter ending in March, 33,274. Of perfor vaccination, of which the number of sons married under 21 there were 10,415 cases in the year had been 89,683.

men and 31,927 women; of the women 35 were under 16, and of the men 10 were

under 17. Of the whole, 11,017 women 43. PAUPER LUNACY, SCOTLAND. — On married between 19 and 20, 39,629 between Jan. 1, 1862 (the returns are made up to the 20 and 21, 20,673 between 20 and 25. 3 were ist of each year), there were 5,289 pauper married when above 75, and 2 at above 80: lunatics in Scotland, of whom 2,393 were of the men, the highest number is 42,383 males and 2,896 females, of whom 3,548 between 21 and 25, and the next highest were in asylums and poorhouses and 1,741 | 26,473 between 25 and 30 between 75 and in private dwellings; and there were 1,031 80 there were 30 married, and 8 over 80. private insane persons in asylums, and 21 as Tbere were remarried 22,906 widowers and single patients under the sheriffs' order. The 14,927 widows; 7,034 of the widows martotal cost had been in the year 97,3321.; ried bachelors, and 15,067 widowers married there had been 895 males and 1,158 females spinsters. There were 49,204 men and admitted in the year; 262 males and 362 56,770 women who signed with marks, a females had recovered ; 195 males and 228 decrease of 3,197 men and 4,907 women females were discharged not recovered; and from the year 1860 on a much smaller numthere had been 206 deaths of males and 185 ber of marriages. In 26,333 cases both of females.

parties signed, and in 44.308 only one. Tak.

ing the writing of their signatures as an , 435,114, of whom 222,281 were males and educational test, there is no district that 212,833 were females; the mortality was stands so high as London, where it is done greater than in 1860, but still below the by 89 men and 82 women out of 100; while mean rate. The excess of births over deaths in Berkshire, Hertfordshire, Buckingham- was 261,292. With reference to this inshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Cam- crease, the Report bas given a curious combridgeshire, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Wilt- parative table of similar details in France. shire, Cornwall, Herefordshire, Staffordshire, In this same year 1861, the population of and Shropshire the number of men able to France 18 estimated at 36,752,565 (not inwrite fell below 70 per cent., and in Mon- cluding the three newly-annexed departmouthshire and Wales ranged from 60 to 65 ments); the marriages were 283,642, the per cent.

The northern counties, with births 987,830, and the deaths 848,174-an Hampshire, Devonshire, and Rutlandshire excess of births over deaths of 139,656. The are amongst the better-educated parts. In marriage and birth rate are both lower in a few of the agricultural counties this test France than in England, while the death shows the women better educated than the rate is higher; the death rate 2'308 against

The Deaths in the year numbered 2.163, the birth rate 2·688 against 3'461. 45. SUMMARY_of the A MOUNTS EXPENDED for IN-MAINTENANCE and

OUT-DOOR RELIEF, during the Half-Year ended at Lady-day, 1863, in 650 UNIONs and SINGLE PARISHES, under Boards of Guardians,


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