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to a few miles beyond Matlock. The Chester and Holyhead line is still wanting the link which will be shortly supplied by that unparalleled work of engineering-the Britannia tubular bridge.

In the North of England, the new openings have not been so numerous as in the Central Counties. The York and North Midland and the York and Berwick Companies have added but little to the lengths of line previously opened. The Leeds and Thirsk Railway, previously opened from Thirsk to Harrogate, has been extended to Leeds. The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company has opened the branches from Knottingly to Doncaster, and from Bury to Liverpool. A junction has been made at Methley between the Midland and the Great Northern lines. The South Yorkshire has been opened from Doncaster to Swinton. The Rossendale district of Lancashire has had a few additional miles of railway opened. The Whitehaven and Furness Railway is extended to Ravenglass.

In Scotland, the extensive and complex works of the Caledonian Company have been further advanced towards completion; the Clydesdale Junction, the Hamilton branch, and a new entrance into Glasgow, have been opened. The North British Railway has been extended from St. Boswell to Hawick. A few additional miles of railway have been opened in the district westward of the Caledonian lines; and the same may be said of the busy mineral district, lying within a short distance north and south of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. The Nithsdale line has been opened from Closeburn to Dumfries, whence a line has been for some months open through Annan to the Caledonian at Gretna. The Edinburgh and Northern line has been so far finished as to afford through routes between Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth-excepting of course the Firths of Forth and Tay. The uninterrupted route from Stirling to Aberdeen is open nearly from end to end; from Stirling to Perth runs the Scottish Central; from Perth to Friockheim there are two lines, one through Dundee and Arbroath, and one through Cupar and Forfar; from Friockheim the line is open to Brechin and Montrose; and it will probably by the end of the present year extend into Aberdeen. There is not a yard of railway north of Aberdeen; and many years are likely to elapse before such will be attempted; although there is an Act in existence for a line from Aberdeen to Inverness.

In Ireland a few steps have been made towards completing the network of railways. The Great Southern and Western extends from Dublin to Mallow, 22 miles from Cork, and the extension from Mallow to Cork has just been opened at the time we are now writing; a branch extends from this line near Tipperary to Limerick. The Irish South Eastern Company has opened 10 miles from Carlow to Bagnalstown. The Midland Great Western line has been extended 14 miles from Kinnegad to Mullingar. The Londonderry and Enniskillen Company has opened a portion of the line, from Londonderry to Strabane; and 19 miles of the Dundalk and Enniskillen line have been finished.

With respect to the new works carried on in 1849, there were 320 miles of new railway opened from January 1 to June 30; which,

added to 5,127 previously open, makes a total of 5,447 miles. The passengers during the first half of 1849 amounted to 28,761,895. The railway calls for the first ten months of 1849 amounted to 17,700,964/., against 30,072,610l. in the first ten months of 1848.

In conclusion we may remark, that the Atmospheric system of traction has gone so far out of favour, that only the mile or two from Kingstown to Dalkey, in Ireland, is managed in that manner; that the broad gauge has been increased in mileage by only a very small amount; that the magnificent stone viaducts over the Tyne and the Tweed are approaching completion; that the broad estuaries of the Humber and the Tay are crossed by steamers so formed as to receive rails and carriages upon their decks; that the Electric Telegraph is laid down along nearly all the main lines; and that fatal accidents on railways, instead of increasing in the same ratio as the mileage open, are decreasing both relatively and absolutely. This decrease of accidents has led to a remarkable-application of the theory of probabilities to Railways, in respect to Assurance from death or injury. An Insurance Company has been formed, to work out the following plan: When a first class passenger takes his ticket, to go any distance on any railway, he pays 3d. additional for a Life Insurance, which remains in force during the continuance of the journey, whether it be hours or only minutes. If a railway accident causes his death during that journey, the company is responsible to his representatives for a payment of 1000/. In the second class it is 2d. for 500/., and in the third 1d. for 2007. A smaller payment is made for bodily injury without loss of life. The company can form its calculations only by observing the average ratio of accidents in past years. Another form of the same system, emanating from a different source, is to insure a passenger during all the railway journeys that he may take in a period of 3, 6, or 12 months: the sum insured being 10007., and the premium paid being 10s., 16s., or 20s., according to the length of insurance:-no distinction of class is here made.

V.-A CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT of the CONNEXION BETWEEN ENGLAND and INDIA.

(Continued from the COMPANION TO THE ALMANAO' for 1832.) 1829 Dec. 26: Intelligence received of the great confusion prevailing

among the trading classes at Calcutta, in consequence of the discovery of a series of forgeries practised by some of the natives, to the amount, as estimated, of 180,000l.

1830 Feb. 6: Destructive fire at Singapore, by which 120 houses were destroyed, but without any loss of lives.

1831 March 19: J. C. Hawkins, commander of a sloop in the East India Company's service tried at Bombay, and found guilty of piracy, in having purchased African slaves for the purpose of manning his vessel.

1833 Dec. 18: Bombay papers announce that at Lucknow, 1200 persons had, in one week, fallen victims to the cholera.

1834 March 19: Bombay papers of this date mention the first admission of natives of India to the magistracy, under one of the provisions of the East India Company's Charter Bill, of 1833. 1834 March 30: Information from Calcutta states that at Katmandoo (the capital of Nepaul) and its vicinity, 10,000 houses had been overthrown by an earthquake, and that from 600 to 800 persons were destroyed in the several towns of the valley.

1834 April 10: The revolt of the Rajah of Coorg led to a short but severe contest between his people and a body of British forces, which terminated in the victory of the latter and the deposition of the Rajah.

1835 Sir C. Metcalf appointed Governor-General.

1836 Feb.: A demonstration made by the people of Calcutta in favour of a steam communication between England and India.

1836 March 5: Lord Auckland takes the office of Governor-General. 1836 May 21: The experimental expedition under Col. Chesney, despatched by the British government for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of steam communication with India, met with a severe accident. The two steam-boats were suddenly caught in a violent tempest or hurricane; one of them was upset, and 21 individuals perished. The vessel was recovered -it was found with its keel upwards. This accident did not interrupt the progress of the expedition.

1836 June: A meeting of the inhabitants of Calcutta took place in the Town Hall, on the subject of the "Black Act" (the name given to an Act passed by the Legislative Council, repealing the former Act, which gave to suitors in the Mofussil, power to appeal to the supreme court, at the presidency). It was resolved to send an agent to England to prevent the confirmation of that Act by the home authorities. Mr. Turton, the barrister, was selected.

:

1836 Aug. Col. Chesney, with the Euphrates expedition, arrived at Bussorah.

1837 July: The Court of Directors refused a charter to the Bombay Bank.

1838 Oct. News received that the Chief of Cabul, Dost Mahomed

Khan, whether through Russian influence, or a desire to fortify himself against the enmity of his brothers and the Sikhs, had joined the Persians in their attack upon Herat, and advised that the troops of Persia and Cabul should march upon the Indus. The ruler of Herat, Shah Kamran, as he termed himself, having defeated the Shah of Persia, who relinquished his enterprise against him, and being joined by the Azbeck and other tribes, prepared to attempt the recovery of the Crown of Cabul. The British Government, with a view of preventing the success of either party, concluded, in conjunction with the Sikh government, a treaty with Shah Soojah, the dethroned sovereign of Cabul, to restore that prince to his rightful power. The British troops entered Afghanistan as auxiliaries of Shah Soojah.

1838 Aug. 1: Slavery abolished in the East Indies.

1839 Jan. 20: The troops of the East India Company occupy Aden on the side of the Red Sea.

1839 April 21: The Anglo-Indian army occupy Candahar.

1839 July 5: On this day, the British army in India, which marched from Candahar in four divisions on the 27th, 28th, and 29th of

May, and the 3rd of June, was concentrated at Nanee, 12 miles from Ghuznee. At 2 o'clock on the morning of the 23rd, the troops under the command of Sir J. Keane commenced an attack on the citadel of Ghuznee (one of the strongest places in Asia), defended by a garrison of 3,500 men, and commanded by a son of the ex-king of Cabul. At 3 o'clock, the gates were blown in by the artillery, and, under cover of a heavy fire, the infantry forced their way into the place, and succeeded at 5 o'clock in fixing the British colours upon the tower of the citadel. Five hundred of the garrison were killed, and the remainder, with their commander, made prisoners. The loss on the English side was 191 killed and wounded. When the news of the event reached Cabul, Dost Mahomed sallied forth, but was shortly deserted by the greater part of his army, and compelled to fly, with only 300 men, abandoning his artillery, ammunition, baggage, &c.

1839 Aug. 7: Shah Soojah restored to the sovereignty, entered the city of Cabul, accompanied by the British minister, the general commanding the army, and a numerous staff.

1840 Nov. 2: Dost Mahomed once more completely defeated in Afghanistan, and surrendered himself to Sir W. M'Naghten, the British envoy at the court of Shah Soojah. The British suffered severely in the action, particularly as regarded officers.

1840 Dec. 1: A desperate defence made by 4,000 Beloochees, posted among the hills at Kotriah, in Scinde, against the attack of 900 Sepoys, 60 horse, and two field-pieces, commanded by Lieut. Marshall. They were, however, ultimately beaten, with the loss of 500 men. The British had 11 killed, and 30 wounded.

1841 June: Three thousand Ghilzies defeated by 400 or 500 British soldiers, near Khelat-i-Ghilzie, after a sanguinary conflict. 1841 July 14: The Court of East India Proprietors in London engaged during this, and several following days, in discussing the conduct of the Court of Directors in deposing the Rajah of Sattara. On the 20th it was decided by a majority in the proportion of 2 to 1, to reject the motion for inquiry.

1841 Nov. 2: General rising against the English at Cabul. Sir Alexander Burnes and several other officers murdered. 1841 Dec. 25: Sir W. M'Naghten assassinated at Cabul, during a deliberation respecting the evacuation of that place.

1842 Jan. 6: The British troops evacuate Cabul, under a convention, concluded between Major Pottinger and Akhbar Khan, son of Dost Mahomed, notwithstanding which they were attacked in the Khoord Cabul Pass, and massacred. The Sepoys were so completely paralyzed, and benumbed with cold, that they threw away their arms. On the 8th, the Europeans made a last stand, but the whole were killed, with the exception of two or three fugitives. General Elphinstone, the commander of the troops, with several officers and their wives, including Lady Sale, had previously been placed as hostages, in the hands of Akhbar Khan.

1812 Jan. 30: Lord Ellenborough takes the office of GovernorGeneral,

1842 March 6: Col, Palmer evacuates Ghuznee, in pursuance of a capitulation with the Afghans,

1842 March 10: The Afghans, in the absence of General Nott, attempt to take Candahar, and are repulsed.

1842 April 5: Sir R. Sale, in a sortie from Jellalabad, repulses the Afghans, who had for some time beleaguered that place. General Pollock, at the head of 8,000 troops, joins Sir R. Sale at Jellalabad, after forcing the Khyber Pass.

1842 April 29: General England forces the principal pass between Juettah and Candahar, an enterprise which had not succeeded when attempted in the previous month.

1842 May 9: General England joins his forces to those of General Nott, at Candahar.

1842 Aug. 10: General Nott, at the head of a chosen army of about 7,000 men, leaves Candahar for Ghuznee and Cabul, the latter

place about 300 miles from Candahar. General England, with the remainder of the Candahar forces, marches at the same time to Quettah.

1842 Sept. 6: Ghuznee re-taken by General Nott.

1842 Sept. 16: General Pollock, after forcing the Passes, re-occupies Cabul, and plants the British flag on the Balla Hissar. From Jellalabad to Gundamuck, but especially from the latter place to Cabul, the Afghans maintained an irregular, but formidable contest, assembling in great numbers on the heights, and obstinately contesting each post. 1812 Sept. 21: Lady Sale, Lady M'Naghten, and the other prisoners who had been detained by Akhbar Khan since the disasters at Cabul, in January, arrived in safety in General Pollock's

camp.

1842 Oct. 1: Lord Ellenborough issued a proclamation from Simla, that the disasters in Afghanistan having been avenged upon every scene of past misfortune, the British army would be withdrawn to the Sutlej.

1842 Oct. 12: After destroying the fortifications, Cabul is evacuated by the British troops, who arrive at Jellalabad in three divisions, on the 22nd and two following days.

1843 Feb. 17: A severe action between the British troops under Sir Charles Napier, and the forces of the Ameers of Scinde, when the latter were defeated; and on the next day the Ameers surrendered themselves prisoners of war. The Ameers had signed a treaty with the British on the 14th, and on the following day they treacherously attacked the residence of the British Commissioners with a large force. On the 20th the British occupied Hyderabad, the capital. Subsequently the Governor-General annexed Scinde to the British empire. 1943 Sept. 15: The Maharajah Shere Singh, ruler of the Punjab, his sons, and their wives and children, assassinated at the instigation of Dhyon Singh, the prime minister, who was himself afterwards murdered.

Meetings for the acceleration of the Indian mails held during this month, in London, Liverpool, and Glasgow.

1843 Dec. 29: The territory of Gwalior invaded and subjugated by the Anglo-Indian army.

1844 May 6: Sir Henry Hardinge appointed Governor-General of India.

1844 May 24: A great meeting of Belochee chiefs, to the number of 20,000, convened at Hyderabad by Sir Charles Napier, governor of Scinde, the object being to test their fidelity and obedience.

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