Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

TABLE TO CALCULATE WAGES AND OTHER PAYMENTS. Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D. Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D. Y. Pr. M. Pr Week Pr. D.

60/5

1

1. L. s. d. Z. s. ds. dll. I. S. d. l. S. ds. d. 1. L. S. d. l. S. d. s. d. 10 1 80 0 40 0110 18 40 4 29 0 7 302 10 00 11 6 173 210 3 410 0940 121 0 0 0 4 74 0 8 403 6 80 15 4 2 21 310 5 00 1 1 0 2 131 1 80 4 110 83 504 3 40 19 2 2 9 410 6 80 1 630 231141 3 40 5 41 0 9

001 3 0 3 34 50 8 40 1 11 0

151
5 00

5 9 0 10 70 5 16 81 6 10 3 10 60 10 00 2 3110 4 161 6 80

6 1 O 104|| 806 13 41 10 8 4 41 70 11 80

2 84 4317 1 8 40 6 640 114 907 10 01 14 6 4 111 80 13 40 3 0 0 57 18/1 10 010 6 101 0110100 8 6 81 18 41 5 53

90 15 00 3 54 0 6 191 11 80 7 31 1 0. 100 100 16 810 3 10 063/2011 13 40 7 8 1 14 If the Wages be Guineas instead of Pounds, for each Guinea add one Penny

to each Month, or one Farthing to each Week.

= 21 Inches

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 1. MEASURE OF LENGTH,

The four last denominations are used for 12 Inches 1 Foot

dry goods only. For liquids several deno. 3 Feet 1 Yard

minations have been heretofore adopted, 53 Yards 1 Rod or Pole

viz. :--For Beer, the Firkin of 9 Gallons, 40 Poles 1 Furlong

the Kilderkin of 18, the Barrel of 36, the 8 Furlongs = 1 Mile

Hogshead of 54, and the Butt of 108 Galls. 1 Degree of a Great These will probably continue to be used 695 Miles

Circle of the in practice. For Wine and Spirits, there
Earth.

are the Anker, Runlet, Tierce, Hogshead, An inch is the smallest lineal measure Puncheon, Pipe, Butt, and Tun; but these to which a name is given, but subdivisions may be considered rather as the names of are used for many purposes. Among me

the casks in which such commodities are chanics, the inch is commonly divided into imported, than as expressing any definite eighths. By the officers of the revenue, and number of gallons. It is the practice to by scientific persons, it is divided into gauge all such vessels, and to charge them tenths, hundredths, &c. Formerly it was made according to their actual content. to consist of 12 parts, called lines.

Flour is sold nominally by measure, but Particular Measures of Length. actually by weight, reckoned at 71b. AvoirA Nail

used for dupois to a Gallon. Quarter = 4 Nails

measuring

4. MEASURE OF WEIGHT. Yard = 4 Quarters cloth of all DIVISION I.-AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. El 5 Quarters kinds. 27}} Grains = 1 Dram

27. gr. Hand

4 Inches

Sused for height 16 Drams =1 Ounce = 4371

of horses. 16 Ounces used in measur

= 1 Pound (lb.) =7000 Fathom 6 Feet

28 Pounds = 1 Quarter (qr.) ing depths. used in Land 4 Quarters= 1 Hundredweight (cwt.)

Measure to faci- 20 Cwt. - 1 Ton
Link

7 In. 92
litate computa-

This weight is used in almost com
hdths.
tion of the con-

mercial transactions, and in the common Chain =100 Links

tent, 10 square
chains being

dealings of life.

equal to an acre. The particular weights belonging to this 2. MEASURE OF SURFACE. Division are as follow:--cwt. qr. Ib. 144 Sq. Inches 1 Sq. Foot 14 Pounds = 1 Stone-00 14

Used 9 Sq. Feet 1 Sq. Yard

2 Stone =1 Tod 0 1 0

in the 304 Sq. Yards 1 Perch or Rod

61 Tod = 1 Wey = 1 2 14

Wool 40 Perches 1 Rood 2 Weys 1 Sack = 3 1 0

Trade. 4 Roods 1 Acre

12 Sacks = 1 Last =39 0 0 640 Acres 1 Sq. Mile

DIVISION II. -TROY WEIGHT. 3. MEASURES OF SOLIDITY AND 24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight 24 gr. CAPACITY

20 Pennywts. = 1 Ounce Division I.-SOLIDITY.

12 Ounces -1 Pound =5760 1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot These are the denominations of Troy 27 Cubic Feet = 1 Cubic Yard Weight when used for weighing gold, silver, DIVISION II.--CAPACITY.

and precious stones (except diamonds). 4 Gills

cub. ins., =1 Pint

343

But Troy Weight is also used by Apothe

nearly. caries in compounding medicines, and by 2 Pints = 1 Quart 603

them the ounce is divided into 8 drams, and = 1 Gallon = 2773

the dram into 3 scruples, so that the scruple 2 Gall. = 1 Peck

5543

is equal to 20 grains. 8 Gall. = 1 Bushel

For scientific purposes the grain only is 8 Bush. = 1 Quarter =

cub. feet used; and sets of weights are constructed

in decimal progression, from 10,000 grains 5 Qrs. = I Load $13

downwards to of a grain.

100

=

= 480

[ocr errors]

4 Ots.

2218!

10% (nearly.

By comparing the number of grains in rally divided decimally into 10ths, 100ths, the Avoirdupois and Troy pound and ounce &c. The degree is frequently so divided. respectively, it appears that the Troy

6. MEASURE OF TIME. pound is less than the Avoirdupois, in the 60 Seconds

=1 Minute proportion of 14 to 17 nearly; but the Troy 60 Minutes

1 Hour ounce is greater than the Avoirdupois, in 24 Hours

1 Day the proportion of 72 to 79 nearly.

7 Days

= 1 Week The carat, used for weighing diamonds,

28 Days

=lLunar Month is 3 grains. The term, however, when

28, 29, 30, or 31 Days= 1 Calendar Month used to express the fineness of gold, has a 12 Calendar Months = 1 Year relative meaning only. Every mass of

365 Days

= 1 Common Year alloyed gold is supposed to be divided into

366 Days

= 1 Leap Year 24 equal parts; thus the standard for coin

In 400 Years, 97 are leap years, and 303 is 22 carats fine, that is, it consists of 22

common. parts of pure gold, and 2 parts of alloy. The same remark as in the case of anWhat is called the new standard, used for gular measure applies to the mode of subwatch-cases, &c., is 18 carats fine.

dividing the second of time.
5. ANGULAR MEASURE;

WEIGHT OF ENGLISH COINS.
OR, DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE.

Gold.
60 Seconds
= 1 Minute
Sovereign

5 34 60 Minutes - 1 Degree Half Sovereign

2 133 30 Degrees =l Sign Double Sovereign

10 63 90 Degrees I Quadrant

Silver. 360 Degrees, or 12 Signs = 1 Circumference.

Crown

18 4 4-11 Formerly, the subdivisions were carried Half Crown ..

9 2 2-11 on by sixties; thus, the second was divided Shilling

3 15 3-11 into 60 thirds, the third into 60 fourths, Sixpence

1 19 7-11 &c. At present the second is more gene- Fourpence

1 5 1-11

dwt. gr.

Oct.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

99

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

May

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

9

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

18,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

MEMORANDA FOR NEXT YEAR, 1851. N.B. As towards the end of each year, or even earlier, information concerning the ensuing year is often wanted, we intend in future to add to the current Almanac a synopsis of that which is to succeed it, as follows:

1.-Beginnings of the Months and Sundays. Jan. 1, Wednesday |April , Tuesday. July 6, Sunday.

5, Sunday.
5, Sunday,
6, Sunday.
13,

12,
12,
13,
20,

19,
19,
20,
27,

26,
26,

27,

Aug. 1, Friday. Nov. 1, Saturday. Feb. 1, Saturday.

1, Thursday.
3, Sunday,

2, Sunday.
2, Sunday.
4, Sunday.
10,

9,
9,
11,
17,

16,
16,

24,

23,
23,
25,
31,

30, March 1, Saturday. June 1, Sunday. Sept. 1, Monday Dec. 1, Monday. 2, Sunday. 8, 7, Sunday.

7, Sunday
9,
15,
14,

14,
16,
22,
21,

21,
23,
29,
28,

28,
30
July 1, Tuesday

Oct.

1, Wednesday. 31, Wednesday

II.-Moveable Feasts.
Septuagesima Sunday
Feb. 16 | Low Sunday....

April 27 Quinquagesima, Shrove Sunday .. Mar. 2 Rogation Sunday

May 25 Ash Wednesday.

.. Mar. 5 Ascension Day–Holy Thursday Quadragesima, 1st Sunday in Lent.. Mar. 9

Whit Sunday..

.. June 8 Palm Sunday

Trinity Sunday

.. June 15 Good Friday

Corpus Christi

.. June 19 Easter Sunday

.. Apr. 20
First Sunday in Advent

Dec. 21
III.-Moon's Phases.
h. m.

h. m. Jan. 2, New 10 43 morn May 15, Full 8 5 morn. Sept. 10, Full 1 43 aft. 17, Full 4 42 aft. 30, New 8 46 aft.

25, New 6 11 orn. Feb. 1, New 6 2 morn. June 13, Full 6 44 aft. Oct. 10, Full 6 32 morn. 16, Full 3 28 morn. 29, New 6 24 morn.

24, New 3 9 aft. Mar. 3, New 1 14 morn.

July 13, Full 7 14 morn. Nov. 8, Full 11 21 aft. 17, Full 118 aft. 28, New 2 40 aft.

23, New 2 6 morn. Apr. 1, New 6 32 aft. Aug. 11, Full 9 42 aft. Dec. 8, Full 3 27 aft. 15, Full 10 35 aft. » 26, New 10 19 aft.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

22, New 3 33 aft, May 1, New 9 1 morn.

London : Printed by A. SWEETING, Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn.

THE

Companion to the Almanac ;

OR,

YEAR-BOOK

OF

GENERAL INFORMATION

FOR

185 0.

CONTAINING,

I. GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS

OF

MATHEMATICS, NATURAL HISTORY,

AND

PHILOSOPHY,

CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

II. THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVE

MENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1849.

LONDON:
CHARLES KNIGHT, 90, FLEET STREET.

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIX PENCE; OR, FOUR SHILLINGS

BOUND WITH THE BRITISH ALMANAC.

LONDON:

ALFRED SWEETING, FRINTER, BARTLETT'S PUILDINGS, CONTENTS.

PART I.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL PhiloSOPHY AND HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, &c.

Page 1. On Ancient and Modern Usage in Reckoning.

5 II. British and Irish Fisheries .

34 III. Public Libraries

53 IV. Railways of the United Kingdom

62 V. A Chronological Account of the Connexion between England and India...

70 'VI. The Coal Trade of London

79 VII. Supply of Water for the Metropolis.

88 VIII. Cholera.

101 IX. Fluctuations of the Funds

125 X. European and other Powers, 1849.

126

PART II.

The LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE

of 1848.9.

Bill.

XI. Abstracts of important Public Acts passed in the Second Session of

the Fifteenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland :Inland Revenue

127 Stamps, &c. Allowances 138 Inclosures.... 128 Pilotage

140 Larceny Acts Amendment ... 128 Customs.

140 Out-Door Paupers.

129 Cruelty to Animals Prevention Poor Laws, Ireland (Rate in

142 Aid).. 129 Metropolitan Sewers ........

143 Navigation Laws

130 General Board of Health ...... 144 Passengers' Act, 1849.... 131 Small Debts Act Amendment . 144 Sewers Acts Amendments. 136 Leasehold Tenure of Lands (IreCommons Inclosure (No. 2).. 136 land)..

145 Marriages in Foreign countries Bankrupt Laws Consolidation.. 146 facilitating. 137 Bankruptcy (Ireland).

151 Regimental Benefit Societies 138 Nuisances Removal and DisProtection of Women 138 eases Prevention

151 Incumbered Estates (Ireland) . 138 | Memorandum.

152

« ElőzőTovább »