capital of Tennessee, was evacuated by the Confederates, and was occupied by the Federals on the 23rd of February. The Confederates also evacuated Murfreesborough, and retreated southwards.

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March 8. On the afternoon of this day, the 'Merrimac,' one of the frigates which had been sunk in Norfolk Harbour on the 21st of April, 1861, but which had been raised, repaired, plated with iron, and fitted with two iron beaks at the stem, attacked the Federal ships in Hampton Roads, at the mouth of the James River. She was mounted with ten very large guns. The Merrimac' after firing two guns, ran into the 'Cumberland,' a sloop of war, carrying 24 heavy guns, striking her with the sharp bows, and making a large hole at the water-mark. The 'Cumberland' immediately began to sink, when the Merrimac' backed a little, and then ran into her a second time, making another large hole, when the 'Cumberland' heeled over, and finally sank. About 130 men were destroyed, most of them by drowning. The Merrimac' next attacked the Congress,' a 50-gun frigate, which, in less than an hour, hoisted a white flag. The officers and marines were taken prisoners, but the seaman were allowed to escape. At night the 'Congress' was set on fire, and at midnight blown up. The Minnesota,' a Federal steamer carrying 40 guns got aground, and could render no assistance. In the evening the Monitor arrived from New York, but was not then prepared to take part in the action. The 'Monitor' was the first specimen of those iron-clad floating batteries, of which several others have been since constructed. It had a turret, which was in fact a revolving bombproof fort, carrying two 11-inch guns. On the morning of the 9th the 'Merrimac' again came out, and attacked the 'Minnesota,' which would probably have been destroyed, had not the 'Monitor' engaged the Merrimac.' The action between the Merrimac' and the Monitor' lasted a considerable time, the 'Merrimac' both firing and attempting to sink the 'Monitor' by running into it. The result was, that the Merrimac,' considerably injured, was compelled to retreat into Norfolk Harbour. From the time when General M'Clellan, on the 1st of November, 1861, assumed the command of the great army, afterwards called the Army of the Potomac, he busied himself incessantly in superintending the drilling of the troops, and in using all the other measures necessary for putting them into a perfect state of discipline and efficiency. Having at length brought his army into the proper condition, General M'Clellan advanced from Washington, and on the 10th of March proceeded to attack the Confederates in their position at Manassas. On arriving there, however, it was found that General Beauregard had retreated with the whole of his army, taking with him all his war-material and stores, and leaving only a few wooden guns ('dummies') to deceive the enemy and delay his approach. Instead of following General Beauregard, and advancing towards Richmond by the direct line through Fredericksburg, General M'Clellan organized a new plan of operation for the reduction of Virginia and capture of Richmond. Leaving about 30,000 men behind to cover Washington, and having assembled about 80,000 men, wellequipped, and with a formidable battering train, at the lower end of the peninsula between the York River and James River, under protection of the guns of Fortress Monroe, he himself, with about 30,000 more troops, proceeded to join them. His intention was to advance gradually towards Richmond, and when sufficiently near, a number of gun-boats were to force their way up the James River, and co-operate with the army in assaulting the city. This plan, if carried out in its entirety, would probably have resulted in the capture of Richmond.

General Beauregard, after leaving Manassas, proceeded to the west,

where he occupied a position at Corinth, a small place, about 100 miles east from Memphis, which he immediately set about fortifying.

On the 4th of April, slavery was abolished, by an Act of Congress, in the District of Columbia, which comprises an area of 50 square miles, including the city of Washington. The number of slaves, according to the census of 1860, was 3,181, for whose emancipation an average sum of 300 dollars per slave was awarded.

April 6 and 7. The Battle of Pittsburg Landing.-General Grant, with about 40,000 men occupied the left bank of the Tennessee River, about 20 miles north from Corinth. Another portion of his army was stationed at Savannah, on the right bank, a few miles lower down. General Beauregard advanced secretly with his army from Corinth; and General Albert Sidney Johnston, before nine in the morning of April 6th, suddenly attacked General Grant's army, and advancing rapidly stormed the camp, and took General Prentiss prisoner; but General Johnston himself was slain while leading a charge. During the night General Grant was joined by the other portion of his army, and General Buell also arrived with a fresh army from Nashville. On the morning of the 7th the Confederates renewed the attack, and the battle was continued all the day, the Federals being also assisted by two gun-boats, which threw shells among the Confederate troops. The result was, the failure of General Beauregard's attempt. During the following day his army made good its retreat to Corinth. The armies are said to have numbered about 70,000 each.

About 200 miles higher up the Mississippi than Memphis, and not far from New Madrid, in Missouri, the Confederates had taken possession of Island No. 10, on which they had erected formidable batteries, for the purpose of commanding the navigation of the river. This island lies in a curve of the Mississippi; and in order to capture it, the army of General Pope, on the west bank, cut a canal, twelve miles in length across the peninsula of marshy land formed by the bend of the river. Through this canal two gun-boats passed, followed by other boats carrying a large body of troops, with guns and mortars, for the purpose of besieging the island. After a defence lasting seventeen days, the commander of the island surrendered to Commodore Foote, on the 7th of April.

April 26. Capture of New Orleans.-The fleet of Commodore Farragut, which captured New Orleans, consisted of 30 vessels, carrying altogether about 300 guns, besides 20 mortar-boats under the command of Captain Porter. The bombardment of the forts below New Orleans lasted about ten days. On the 24th of April some of the gun-boats passed Fort Jackson, and on the 25th a passage up the river was secured for 14 war-steamers. All the Confederate gun-boats, steam-rams, iron-clad floating batteries, chains, and other obstructions in the river, were destroyed. Meantime General Butler had landed a considerable body of troops above the forts. On the 26th of April the Mayor of New Orleans surrendered the city, General Lovell having withdrawn his army without making any attempt at resistance, which could only have led to the bombardment and destruction of the houses and inhabitants.

May 10. On this day General Wool took possession of the city of Norfolk, the Confederate troops having been withdrawn. On the opposite side of Elizabeth River, the navy-yard, dry docks, naval machinery, and vessels, in the harbour of Norfolk, were destroyed by the Confederates, and on the 11th of May, at four o'clock in the morning, the formidable 'Merrimac' was blown up.

Matters were now ripe for General M'Clellan to put in operation his

strategic plan for the capture of Richmond. On the 5th of April his army was in front of the defences before Yorktown, which were assaulted on the 16th, and though not carried, were evacuated the next day, for they were not strong. Early in May his army had reached Williamsburg, where the Confederates fought a battle, and retreated. Norfolk Harbour being now in the possession of the Federals, the next operation was for the gun-boats to force their way up the James River. But they met with an impediment which they did not expect. About eight miles below Richmond, on the left or north bank of the river, rises a hill called Drury's Bluff, on which the Confederates had constructed a battery called Fort Darling. The formidable Monitor,' the 'Galena' (a very large iron-clad gun-boat), the 'Nangatuck,' 'Port Royal,' and 'Aristook,' proceeded up the river, prepared to remove and force their way through the obstructions-piles, sunken boats, chains-which had been put in the channel, opposite to Fort Darling. The gun-boats having reached this point, Fort Darling opened fire upon them. The two monster guns in the turret of the Monitor,' could not be elevated, and were therefore of no use. The 100-pound gun of the 'Nangatuck' burst at the first fire. Eighteen shots from the fort passed through the deck of the Galena.' After an action which lasted four hours, the whole of the gun-boats were compelled to retreat; and thus this important part of General M'Clellan's plan was a failure. Richmond must now be captured, if at all, by the army, without the aid of gun-boats.

In the west, General Halleck had superseded General Grant, and had collected a very large army at Pittsburg Landing, with which he had slowly and cautiously advanced towards Corinth; but during the night of May 29, and early morning of May 30, General Beauregard evacuated Corinth, retreating with the whole of his army, and carrying with him everything of value. General Halleck took possession of the empty entrenchments, and sent General Pope in pursuit of Beauregard, who however made good his retreat.

General Robert E. Lee now held the command in chief of the army at Richmond. He had succeeded General Beauregard. General M'Clellan's army was drawing near to Richmond. His right wing and part of his centre had crossed the Chicahominy, and the advanced corps under General Casey, was within six or eight miles of Richmond. On the 31st of May, General Casey's forces were suddenly attacked by the Confederates, and were completely routed. He lost 19 guns, all his baggage, and all his camp-equipage, the Confederates remaining on the field of battle. On the morning of June the 1st, fresh corps of Federals were pushed forward, and the Confederates then retreated behind their defences in front of Richmond. This was the Battle of Fair Oaks.

Meantime, General M'Dowell, with a large force, was advancing towards Richmond by the direct line through Fredericksburg, and General Banks was moving up the valley of the Shenandoah, with a force of 4,000 or 5,000 men, chiefly for the purpose of observation. General Banks had advanced beyond Strasburg, when two divisions of Confederates, under Generals Ewell and Jackson, seized Front Royal, cut off Banks's communication with M'Dowell, and then drove him, with great loss, through Winchester, and across the Potomac to Williamsport. General Banks having been reinforced soon recrossed the Potomac to the Valley of the Shenandoah, and Ewell and Jackson retreated; but General Fremont having also entered the valley with his force from Western Virginia, and having advanced beyond Harrisonburg, came upon General Jackson, who drew him into an ambuscade, and defeated him with heavy loss.

On the 6th of June a naval engagement took place on the Mississippi, near Memphis, resulting in the destruction of the Confederate fleet of eight gun-boats, by the Federal fleet of gun-boats under Commodore Davis.

On the same day Commodore Davis sent a summons to the Mayor of Memphis, demanding the surrender of the city. The Mayor, in his reply, stated, "As the civil authorities have no means of defence, by the force of circumstances the city is in your hands."

On the 14th of June, the Confederates, with a troop of cavalry and a light battery of artillery, made a reconnaissance of the Federal army. Crossing the Chicahominy on the right of the army, they passed entirely round it, and recrossed the river on the left of the army. They did considerable damage, and returned to Richmond with the loss of only one man, who was an officer.

On the 16th of June a battle was fought at Secessionville, on James Island, four miles from Charleston. The Federals, under cover of their gun-boats, had made good a landing with five regiments and a powerful battery of Parrot guns. They attacked the Confederate batteries at Secessionville, but were compelled to retreat with severe loss.

The forces of Generals M'Dowell, Fremont, and Banks, having been consolidated into one army, the command in chief was assigned to General Pope. General Fremont, dissatisfied with the elevation of General Pope over himself, sent in his resignation, which was accepted. Meantime, General Jackson, whose division was in the Valley of the Shenandoah, was moving southwards, in order to assist in the defence of Richmond. General Pope's army was directed partly to hinder General Jackson from joining the Confederates, and partly to operate with General M'Clellan in the attack upon Richmond.

The Battles of the Chicahominy, June 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and July 1.-General M'Clellan, having established his head-quarters at West Point and White House, on the York River, about 20 miles east from Richmond, was ready for the grand final attack. He had accumulated enormous stores of provisions and war-material, and had the advantage of a railway extending to the front of his army. He had pushed forward the divisions of General Hooker and General Heintzelmann across the Chicahominy, and they had established themselves in positions within six or seven miles of Richmond.

On the morning of Wednesday, June 25, at nine o'clock, General Hooker advanced his division, with the view of occupying a new position. He met with a determined resistance, which lasted till four o'clock in the afternoon, when the Confederates retired, without bringing on a general engagement. The loss on each side was only about 200 killed and wounded.

On the 26th of June, the Confederates having been joined by the troops under General Jackson, who had eluded General Pope, attacked the right wing of the Federal army. The attack was led by General Jackson, at a late hour in the afternoon, and the Federal troops were driven back across the Chicahominy. A simultaneous attack was made on the centre and left, which were also forced back. On the forenoon of the 27th, the attacks were renewed, and continued till darkness set in. General Jackson had then driven back the right wing to White House and West Point, and had also defeated the troops held in reserve. the morning of Saturday the 28th, General M'Clellan commenced his retreat from the York River to the James River. The stores at the stations on the railroad had been, as far as practicable, destroyed during the retreat on Friday, and those at White House were, to a very large


amount, either set on fire or thrown into the river, General M'Clellan taking with him as much as he was able. The retreat across the peninsula was commenced by the right wing being thrown back in the rear of the centre and left. The Confederates continued their attacks on the 29th and 30th. On the 1st of July, the remains of the great Army of the Potomac were for the most part gathered together at Harrison's Bar, or Turkey Bend, on the James River, more than 30 miles from West Point and as far below Richmond. Even on the 1st of July the Confederates continued their attacks, till they found, by severe loss, that the fire of the Federal gun-boats was too much for them. The two most furious battles of the series were fought on Friday the 27th and Monday the 30th. The loss of the Federals was estimated at 20,000 killed and wounded. The Confederate loss must also have been large; for though there was much rout and confusion among the Federal regiments, the resistance of their batteries at many points was very destructive, for they had a great superiority in artillery. General Lee, in his address to the army, stated that 53 pieces of artillery had been taken by the Confederates in the series of engagements.

In the month of July, President Lincoln signed an Act for the issuing of postage and other stamps for currency.

On the 5th of August he ordered 300,000 men to be drafted from the militia to serve for nine months.

President Davis, in his address to the Confederate Congress, assembled at Richmond on the 18th of August, said, "The very large increased force of the Federal Government may hereafter render it necessary to extend the Conscription Act to citizens of from 35 to 45 years of age. The Congress passed an Act granting President Davis the required power.

Leaving General M'Clellan undisturbed at Harrison's Bar, the Confederates now began to turn their attention to General Pope, whose army occupied the north bank of the Rappahannock. Generals Jackson and Ewell, on the 9th of August, had inflicted on General Banks a severe defeat at Cedar Mountain, about six miles south from Culpepper, where General Pope had his head-quarters. General Lee's main army was on the south side of the Rappahannock; and while, by apparent attempts to cross the river, he kept General Pope's attention engaged, General Jackson performed a secret march along the flank of the Blue Ridge, and on the 27th of August suddenly seized the position of Manassas. He was quickly followed by Generals Longstreet and Ewell. The provision-trains at Manassas Station were seized, partly appropriated, and the rest burnt. General Pope, as soon as he discovered that the Confederates had flanked him, and were in his rear, hastily broke up his camp, which was then at Warrenton, and hurried forward to Manassas. There he was met by the Confederates, and on the 28th and 29th of August was fought the Second Battle of Manassas, chiefly on the old ground of Bull's Run. At eight o'clock on the evening of the latter day the Federal rear was retreating in good order to Centreville. On the evening of the 1st of September the Federals were again attacked at Centreville, and compelled to fall back, seven miles farther, to Fairfax. The Confederates then retired from Manassas.

In the meantime General M'Clellan had commenced, on the 16th of August, his retreat from Turkey Bend. His army was conveyed in transports partly to Acquia Creek and partly to Alexandria. Only a portion of his troops took part in the Second Battle of Manassas. General Pope was relieved of his command, which was transferred on the 2nd of September to General M'Clellan.

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