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III. COMMERCIAL CLASS.-This comprises two Orders. One, that of persons who buy or sell, keep, or lend money, houses, or goods of various kinds. The other, of per
sons engaged in the conveyance of
The sub-order, No. 3, is equally significant of a great change. We have now, "engaged in Canal and Inland Navigation Service" only 4,165 persons, as compared with 53,542 in direct employment on Railways. The 35,817 persons of this sub-order is made up by Bargemen, Lightermen, and Watermen, in number exceeding 31,000.
Classes, Orders, and Sub-orders.
IV. AGRICULTURAL CLASS. This Class is divided into two Orders, the first amounting to 1,924,110 persons; the second, to 86,344. The sub-orders sufficiently define the orders. It is noted, however, in the Census, that in addition to those here returned, many persons connected with the land, as proprietors or occupiers, are returned under other heads, according to their professions or occupations. The distinctive employments of males in the first sub-order are-Land Proprietor, 15,131; Farmer, Grazier, 226,957; Farmer's son, grandson, brother, nephew, 92,321; Farm-bailiff, 15,698; Agricultural Labourer, out-door, 914,301; Shepherd, out-door, 25,559; Farm-servant, in-door, 158,401. There are also of Land Surveyors, &c., 4,702; and, an entirely new denomination,-Agricultural Student, 490. The mechanised improvements of modern husbandry are indicated by 236 Agricultural-Implements Proprietors, and 1,205 Agricultural Engine and Machine workers. 1,761 persons are also returned as belonging to Land Drainage service, not in towns. Of the two other suborders, there are Woodman, 8,907; Gardener, not domestic servant, 76,760. Of female Agriculturists, there are, Land Proprietor, 15,635; Farmer, Grazier, 22,778; Farmer's, Grazier's Wife, 163,765; relatives living on the farm, 83,830; Agricultural Labourer, out-door, 43,964; Farm servant, in-door, 46,561.
The great fact connected with the Agricultural Class is, that the Labourers are not increasing relatively to the increase of population. It has been held, indeed, that there is a positive decrease within the last few years. Some apprehension has been felt that this fact is one of the symptoms of national decay. It may be viewed as an evidence of the direct contrary. Scientific improvements are turning the mere physical labour into skilled labour, and the condition of the farm labourer will be proportionately improved. As the improvement goes on he will obtain better wages, more food, and some better home than a ruinous hovel.
V. This Class is denominated INDUSTRIAL. The name is not very happily chosen; for it might seem to imply that other Classes are not so emphatically engaged in carrying on the Industry of the country. It comprises all our manufacturing community, as well as those who follow the production of the material to work it up into almost infinite forms of utility and beauty. The principle upon which the six orders of this class are formed is clearly shown in the following synopsis:
V. Industrial Classes.
10. Persons engaged in ART and MECHANIC Pro-
11. Persons working and dealing in the TEXTILE
144, 184 1,012,997
Nearly five millions of people we thus see are engaged in ministering to the wants of the community and to their own wants, in employments which in their boundless ramifications are the wonders of civilization. We may be enabled to comprehend from this glance how it is that the sudden misfortune which befell our cotton manufacture did not leave the nation prostrate; how, on the contrary, its commercial power has seemed undiminished.
We have no direct means of comparing the occupations comprised in the 48 sub-orders of Class V., with the industrial pursuits of the producers and distributors at any early period of our history. As a matter of curiosity, let us see what the Trades of London were, as represented by its Companies, of which the following is a list :