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the army of General Hooker, and after a long day's battle compelled it to retreat. In the meantime, the troops under General Sedgwick, about 30,000, who had crossed the river below Fredericksburg, attacked the batteries on the heights overlooking the city, and captured them.

On the 4th the heights were retaken, and General Sedgwick’s forces were driven back across the river with great loss. Protected by entrenchments which he had made, and under concealment of the night, General Hooker withdrew his army across the Rappahannock. The Federal loss was very large ; that of the Confederates much less. While these battles were going on, General Stoneman, with a large body of cavalry, had been sent round to the rear of the Confederates, in order to break up the railroad, and cut off the communication with Richmond ; but he failed to accomplish this purpose, and his movement only resulted in a raid, in which he broke two or three bridges, cut some telegraph-wires, and destroyed a considerable quantity of private property.

The Siege and Capture of Vicksburg. - The powerful fortress of Vicks. burg is situated on the east bank of the Mississippi, on the outer side of a great curve of the river. It was considered to be the principal key to the navigation. Besides the batteries which overlook the river, it is protected in the rear by a series of redoubts extending over hilly and broken ground, which render it almost impregnable by assault. In order to capture it, an artificial channel was dug with great labour across the peninsula formed by the bend of the river, as had been done at Island No. 10, but it proved to be a failure. A plan of combined naval and military operations was then conceived, and was carried out with successful perseverance.

The naval squadron on the Mississippi was under the command of Admiral Porter, who had at his disposal more than a hundred armed vessels, including many iron-clad gun-boats. Admiral Farragut, having run past the batteries of Port Hudson with part of his Gulf squadron, co-operated with Admiral Porter. Steam transports, with some loss, ran past the batteries of Vicksburg and Grand Gulf; and then General Grant, who had command of the army in Western Tennessee, conducted a land force down the west bank of the river to a point below Grand Gulf, where the troops were carried across the river in the transports. Admiral Porter, with a fleet of gunboats, having also run past the batteries of Vicksburg, attacked the batteries of Grand Gulf on the 29th of April, and after a bombardment of several hours—General Grant operating in the rear-captured them. General Grant then marched with his army to the small city of Jackson, forty miles east from Vicksburg, where he was opposed by General Joseph Johnstone, with a small force, who was compelled to retreat. On his march to Vicksburg General Grant was opposed by General Pemberton, with a part of the garrison, who was defeated on the 16th of May, with the loss of 60 guns and a great number of men, and compelled to retreat into the fortress. General Grant having now conducted his army to the rear of Vicksburg, attempted to capture it by assault, first on the 19th of May, and again on the 22nd, but his troops on both occasions were defeated, with enormous loss. He then resolved to reduce the fortress by regular siege, in which he was materially assisted by Admiral Porter, who captured the batteries at the mouth of the Yazoo River, and supplied his army with provisions. General Grant, while he pushed forward his lines towards the fortress, protected his army by entrenchments in his rear, so that General Joseph Johnstone, with his small force, could do nothing for the relief of Vicksburg. General Pemberton surrendered the fortress with its garrison, unconditionally, on the 4th of July. The prisoners

paroled were more than 30,000, the artillery about 200 pieces, the small arms about 70,000, together with a large quantity of ammunition.

After the battle of Chancellorsville, the opposing armies occupied respectively the north and south sides of the Rappahannock. General Hooker's position opposite Fredericksburg being one in which he could not be attacked to advantage, it was resolved by the Confederates to draw him from it, and at the same time to relieve the Shenandoah Valley from the troops which occupied the lower part of it, and then to transfer the war to the north of the Potomac. The movement was commenced on the 3rd of June, and the different corps were successively marched northwards. On the 13th, General Ewell, with two divisions, appeared suddenly before Winchester, and on the 14th the works were stormed and the whole army of General Milroy was captured or dispersed. He himself escaped to Harper's Ferry with a small party of fugitives. Martinsburg was also entered about the same time. More than 4,000 prisoners were taken, 29 pieces of artillery, 270 waggons and ambulances, and a large amount of military stores. The whole army of General Hooker now withdrew from the line of the Rappahannock. General Ewell crossed the Potomac, and the other divisions followed in succession; so that on the 27th the main body of the army was partly in Maryland and partly in Pennsylvania, where the troops obtained large quantities of stores, horses, cattle, and other things of which they were in want. On the 29th, General Meade had superseded General Hooker, and on that day General Lee received information by a scout that the Federal army having crossed the Potomac, was closer to him than he had supposed. He immediately gave orders for the concentration of his army at Gettysburg.

The Battles of Gettysburg.-On the morning of the 1st of July the hostile armies came into collision, four miles west from Gettysburg. After a struggle of some hours, the Federal troops were driven back through Gettysburg, with heavy loss of men and several pieces of artillery. They retired to a range of hills south and east of the town. The attack was not pressed in the afternoon, and the preparations for another attack were not completed till the afternoon of the 2nd of July. The Federals held a high and commanding ridge, along which they had massed a large number of guns. General Ewell occupied the left of the Confederate line, General Hill the centre, and General Longstreet the right. Advantageous positions were captured on the right and left, and the contest ceased when it became dark. On the 3rd, dispositions were made for the attempt to drive the Federals from the heights, which they had strengthened by earthworks. The battle recommenced on the afternoon of the 3rd, and raged with great violence till sunset. The Confederates failed in their attempt, and were obliged to fall back to their original positions with severe loss. The strength of the position held by the Federals, deficiency of ammunition for the artillery, and other considerations, determined the Confederates not to hazard another attack. They remained at Gettysburg during the 4th, and at night began to retire. The weather was very wet and stormy during the retreat, and the river had risen above its usual height. By the 13th, however, the waters had fallen a little, and were found to be fordable, though still deep; the pontoon-bridge, which had been partly broken, was repaired, and by one o'clock in the afternoon of the 14th, the whole of the Confederate army, with all its trains of stores and batteries of artillery, had recrossed the Potomac. No serious interruption had been made by the Federal army. The loss of the Federals in these battles is supposed to have been about 15,000, and that of the Confederates was perhaps not much less.

Vicksburg having been captured, the fall of Port Hudson was unavoidable. It surrendered unconditionally, on the 8th of July, to General Banks. The prisoners amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000. •

The commencement of the conscription in the city of New York produced a series of riots, which continued from the 13th of July till the 16th, and were not entirely suppressed till the 17th, when more than 30,000 soldiers of the regular army, besides militia, had been assembled in and around the city. The destruction of property caused by incendiary fires was valued at more than 80,0001. The number of persons killed was about 76, inclusive of some 20 negroes murdered by the mob, and about 600 persons were wounded or otherwise injured.

In accordance with the Acts passed by the Confederate Congress in April and September, 1862, President Davis, on the 21st of July, issued a proclamation calling out for military service, for three years, if the war should continue so long, the whole of the able-bodied population of the Confederate States, between the ages of 18 and 45.

The Siege of Charleston.-Morris Island, on the west side of the entrance to Charleston harbour, is separated from James Island, which is farther west and more inland, by creeks or inlets of the sea. It is about three miles long, less than half a mile wide in the upper or northern part, and less than two miles wide in the lower or southern part. It is an elevated sand-bank, without tree or shrub. Fort Wagner is situated near the northern end, and Fort Gregg at the extreme north, called Cumming's Point. On the 10th of July, before daylight, and under cover of gunboats, General Gilmore effected the landing of a body of troops, with batteries, at the lower end of the island. The defenders were defeated, with a loss of 300 killed and wounded, including 16 officers. On the 13th of July, General Gilmore had obtained possession of the whole of the southern end of the island. On the 18th, after a furious bombardment of Fort Wagner by monitors and gunboats, continued during the whole day, an attempt was made at dusk to capture it by assault. After repeated attacks, the Federal troops, including a regiment of negroes, were repulsed with a total loss of about 2000 killed and wounded, the total loss of the defenders having been only 150. On Monday, the 17th of August, at sunrise, a furious bombardment of Fort Sumter was commenced. General Gilmore opened fire from all his batteries on Morris Island, while Admiral Dahlgren moved up his entire available force of monitors and gunboats, to assist in the bombardment, which was continued incessantly till the evening of Saturday, the 22nd of August, when Fort Sumter was a mass of ruins. On the following day Admiral Dahlgren summoned Fort Sumter to surrender, and General Gilmore demanded the surrender of Charleston and the other forts. General Beauregard refused both. On Monday, the 24th, at one o'clock in the morning, General Gilmore threw into the city 13 shells, charged with combustible matter called Greek Fire. The damage done was very slight. These shells were thrown a distance of more than five miles. General Gilmore having failed in his attempt to capture Fort Wagner by assault, adopted the plan of regular siege. On the 6th of September, the sappers having advanced to the edge of the moat, the garrisons of Forts Wagner and Gregg were withdrawn during the night, in forty boats. Only one boat was intercepted, containing twelve men.

Fresh guns have been mounted on Fort Sumter; two attempts to take it by assault in the night have been repulsed with loss, and the Confederate flag still floats over the ruins of the demolished fortress.

After about eight months of apparent inaction, General Rosecrans, who had probably been reinforcing his army and collecting war-material and stores, commenced a great movement against General Bragg in Tennessee. His objects were obvious enough-to defeat General Bragg, whose force was much smaller than his own, and then conduct the Federal army triumphantly into Georgia and Alabama. Moving from Nashville, his base of operation, he advanced in the direction of Chattanooga. General Bragg was then compelled to make a countermovement of retreat from Shelbyville and Tullahoma, falling back to Chattanooga. General Rosecrans, following closely, grossed the Tennessee some miles below. General Bragg then evacuated his strong entrenchments at Chattanooga, removing the inhabitants and everything of value; and by this change of position secured his rear, and his communication by railway with Atlanta, through the Alleghany Mountains. Chattanooga was entered by a portion of the army of General Rosecrans, on the 10th of September, the main body remaining three or four miles lower down. General Bragg having been reinforced with two divisions of Longstreet's corps, from the army of General Lee, on the 19th of September, at ten o'clock in the morning, attacked the army of General Rosecrans. Falling at first upon the left wing, under General Thomas, the Confederates caused the reserves of the centre and right to be sent to his support. They then suddenly attacked the centre, drove it back, and separated the two wings. There was much confusion and rout, and the Confederates captured many guns, but the Federals were partly rallied, and held their ground, On the 20th, the attack was renewed, and the centre and right were defeated, and compelled to retreat. The left wing, under General Thomas, having secured a strong position, resisted with resolute bravery till dusk, when it fell back, and during the night joined the rest of the defeated army at Chattanooga. General Bragg reported that he had captured 7,000 prisoners, 36 pieces of artillery, and 15,000 small arms. The Federal loss, in killed and wounded, must have been very large. This was the Battle of Chicamauga, so called from the name of a stream near which it was fought.

For nearly three months after the 14th of July, when General Lee recrossed the Potomac from Maryland, nothing of importance took place between the two hostile armies in Virginia. At the beginning of October, General Lee's army occupied the line of the Rapidan, and General Meade's head-quarters were at Culpepper. On or about the 8th of October a large portion of General Lee's army commenced secretly a movement northwards, by the sides of the Blue Ridge, pust the right flank of General Meade's army. In a day or two this “ dangerous flank movement," as General Meade called it, was discovered, and the whole of the Federal army was withdrawn from the line of the Rappahannock to Centreville and Fairfax, the Confederate forces having seized and occupied the position of Manassas. No attack was made by either army, and in a few days General Lee's troops were withdrawn, when it was found that the railroad from Manassas to the Rappahannock had been so completely broken up as to require some weeks to renew it.

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PART II.

ARCHITECTURE AND PUBLIQ IMPROVEMENTS, LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1862-63.

VII.--ARCHITECTURE AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.

1. GENERAL PROGRESS :-ART AND PUBLIC MONUMENTS. LOOKING at the number and magnitude of the buildings and public works newly finished, approaching completion, commenced, or only talked about, this might well be thought the golden age for architects and builders, for engineers and contractors, and, indeed, for every class of artist and handicraftsman able to build and cunning to work in stone and in brick, in wood and in iron. But if we listen to the critics and professors we shall soon learn that it is a golden age only in the mercenary view of the matter. The true golden age, architects and writers on architecture are agreed, was an age long past though they differ widely as to the number of years, or even of centuries, that have since rolled away. The present, they tell us, is an age of ostentatious semblance and intellectual poverty. To restore the true age of gold we must think as they thought, or at least do as they did in those good old times.

The question of style, though still an undetermined question, is one that has the most powerful influence on current architecture. The advocates of the different styles continue to denounce, though with somewhat less vehemence, every style but the one they advocate. They are as they were : but there are symptoms that if they do not advance they will be left hopelessly in the rear. They have not yet come to see, or to admit, what is beginning to be understood outside the charmed circle, that a true style is the outgrowth of its age: the result of the physical and material, no less than of the intellectual, social, and religious development of the time and place and people; and that as a particular stage of development and culture passes away, or merges in a new and necessarily a different one, so with it must architectural style, if it be the true expression of its time. And therefore it is, that whilst all native or developed styles, however widely they may differ from each other, are found to be beautiful or suggestive, and therefore worthy of study, every style which is the mere revival, or reproduction, in a later age of one that had, centuries before, gone through its natural processes of birth, growth, maturity, decay and death, is, after the fashion of the hour has changed, invariably looked upon with something of contempt. But a few years ago imitations of Greek or Roman buildings were produced in abundance, alike in London and in Paris, in Berlin and in Munich, as pedantically perfect in their way as the Greek and Latin verses elaborated with so much toil and pride in modern universities ; but does any single living soul at this day care a straw more for the one as architecture than for the other as poetry? And so, though not yet to the same extent, of the copies of libraries and palaces we imported later with such pains and cost from Venice and Florence, and other

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