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VI. INDEFINITE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE CLASS.-It is unnecessary for us to add any remarks to this Table, which is
In the Census of Occupations for 1851, a Table was given of 108 avocations in Great Britain, comprising all those, for, or
There are two other Tables, having relation to the Occupations of the People, which are interesting. That of the Foreigners in England shows how little their industry enters into competition with native exertion. The total Foreigners (those of European States), amount to 73,434 persons, of whom 50,844 are males, and 22,590 are females. Of the females, 13,790 belong to the Domestic Class, of which 3,432 are "in attendance." Of male domestic servants there are 4,433. In the Professional Class we find as Musicians and Teachers of Music, 2,025 males, 223 females; of Teachers generally, 1,153 males, 2,147 females. There are 4,777 persons engaged in mercantile pursuits; 15,737 carriers on seas and rivers. Of the Industrial Class, those employed on dress amount to 6,649; those on watches and philosophical instruments are 1,297. In furniture there are employed 1,071. Very different is the present time from that in which the Flemings were the principal weavers of England. All the foreign workers earning a living amongst us in the factories for textile fabrics-wool, worsted, silk, cotton, flax, and mixed materials-amount only to 529.
There are special Tables appropriated to the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb. The total number of the Blind is 19,352. Happy is it that they are not wholly deprived of the power of being useful to the community! 56 are clergymen, ministers, and church officers; 609 musicians and teachers of music; 79 teachers. Belonging to the Agricultural Class there are 1,460; to the_Industrial Class, We may see in several items of these Returns how the sense of touch compensates in some degree for the loss of sight. There are 677 workers in dress, and 658 in cane, rush, and straw. Amongst the Blind there are 539 persons of rank or property, not returned under any office or occupation; and 1,091 living on income from voluntary sources and rates.
The total of the Deaf and Dumb is 12,236. Of these, 5,104 belong to the Domestic Class; 932 to the Agricultural; and 2,909 to the Industrial. Of this class, 1,909 are working and dealing in the Textile Fabrics and in Dress.
We have thus thrown together some of the general results of the Census of Occupations. In former years of the Companion to the Almanac' we have entered into various details of the Occupations of particular Districts and Towns. The Volume of the Census
before us contains the most valuable information of this local nature, arranged under the Eleven Statistical Divisions of England. Very considerately it has been decided that each Division-which also includes Tables of the Ages of the People, of their condition as regards Marriage, and of their Birthplaces-shall be sold separately. Thus every District will be readily and cheaply supplied with official materials upon which the proceedings of all Local Administration may be to some extent grounded. Upon the value of such a collection of facts to the historian and the topographer we need not enlarge. Every Census makes a vast addition to our accurate knowledge of the Condition of the People; and without this knowledge the Annals of our country show only the outward workings of the political machine. The inner life of a Nation is to be traced in documents such as these-founded upon a perfect organization of the means of inquiry, and digested with an accuracy beyond all praise. CHARLES KNight.
II. RECENT OBSERVATIONS AND RESEARCHES ON
FROM the time-now something more than a century ago at which
largest sense we confer the appellation of "Natural Philosophy," are the Stars-the Fixed Stars of a former condition of science-which we conclude by an instinctive perception recognizing an irresistible analogy, to be the Suns of innumerable distant Planetary Systems replenished with life like our own ;-a conclusion which the onward progress of natural knowledge from day to day uniformly confirms without the intervention of a single step in retrogression.
The pre-eminence of Solar Astronomy and Physics-and perhaps Solar Chemistry also, as indicated by recent wonderful combinations of distinct methods of research-among the sciences relating, not to life itself, but to the ultimate bases by and through which it is exerted, and on which it may be said to rest, in their application to the paramount objects of all knowledge, the culture, expansion, and elevation of the Human Mind, is equalled only by that which belongs to it in their application to the arts of Human Life. The means of every kind by which are constructed and worked the great implements of industry and communication, the Ship, the Steam-engine, the Railway, and the Electric Telegraph, and those employed in obtaining from the crust of the Earth, transporting over it, and fashioning for use those peculiar forms of matter, the two metals, which by their characteristic properties-the combined strength and amenability to heat of the one, and the beauty and indestructibility of the other-mediately govern human affairs among the dominant races of mankind, all originate in the action of the Sun upon the Earth and the transmission of its activities to distant points of space.
Some of these accessions of knowledge in relation to the Sun itself, it is proposed in this article to submit to the reader's attention, and especially to present him with those derived from the progress of inquiry into its Physical Constitution, which have been made during the period measured by the last few revolutions of the Earth around it, from about 1859 to 1863.
To enable the reader to bear in mind the scale on which the Solar activities are carried on, and so to appreciate the grandeur and real import of the operations we shall have to describe, it will be useful here to introduce a few facts relative to the Sun which are expressed by numbers.
The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth, as recently estimated, is 91,328,600 miles; or about 384-not much less than 400 -times that of the Moon.
The diameter of the Sun is 850,100 miles; or more than 107 times the mean diameter of the Earth. A mountain upon the surface of the sun, to bear the same proportion to its diameter that the highest peaks of the Himalaya do to the diameter of the Earth would require to be above 600 miles in altitude.
The circumference of the sun is 2,671,000 miles.*
The distance of the Sun from the Earth and the diameter of the former, have been taken from Mr. Hind's statement of them as corrected from M. Le Verrier's estimate of the solar parallax, and published by him in the Times' newspaper for Sept. 17, 1863 that estimate being one ground of the recent determination by astronomers that we are nearer the sun by about 4,000,000 miles than for many years past has been commonly believed. The volume and mass of the sun which follow have been left as given by Mr. Hind in his Introduction to Astronomy,' their correction being unimportant for the mere purpose of comparison we have here in view,