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" The vaulted roof of the interior would be decorated with the enamel mosaic-work introduced from Venice by Dr. Salviati.”
That a work conceived in such a spirit will, if properly carried out, be a magnificent addition to our monumental architecture there can be no doubt.
It is usually spoken of as a kind of Eleanor Cross, and Mr. Scott, it will be noticed, had these structures in his mind when thinking over his design. But as ultimately presented, it has hardly any resemblance to any one of these crosses. The shrine itself is, as he describes it, a vast tabernacle-like canopy supported on four groups of quadruple columns. No doubt in working out the design many alterations will be made in the details, but the general form and character may be regarded as settled. In looking at his drawings there appeared to us to be some disproportion in the parts, producing in the whole a sense of incomplete harmony ; and especially, and this seemed to be a common opinion among those who examined the design most carefully, the vast tabernacle appeared to bear with a crushing weight on the supporting columns, which certainly looked, on paper, inadequate to their load. But his drawings—as is sometimes the case may do but scant justice to the work. The details promise to be, as indeed his details almost always are, exquisite in taste and finish. Further, we will only add that though the motive, as an artist would call it, may have been taken from an Eleanor Cross, the style was not; but, like most of Mr. Scott's recent works, is rather foreign than English in character.
The Mausoleum at Frogmore, built to receive the remains of the Prince Consort, is a solid and stately edifice designed by Herr Gruner and Mr. A. J. Humbert. The style has been called Byzantine : it would be more correct, perhaps, to say that it has been based on Byzantine and Lombardic reminiscences. In plan it has the general form of a cross, with the arms of equal length, an entrance porch being added to the eastern arm. The extreme width of the exterior is 70 feet, the height to the top of the cross 80 feet. The interior has a central octagonal chamber 30 feet in diameter, roofed with a cupola 65 feet high, and corridors filling the spaces between the arms of the cross, and giving access to them. Beneath is a vaulted crypt. The granite sarcophagus will stand in the middle of the central chamber. Upon it will be placed a recumbent marble statue of the Prince by Marochetti, and at the angles bronze statues of angels kneeling. Externally, the lower part of the massive walls is of granite, the
upper of Portland stone and granite. The interior walls are faced with coloured marbles and serpentine, and will be decorated with frescoes and mosaics.
As other personal and family memorials of the lamented Prince may be named here, the east window of St. George's Chapel and the restoration of Wolsey's Tomb-house, Windsor. The last, besides being restored in the usual acceptation of the term, will be richly decorated with mosaics by Salviati in the roof and painted glass in the windows: the cost will be about 25,000. The great east window of St. George's Chapel is entirely new, stone framework as well as painted glass. It has fifteen lights of richly-traceried stonework. The glass is painted with most elaborate designs, embracing
several subjects from the Old and New Testaments, effigies of prophets, apostles, and saints, and in the lower part subjects of a more secular and personal bearing. West's once-famous painted window was removed to make way for this.
Throughout the provinces Albert Memorials have been undertaken, in some places carried out. The Manchester memorial, a statue of the Prince within a mediæval shrine, is making visible progress : it is to occupy the centre of a newly-formed open place, within a short distance of the Exchange, to be called Albert Square. Liverpool is to have an equestrian statue executed by Mr. Thorneycroft, who has commissions for repetitions of it for Halifax and Wolverhampton. Mr. Foley is said to be making progress with his statue for Birmingham; Mr. Woolner with his for Oxford. The county of Devon proposes to erect a memorial Museum and School of Art in Exeter. Suffolk is about to found an Albert College and School at Framlingham, for 300 boys: architect, Mr. F. Peck, of Maidstone. Surrey is erecting a County Hospital on the slope of the Hog's Back, near Guildford, which will hold fifty patients, and cost 11,0001.; and of which the designs and sanitary arrangements of the architect, Mr. Lowe, have received the formal approval of Miss Florence Nightingale. Hastings has completed a Gothic Clock-tower 65 feet high, designed by Mr. E. A. Hetfer of Liverpool, which supplies also a drinkingfountain and serves as a sea-mark, whilst a statue of the Prince in a niche in the principal front marks its monumental purpose. Plymouth has an Albert Clock-tower 56 feet high, constructed of limestone, and crowned with a spire of ornamental iron-work. A village between Leeds and Halifax has been more ambitious. It has changed its name from Queenshead to Queensbury; and the owners of one of its great mills, Messrs. John Foster and Son, have provided it an Albert Memorial in the shape of an Eleanor Cross, 40 feet high, standing on a base 14 feet square, on each side of which is a drinking fountain of polished red granite, with taps for a domestic supply below. Within the arches, besides the statue of the Prince, are others representing the Arts, Literature, Science, Manufactures, Agriculture, &c., and over all is a crocketed canopy borne on shafts of polished granite : the architect was Mr. E. Milnes, of Bradford. Abingdon has commissioned Mr. Gibbs of Oxford to execute a design which, in a modest way, ranges between the old Eleanor Cross and Mr. Scott's newer form. Many other of these memorials of more or less importance are in different stages of progress, and many painted windows have been erected or are in hand.
The Memorial of the Great Exhibition of 1851 has been converted in a great measure into a memorial of the Prince, by his statue being placed on its summit and by the inscription on its sides. It is a commonplace mixture of reality and allegory; but the circumstance of its being erected in the grounds of the Horticultural Society happily relieves us from the necessity for entering into a critical notice of it here. Why what was announced as to be the great public memorial of an event of universal interest like the Exhibition of '51, and paid for by public subscription, should be relegated to the grounds of a select private society, inaccessible to the general public except by
payment of a not very moderate fee, is not quite clear. That it has been so placed will probably serve as a warning to intending subscribers to future memorials, not only to inquire into the character of the memorial, but the site it is to occupy.
Our national monuments to Nelson and Wellington still make no. visible progress : but Landseer has, it seems, completed the model of the lion that, with a little modification, will serve for the four, and, according to the enthusiastic critic who made the announcement to the world, it surpasses all the lions in bronze or marble of ancient and modern times.
The Wellington Memorial at Liverpool, recently completed, consists of a Doric column, 10 feet in diameter at the base and 80 feet high, with a bronze statue of the Duke, in a general's undress uniform, 14 feet high, on the summit. The memorial, which is in all 132 feet high, was designed by Mr. A. Lawson of Edinburgh: the statue is by his brother, Mr. G. Lawson of Liverpool. The entire cost was about 5,0001.
At St. Paul's statues have been erected of our great landscape painter, Turner, by Mr. Macdowell; the historian Hallam, by Mr. Theed ; Sir Henry Lawrence, by Mr. Lough ; Lord Lyons, by Mr.
1 Noble; and General Sir W. Napier, by Mr. Adams—but neither of them calls for particular notice. At Westminster Abbey a place bas been refused to a statue of Macaulay, but a bust of Sir G. C. Lewis is to be admitted on payment of 2001. Perhaps it would be as well that the old Abbey ceased to be encumbered with modern statues ; but there ought to be a clear statement made of the principle upon which admission is given or refused. For the statue of Sir Charles Barry, to be placed in the vestibule of the House of Commons, Mr. Foley has produced a seated model.
Marochetti's statue of Lord Herbert has been erected in the Market Place, Salisbury, and is well spoken of. It is of bronze, 9 feet high, and stands on a pedestal of polished marble, 10 feet high, which bears the simple inscription, “Sidney Herbert.” He is represented as addressing the House of Commons, and holds in one hand the plan of the Herbert Hospital. The statue of Josiah Wedgwood has been placed on its pedestal at Stoke-upon-Trent; and at Burslem is to be erected a Wedgwood Memorial Institute, to which it is proposed to give characteristic decoration by introducing in the façade " the ceramic art of the Potteries, in the form of terra-cotta mouldings, tile mosaics, Della Robbia panels, &c.” At Gloucester a statue of Bishop Hooper, by Mr. E. W. Thornhill, has been erected,
as near as possible to the place of his martyrdom, by the church of St. Mary-de-Lode. The bishop is represented preaching. The statue is of Portland
, stone, and is covered by a canopy of the same material. A somewhat similar memorial by Mr. Teulon is being raised to the martyr Tyndale. A seated marble statue of the Queen, by Mr. Earle, has been
placed in the People's Park at Hull. A marble statue of the late Earl Fortescue, by Mr. E. B. Stephens, has been erected in the Castle Yard, Exeter. A colossal bronze group, by Mr. Philip, in memory of Richard Oastler, the celebrated advocate of the Ten-hours Factory Bill, is to be erected in Bradford. We might go on; but
these will probably suffice as examples of what is doing in this line. If there are not many great works there is much good intention.
2. PUBLIC AND SANITARY WORKS. London underwent this summer the panic of a threatened invasion. Not an invasion, however, of Zouaves and Imperial Guards, but of railway .engineers and navvies—
foes more peaceful, but hardly less destructive in their operations. The good citizens had heard with an easy sort of incredulity that a railway was to be brought into the very heart of the City, and, by a huge viaduct over Ludgate Hill, block out the western view of their greatest pride, St. Paul's. They heard also that other lines were to go hither and thither, seemingly almost at random, about the outskirts of the City, and even pierce in some instances into its interior. But they counted the cost, and—wondering who could be expected to take shares in such adventures-dismissed the subject from their minds. Soon, however, on their way to their suburban villas, they saw surveyors busily at work, lines being chalked out, houses destroyed, and presently some huge and hideous contrivance, resembling most a monstrous iron packing-case, being fixed across one and another broad thoroughfare, the line all the while approaching with slow and stealthy but unhalting steps towards the doomed city. Then as the time drew near when plans for new lines were to be deposited, preliminary to applications to Parliament, they learned that hawks and vultures, engineers and attorneys, scenting their prey from afar, were hastening from all the airts to feast on the carcase they fancied was abandoned to their fell plea
But this aroused the slumbering lion; and, though unable to rid himself of the marks left on him by those who had come upon him unawares and sleeping, he made short work of their less cautious followers. Of nearly three dozen London lines for which application was made to Parliament in 1863, not more than two or three escaped summary slaughter.
Some of these lines were rather amusing in their audacity. One undertook to link Regent-circus with King's Cross, and in order to do so—that section of London being of little account-proposed to block up some of the streets altogether, darken others, raise the level of Euston-road at one point eleven feet, and cut through four of the main lines of sewers-all mere trifles, of course, to railway directors. Another proposed to start from the Great Western Station at Paddington, skirt the Serpentine through Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, and proceed by way of Piccadilly to the new station at Charing Cross. A third, coming from Hammersmith, would have skirted the south side of Hyde Park and the north side of the Green Park, and then have proceeded by a line parallel to that of the railway last mentioned to the same terminus. The Great Eastern, in like manner, wanted to carry a new line (starting from their old line at Edmonton) by a course parallel with that from Kingsland, for which an Act had been obtained by the North London Company, and pervert the green oasis, Finsbury-circus, into a vast terminus. The little East London and Rotherhithe line displayed a curiously jaunty off-hand mode of procedure. To reach Rotherhithe it must pass through the Thames
Tunnel; and in order to arrive at that it coolly proposed to proceed for some distance over Gravel-lane, making that busy line of riverside traffic traverse a narrow tunnel an eighth of a mile long; reduce the width of several other streets; cross the London Docks by an opening bridge; cut a main sewer or two in half, and finally descend into the Thames Tunnel by an incline of 1 in 17; with many other equally pleasant freaks. Rotherhithe itself appeared likely to become a very nexus of railways intended to connect the Grand Surrey Docks and Canal with the Brighton, the South-Eastern, and the London, Dover, and Chatham Railways, and, by means of the East London line just mentioned, with the Blackwall Railway and the northern system generally. The London and Greenwich, the London, Chatham and Dover, and the South London scared the Astronomer Royal by putting forward three distinct projects for passing through Greenwich Park, that of the South London threatening to run close by the Observatory. But instead of wasting more words on rejected suitors, let us notice shortly the schemes of the successful ones, and see what progress they are making.
First in immediate interest is the London, Dover, and Chatham line, wbich is completed as far as the Elephant and Castle, and is being carried thence northward. It will cross the Thames by a bridge running parallel to the New Blackfriars Bridge. The two bridges are being constructed close to each other, consist of the same number of arches of about the same span, are by the same engineer, and, judging by his exhibited designs, will be of about equal, though very dissimilar, ugliness. Happily, each will hide one side of the other. The line will then be carried over Ludgate Hill to the terminus just beyond, by the notorious Ludgate Hill viaduct-a work which will be a standing disgrace to the City, a discredit to the company, and, with the other bridges on the same line, bequeath to the engineer the fame of having done more to disfigure the metropolis than any man of his generation. The directors have feebly sought to deny the imputation on their taste, but it is indisputable that the bridge will for ever destroy the most remarkable piece of street scenery in London. By way of softening the ire of the civic authorities, the company have settled with the city surveyor to increase the width of Ludgate Hill to 60 feet from the Old Bailey to Bridgestreet, to decorate the sides of the bridge with a great deal of surface ornamentation, and to throw out on each side of it a light trellised foot-bridge, so as to afford a safe means of crossing Ludgate Hill at that spot.
And this points to a suggestion of some importance. Not only are these tubular railway viaducts an offence to the eye, but they are in crowded thoroughfares a source of constant inconvenience and frequent danger. The noise of trains rumbling over head along these iron tubes is at all times annoying to the equine mind; but if the viaduct be near a station the addition of the screaming of the railway whistle quite upsets the equanimity of all but very old stagers. As horses are apt to give outward expression to their irritation there ensues at least alarm to timid wayfarers, and sometimes serious, sometimes fatal, accidents. Railway viaducts being a necessity, there