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TABLE TO CALCULATE WAGES AND OTHER PAYMENTS.
Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D. Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D. Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D.
If the Wages be Guineas instead of Pounds, for each Guinea add one Penny to each Month, or one Farthing to each Week.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
The four last denominations are used for dry goods only. For liquids several denominations have been heretofore adopted, viz. For Beer, the Firkin of 9 Gallons, the Kilderkin of 18, the Barrel of 36, the Hogshead of 54, and the Butt of 108 Galls. These will probably continue to be used in practice. For Wine and Spirits, there are the Anker, Runlet, Tierce, Hogshead, Puncheon, Pipe, Butt, and Tun; but these may be considered rather as the names of the casks in which such commodities are imported, than as expressing any definite number of gallons. It is the practice to gauge all such vessels, and to charge them. according to their actual content.
Flour is sold nominally by measure, but actually by weight, reckoned at 7lb. Avoirdupois to a Gallon.
4. MEASURE OF WEIGHT. DIVISION I.-AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 27 Grains = 1 Dram = 271 gr. 16 Drams = 1 Ounce 16 Ounces
1 Pound (lb.) 7000
1 Quarter (qr.)
1 Hundredweight (cwt.)
20 Cwt. =1 Ton
This weight is used in almost all commercial transactions, and in the common dealings of life.
The particular weights belonging to this Division are as follow:-cwt. qr. lb. 14 Pounds 1 Stone 0 0 14
1 Perch or Rod 1 Rood
2 Weys 12 Sacks
= 1 Acre
= 1 Sq. Mile
3. MEASURES OF SOLIDITY AND
2 Stone = 1 Tod = 0 1 0 = 1 Wey=1 2 14 1 Sack = 3 1 0 1 Last 39 0 0 DIVISION II. TROY WEIGHT. 24 Grains 1 Pennyweight = 20 Pennywts. 1 Ounce 12 Ounces =1 Pound These are the denominations of Troy Weight when used for weighing gold, silver, and precious stones (except diamonds). But Troy Weight is also used by Apothecaries in compounding medicines, and by them the ounce is divided into 8 drams, and the dram into 3 scruples, so that the scruple is equal to 20 grains.
For scientific purposes the grain only is used; and sets of weights are constructed in decimal progression, from 10,000 grains downwards to of a grain.
By comparing the number of grains in the Avoirdupois and Troy pound and ounce respectively, it appears that the Troy pound is less than the Avoirdupois, in the proportion of 14 to 17 nearly; but the Troy ounce is greater than the Avoirdupois, in the proportion of 72 to 79 nearly.
The carat, used for weighing diamonds, is 3 grains. The term, however, when used to express the fineness of gold, has a relative meaning only. Every mass of alloyed gold is supposed to be divided into 24 equal parts; thus the standard for coin is 22 carats fine, that is, it consists of 22 parts of pure gold, and 2 parts of alloy. What is called the new standard, used for watch-cases, &c., is 18 carats fine.
5. ANGULAR MEASURE;
= 1 Minute
1 Quadrant 360 Degrees, or 12 Signs = 1 Circumference. Formerly, the subdivisions were carried on by sixties; thus, the second was divided into 60 thirds, the third into 60 fourths, &c. At present the second is more gene
MEMORANDA FOR NEXT YEAR, 1851.
N.B. As towards the end of each year, or even earlier, information concerning the ensuing year is often wanted, we intend in future to add to the current Almanac a synopsis of that which is to succeed it, as follows:
I.-Beginnings of the Months and Sundays.
5, Sunday. 12,
1, Saturday. 2, Sunday.
March 1, Saturday.
Sept. 1, Monday.
Oct. 1, Wednesday.
.. June 15
First Sunday in Advent
29, New 6 24 morn.
.......... Dec. 21
h. m. Sept. 10, Full 1 43 aft. 25, New 6 11 morn. 10, Full 6 32 morn. 24, New 3 9 aft. Nov. 8, Full 11 21 aft. 23, New 2 6 morn. Dec. 8, Full 327 aft. ,, 22, New 333 aft.
London: Printed by A. SWEETING, Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn.
Companion to the Almanac;
I. GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS
MATHEMATICS, NATURAL HISTORY,
CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.
II. THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1849.
CHARLES KNIGHT, 90, FLEET STREET.
PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE; OR, FOUR SHILLINGS BOUND WITH THE BRITISH ALMANAC.