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Market has been erected, adjoining, and similar in design to the Corn Market; this and other improvements in progress being paid for out of "a magnificent borough fund." The first section of a new Market House has been opened at Bath; and at Gloucester a Cattle Market, with the necessary offices.
Turning to Hospitals, we may notice that it appears to be definitely arranged that the new St. Thomas's Hospital is to be built at Stangate, immediately above Westminster Bridge, on a piece of land to be gained from the Thames by the Southern Embankment. The site seems to be convenient as to locality; and the medical staff are said to be satisfied as to its sanitary fitness.
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester, spoken of last year, is opened. It makes no architectural pretensions, but is reported to be well adapted to its purpose. At Birkenhead, a Hospital for about 50 patients has been erected at the cost of Mr. J. Laird, M.P. The building, a plain Italian structure, planned with great care, was designed by Mr. W. Scott, of Liverpool. The Leeds Infirmary, in course of erection from the designs of Mr. G. G. Scott, R.A., promises to be a very handsome specimen of secular Gothic.
A class of buildings, important from their magnitude and purpose, and permitting much architectural character, is that of Lunatic Asylums, of which several have been recently erected. The City of London Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Dartford, Kent, forms a prominent object for a considerable distance, from its size and its large and lofty central tower. It was designed by the late Mr. Bunning, and is said to be arranged with great skill. The Dorset County Asylum, just completed, is Lombardic in style, and is constructed of red brick varied with bands and dressings of bricks of different colours. It is intended for 300 patients. The architect was Mr. E. H. Kendall. One for 260 patients is in course of erection near Caermarthen, from the designs of Mr. D. Brandon. It is intended for the joint use of the counties of Caermarthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke.
5. BUILDINGS CONNECTED WITH EDUCATION, ART, and Science. We have already referred to some of the works in progress at Cambridge: we may add here that a Museum of questionable design is being built in the Old Botanic Gardens. At Oxford, the most noticeable are the New Buildings, Christ Church, erecting from the designs of Mr. T. N. Deane. They are very extensive; will be very costly; of course, Gothic in style, but very unlike the old English Gothic of which Oxford affords so many exquisite examples. At Merton College the new buildings are approaching completion under the direction of Mr. Butterfield. St. Alban's Hall is being rebuilt from the designs of Mr. J. Gibbs. The entrance tower of Brasenose is being rebuilt from the designs of Mr. Buckler. At Queen's, Mr. Bramwell is remodelling the exterior of the Chapel and the Hall. The Chapel of Jesus College is undergoing restoration. The Ashmolean Museum is being altered and improved. The Radcliffe Library is about to be largely modified and repaired under the superintendence of Mr. S. Smirke, R.A., and several other works are in progress.
For our Grammar Schools we may also note some buildings com
pleted, or in progress. At Harrow, the Vaughan Memorial Library, designed by Mr. Scott, has been formally opened. Uppingham School is being entirely rebuilt, from the designs of Mr. G. E. Street, at a cost of 40,000l. For Tunbridge School, an extensive building, Collegiate Gothic in style, is in course of erection from the designs of Mr. Burnell. Yarmouth Grammar School has been rebuilt, without, as it would seem, much architectural display. At Malvern, a Proprietary College for 500 boys is to be built, at a cost of about 20,000l., from the designs of Mr. C. Hansom, of Clifton. At Winchester, a new Diocesan Training College, for 56 students, has been erected from the designs of Mr. J. Colson, of that city. It appears to be arranged with some regard for the comfort of the students-whatever may be the case with the unfortunate occupants of the rooms in the roofwhilst the exterior is a very orthodox and very grim sample of a mediæval establishment.
A recent parliamentary return shows that during last year_the number of School Houses built in connexion with the Church of England was 101; of schools enlarged, 72; affording accommodation for 30,500 children. The cost was nearly 200,000l., of which 50,0007. was contributed from the parliamentary grant. Schools for the other religious bodies have also been built in proportionate numbers. Without staying to describe particular instances, we may note in passing as one of the most picturesque and effective recent Gothic exteriors of this class of buildings the Schools of Holy Trinity parish, Paddington, erecting in the Harrow-road.
The extensive spread of special institutions of an educational and benevolent character is a circumstance eminently characteristic of our time. We have to notice two or three fresh instances this year. The Asylum for Merchant Seamen's Orphans, Snaresbrook, is one of these. The new building, as will be seen by the engraving (No. 4), is quite palatial in character. Whether the style is exactly adapted to the purpose is fairly open to doubt. Certainly it hardly seems to us to harmonize with the locality, the margin of Hainault Forest. But it is a very striking and picturesque edifice, and the internal arrangements are carefully studied. The building is of red brick with black bands, and dressings of Ancaster stone. The shafts of the porch are of Devonshire marble. The building will accommodate 130 boys and 75 girls, but is capable of extension, so as to hold 400 children. The grounds cover an area of 20 acres. The chapel was built at the sole cost of Lady Morrison. The architect was Mr. G. S. Clarke.
The first stone of a spacious structure-also of red brick, and Italian Gothic in style-was laid by the Prince of Wales last July, for the Warehousemen and Clerks' Orphan Asylum, at Caterham, Surrey. It is intended to accommodate 150 boys and girls, and cost about 17,500l. The architect is Mr. Bland. At Wood Green, Tottenham, a spacious Gothic structure has been commenced from the designs of Mr. E. Pearce, for the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys -the sons of deceased or indigent Freemasons. The building, which will be of white brick, with dressings of Bolsover stone, will accommodate 100 boys.
The Freemasons are returning to building with new zest. In London there are to be important additions to the Freemasons' Hall, Great Queen-street. At Boston, Lincolnshire, the antiquity and mystery of the craft have been typified by building the new Hall on an Egyptian model: the grand entrance is described as imitated from the Temple of Dandour, the two great columns being copies of those at Edfou and Philæ, and the shafts inscribed with hieroglyphic and other symbols. Mr. G. Hackford was the architect. Another Hall has been built at York, but is of a much more commonplace character. One of some architectural variety, the three orders being all employed in the façade, is building at Manchester.
The Bath and Plymouth Theatres, both of them destroyed by fire, have been rebuilt—the old walls being retained. In both the ventilation has been improved, and additional means of egress provided; and the architects of both claim to have considerably improved the auditory and the stage. The Bath Theatre, of which Mr. Phipps was the architect, is very highly spoken of.
New Music Halls of a popular class are continually being built, as well in the larger country towns as in London. They are often of considerable size and cost, but their architects do not seem to strike out any novelty of idea, though there is ample room for novelty in so many ways. Whether that building by a Company in Brydges-street, Strand, will exhibit any improvements remains to be seen.
6. STREET ARCHITECTURE.
The most extensive piece of street architecture at present in progress in London is the vast collection of chambers which occupies the site of the old East India House in Leadenhall-street. The principal front is above 300 feet long, and the side in Lime-street is still longer. It is a plain, substantial, well-built, and well-finished edifice, but as yet has developed no marked architectural character. The architect is Mr. W. Tite, M.P.
As the best illustration of the London street architecture of the year we give an engraving (No. 5) of the offices of Messrs. Longmans in Paternoster-row. As will be seen, the building is of considerable extent; Renaissance in style; not wanting in ornament, and whilst somewhat grandiose in character, as befits the domicile of the chief of the publishing firms of England, it carries distinctly the aspect of a commercial building. The front is of Portland stone. The carvings, carefully executed though unobtrusive, represent the old trading signs of the house (the Ship and the Black Swan), with figures symbolizing the connection of literature, science, the arts, &c. More importance might have been advantageously given to the central doorway, if not to the central portion of the building altogether. The interior is arranged, of course, mainly with a view to business purposes, but considerable architectural effect has been given to the entrance hall and staircase, which are made to form the central feature of the inner arrangements. The architects were. Messrs. Griffith and Dawson.
Other City houses of business we must pass over with a word. In