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EXPLANATORY NOTICES.

Explanation of the column headed Thermometrical Register.” The Thermometrical Register commences with Nov. 1848, and closes with Oct. 1849 inclusive. These registers have been carefully copied from those made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and which are also deposited with the Royal Society. They show the highest and lowest ranges within each twenty-four hours, from twelve different readings. Each month is placed with its corresponding month, as affording the most ready and advantageous means of comparison, although by this arrangement the register of the last two months of 1848 follows the ten months of 1849, which are all we can give up to the day of publication. Explanation of the columns headed " Length of day,Day's increase or decrease,”

"Day breaks," and Twilight ends." The column headed “Length of day” contains the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset. The column headed “Day's increase" expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has increased since the shortest day; and, where the column is headed “Day's decrease,” it expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has decreased since the longest day; for example, the length of the longest day in 1850 is put down in the column “Length of day” at 16h. 34m.; and on the 6th of July following we find that the length of the day, or the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset, is set down at 16h. 24m.; hence the day has decreased 10m. since the longest day, and, accordingly, in the column “Day's decrease,” we find opposite July the 6th Oh. 10m.

Equation of Time. In this Almanac the calculations are all made for mean time (given by the clock), instead of apparent time (given by the sun-dial), which latter had been used up to the year 1833. It must be obvious that, for all practical purposes, mean time is the most useful; and to obtain it from apparent time, the columns in the Almanac headed "Equation of Time" should be used. The column "Equation of Time" ought, for example, to be consulted when persons are desirous of setting their clock by a sun-dial. When clock after sun is written above the number of minutes and seconds opposite to the day, then the clock ought to be set so much slower than the sun-dial, and the contrary.

Moonlight The Moon's age is set down in days and the nearest tenths of days from the time of change. Thus it is New Moon on the 12th of February at 6h, 29m. morning, and therefore at noon on the 13th she is 1 day 5h. 3lm. old, which is set down as 1 day and twotenths. The fraction of the day of course continues the same throughout the lunation.

LIST OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ERAS WITH THE YEAR 1850. [In those Eras which begin with the Christian year, the year alone is stated; in those

which begin at a different season, the month in which the 1st of January, 1850, occurs is also given.]

Correspondence Abbre

with 1850. viations. Roman Year

2603 A.U.C. Year of the World (Constantinopolitan account)

7358 A.M. Const. Ditto (Alexandrian account)

7342 A.M. Alex. Ditto (Jewish account)

17th Thebet 5610 A.M. Era of Nabonassar

7th Pharmuti 2598 Ær. Nab. Egyptian

24th Cohiac 2596 A. Æg. Julian Period ..

6563 Jul. Per. Dioclesian, or of Martyrs....

...... 24th Cohiac 1566 Ær. Diocl. Seleucides, or Grecian

..... Audynæus 2161 Ær. Seleuc. Death of Alexander

3d month of 2173 A. Mor. Alex. Era of Tyre...

· Audynæus 1974

Ær. Tyr.
Cæsarian of Antioch (Greek)

Audynæus 1898 Cæs. Ant.
Ditto (Syrian)

Canun II. 1897
Era of Abraham

... 4th month of 3865 Ær. Abr. Spanish, or of the Cæsars

1888 A. Cæs. Persian Era of Yezdegird III. (Parsee account)

1219 A. Pers. Armenian common year..

.. 4th Kaghots 1299 An. Arm. Ditto ecclesiastical year .......

12th Kaghots 1298 Hegira

16 Saphar 1266 A.H. Kaliyug.

Poos or Margaly 4951 Cal. Salivahana

Ditto

1772 Saca, Vikramaditya

Ditto 1906 Samvat.

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Correspondence Abbre.

with 1850. viations. Bengalee

Poos or Margaly 1256 Beng. Sen. Fuslee (Bengal account)

Ditto

1257

Fusl. Ditto (Telinga account)

Ditto 1259 Era of Collam

4th month of 1025 Collam. Grahaparivrithi

dia year of 21st cycle

Grah. Brihuspotee (Bengal)

35th year of 84th cycle

Cycl. Brit. Ditto (Telinga)

44th year of 83rd cycle Chinese Year

Ilth month of Ke Yew. AUXILIARY TABLE FOR FINDING THE TIME OF SUN

RISING AND SETTING. The time of Sunrise and Sunset in the British Almanac' is adapted to the parallel of

latitude in which London is situated_viz. 51° 30'. The following table has been constructed to show the variations of time through the United Kingdom-namely, between the latitude of 580 and 50° 10' N. The times of sun-rising and sun-setting are computed for the instant that the sun's centre is even with the horizon of the sea. The number of minutes found in this table under the month-day, and in the required latitude, are to be applied to the time of sun-rising and setting found on that day in the Almanac; the result will be the time of his rising and setting at the place required.-Ex. At what time will the sun rise and set on May 21 at Edinburgh? The time of sunrise and sunset on that day in the Almanac is 4h. lm. A.M., and 7h. 52m. P. M. In the tables in parallel of 56°, in which Edinburgh is found, and under May 21, are 23 minutes; which, subtracted from 4h. Im., leaves 3h. 38m. for time of sunrise; and, added to 7h. 52m., gives 8h. 15m. for time of sun-setting.

The places which follow the different parallels are situate within 15 miles of latitude, either north or south of it. Lat.

GREAT BRITAIN. 580 0-Dornoch, Tain, Dunrobin, Portenleik, Dunclaim. 570 30'-Peterhead, Fraserburg, Banff, Elgin, Cromarty, Inverness, Applecross. 570 0 -- Aberdeen, Bervie, Braemar, Laggan, Cornock. 560 30'-Forfar, Dundee, Perth, Comrie, Ardchattan. 56° 0'-Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Kinross, Stirling, Dumbarton,

Glasgow. 550 30'—Embleton, Jedburgh, Selkirk, Sanquhar, Lanark, Irvine, Ayr. 550 0'- Newcastle, Morpeth, Carlisle, Annan, Dumfries, New Galloway, Wigtown. 54° 30'-Scarborough, Whitby, Hartlepool, Stockton, Richmond, Appleby, Cocker.

mouth, Whitehaven, North part of Isle of Man. 540 0_New Malton, York, Aldborough, Clitheroe, Lancaster, Preston. 53° 30'-_Grimsby, Kingston-upon-Hull, Pontefract, Manchester, Wigan, Liverpool,

Beaumaris, Holyhead. 530 0'-Lynn Regis, Boston, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Stafford, Flint, Chester,

Denbigh, Caernarvon, Harlech. 520 30'-Yarmouth, Norwich, Thetford, Ely, Peterborough, Leicester, Coventry, Lich

field, Shrewsbury, Ludlow, Montgomery, Aberystwith. 520 0'_Ipswich, Colchester, Cambridge, Hertford, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford,

Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, Monmouth, Brecon, Caermarthen, Car

digan, St. David's. 510 30'_LONDON, Ramsgate, Canterbury, Rochester, Chelmsford, Windsor, Walling

ford, Marlborough, Malmesbury, Bath, Bristol, Newport, Cardiff, Llandafl,

Pembroke. 510 0'_Dover, Winchelsea, Brighton, Guildford, Chichester, Winchester, Portsmouth,

Southampton, Salisbury, Shaftesbury, Wells, Ilchester, Taunon, Bridge

water, Minehead, Barnstaple. 500 30'_Newport (I. W.), Poole, Weymouth, Exeter, Ashburton, Totnes, Plymouth,

Tavistock, Launceston, Bodmin, Camelford, Padstow 500 10'_Truro, Falmouth, Helstone, Penzance.

IRELAND. 5500_Carrickfergus, Antrim, Coleraine, Londonderry, Lifford, St. Johnstown. 54° 30'-_Belfast, Killyleagh, Downpatrick, Armagh, Charlemont, Dungannon, Augher,

Donegal, Ballyshannon, Enniskillen, Sligo. 540 0-Carlingford, Newry, Dundalk, Drogheda, Kells, Cavan, Belturbet, Carrick,

Boyle, Castlebar, Killala. 530 30'_Dublin, Swords, Naas, Athboy, Mullingar, Philipstown, Kilbeggan, Athlone,

Roscommon, Lanesboro', Tulsk, Tuam, Ballinrobe. 530 0'-Wicklow, Blessington, Baltinglass, Carlow, Athy, Kildare, Portarlington,

Maryborough, Ballynakill, Banagher, Galway, Ennis. 52° 30'—Newborough, Enniscorthy, Wexford, Kilkenny, Cullen, Clonmell, Cashel,

Killmallock, Limerick, Askeyton. 520 0_Waterford, Dungarvon, Youghal, Tallagh, Lismore, Rathcormack, Cork,

Marlow, Killarney, Tralee, Ardfast, Dingle. 51° 30'-Kinsale, Bandor, Clonekelty, Baltimore.

EXPLANATORY NOTICES.

Explanation of the column headed Thermometrical Register.THE Thermometrical Register commences with Nov. 1848, and closes with Oct. 1849 inclusive. These registers have been carefully copied from those made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and which are also deposited with the Royal Society. They show the highest and lowest ranges within each twenty-four hours, from twelve different readings. Each month is placed with its corresponding month, as affording the most ready and advantageous means of comparison, although by this arrangement the register of the last two months of 1848 follows the ten months of 1849, which are all we can give up to the day of publication. Explanation of the columns headed Length of day,Day's increase or decrease,”

Day breaks," and " Twilight ends. Tue column headed “Length of day" contains the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset. The column headed “Day's increase" expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has increased since the shortest day; and, where the column is headed “Day's decrease," it expresses the number of hours and minutes which the day has decreased since the longest day; for example, the length of the longest day in 1850 is put down in the column "Length of day” at 16h. 34m.; and on the 6th of July following we find that the length of the day, or the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and sunset, is set down at 16h. 24m.; hence the day has decreased 10m. since the longest day, and, accordingly, in the column “Day's decrease," we find opposite July the 6th Oh. 10m.

Equation of Time. In this Almanac the calculations are all made for mean time (given by the clock), instead of apparent time (given by the sun-dial), which latter had been used up to the year 1833.

It must be obvious that, for all practical purposes, mean time is the most useful; and to obtain it from apparent time, the columns in the Almanac headed “ Equation of Time" should be used. The column "Equation of Time" ought, for example, to be consulted when persons are desirous of setting their clock by a sun-dial. When clock after sun is written above the number of minutes and seconds opposite to the day, then the clock ought to be set so much slower than the sun-dial, and the contrary.

Moonlight. The Moon's age is set down in days and the nearest tenths of days from the time of change. Thus it is New Moon on the 12th of February at 6h, 29m. morning, and there. fore at noon on the 13th she is 1 day 5h. 31m. old, which is set down as 1 day and twotenths. The fraction of the day of course continues the same throughout the lunation.

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LIST OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ERAS WITH THE YEAR 1850. [In those Eras which begin with the Christian year, the year alone is stated; in those which begin at a different season, the month in which the lst of January, 1850, occurs is also given.]

Correspondence Abbre.

with 1850. viations. Roman Year

2603 A.U.C. Year of the World (Constantinopolitan account)

7358 A.M. Const. Ditto Alexandrian account)

7342 A.M. Alex. Ditto (Jewish account)

17th Thebet 5610 A.M. Era of Nabonassar

7th Pharmuti 2598 Ær. Nab. Egyptian

......... 24th Cohiac 2596 A. Æg. Julian Period

6563 Jul. Per. Dioclesian, or of Martyrs..

....... 24th Cohiac 1566 Ær. Diocl. Seleucides, or Grecian

Audynæus 2161 Ær. Seleuc. Death of Alexander

3d month of 2173 A. Mor. Alex. Era of Tyre..

...... Audynæus 1974

Ær. Tyr.
Cæsarian of Antioch (Greek)

Audynæus 1898 Cæs. Ant.
Ditto (Syrian)

Canun II. 1897
Era of Abraham

....... 4th month of 3865

Ær. Abr. Spanish, or of the Cæsars

1888 A. Cæs. Persian Era of Yezdegird III. (Parsee account).

1219 A. Pers. Armenian common year..

. 4th Kaghots 1299 An, Arm, Ditto ecclesiastical year

12th Kaghots 1298 Hegira

16 Saphar 1266 A.H. Kaliyug..

Poos or Margaly 4951 Cal. Salivahana

Ditto 1772 Saca. Vikramaditya

Ditto 1906 Samvat.

HIGH WATER.

16

Morlaix ........

Cowes ....

..

The following List, showing the difference of Time between London and the Out-ports

of the United Kingdom, as well as a few foreign Ports, is derived from Local Tide Tables, and the best books on Navigation, h. m.

h. m. Aberdeen sub. 0 55 Holyhead Harbour

.......... sub, 3 42 Alderney Pier add 4 39 Horn Point

2 Antwerp.. -3 36 Hull

add 3 54 Ardrishaig

sub. 2

7
Hythe ....

................. sub. 3 21 Ayr Harbour.. 2 41 Ilfracombe..

add 3 39 Bantry Bay

add 1 40 Jersey (St. Aubyn) Barnstaple Bar 3 45 King's Road

42 Berwick 0 12 Kingstown Harbour...

sub. 2 54 Blakeney Harbour 3 54 Kinsale Harbour .....

54 Blexen sub. 0 56 Leith

0 16 Boulogne 2 40 Lerwick Harbour.....

sub. 4 6 Brest Harbour

add 1 40
Little Hampton

2 21 Brielle.. 0 54 Liverpool

2 44 Brighton..

sub. 2 28 | Lough Foyle (Londonderry) add 4 23 Bristol.. add 5 10 Margate

sub. 2 2 Buchan-ness

sub. 2 16 Milford Haven, entrance to add 3 39 Calais 2 36 Montrose

sub. 0 38 Campbeltown 2 36

add 2 59 Cape Clear..

add 1 54
Mount's Bay

- 2 34 Cardigan Bar

-4 39
Newhaven..

sub, 2 15 Carmarthen Bay - 3 52 Newport (Isle of Wight)

3 10 Cherbourg --5 51 New Shoreham Harbour

- 2 17 Christchurch Harbour.. sub. 5 16 Orfordness.

3 36 Cork Harbour (Cove) add 2 24 Ostend

56 sub. 3 21 Peel Harbour, Isle of Man

3 46 Crinan.. add 1 53 Pembroke Dock-Yard..

add 3 49 Cromarty sub. 2 2 Port Glasgow

sub. 2 41 Cuxhaven -1 6 Port Patrick

3 22 Dartmouth Harbour add 3 54 Portsmouth Harbour

-2 27 Devonport Dock-Yard

- 3 26 Ramsay Harbour, Isle of Man 2 56 Dieppe

sub. 2
59 Ramsgate Harbour

2 46 Donegal Bar add 2 59 Rye Harbour......

3 40 Douglas Harbour, Isle of Man sub. 2 56 Scarborough

add 2 9 Dover Harbour 2 56 Scilly Islands..

2 24 Dublin

2 54 Shannon Mouth Duncansby Head 51 Sligo Bay

3 53 Dundee add 0 29 Southampton..

sub. 3 26 Dunkerque sub. 2 26 Southend and Sheerness

-1 27 Exmouth Bar add 4 19 Spurn Point, the

add 3 14 Eyder, Mouth of the sub. 2 26 St. Ives

14 Eyemouth 0 9

3 34 Falmouth Harbour add 3 9 Stromness

sub. 5 6 Flushing (Walcheren). sub. 0 46 Sunderland..

add 0 54 Folkestone 3 7 Tay Bar

sub. 0 1 Fort George 2 6 Texel Road

6 Galway add 1 49 Torbay

add 3 54 Glenluce Bay sub. 3 26 Tynemouth Bar

0 44 Gravelines .. 2 26 Waterford, Hook Point of..

3 Greenock 2 41 Wells Harbour..

3 54 Guernsey Pier add 4 24 West Scheldt, entrance

..sub. 1

31 Hartlepool.. 1 24 Whitby

add 1 24 Havre de Grace sub. 4 14 Wigton Bay

sub. 3 26 Heligoland..... _3 6 Wranger Oog

- 2 6 Hellevoet Sluys add 0 9 Yarmouth Road

sub. 5 36 To find the time of High Water at the above Places, it will be necessary to add or subtract the numbers in the above Table, according to the directions here given, to or from the time of High Water at London, as given in the Calendar for the day required. For example:-On the 1st of January, the afternoon High Water at London Bridge

is 3h. 59m.; the High Water at Dover Harbour is 2h. 56m, earlier; subtract, according to the direction, 2h. 56m. from 3h. 59m., and the time of High Water at Dover Harbour on that day will be found to be at !h. 3m. in the afternoon,

St. Malo ..

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Lat.

m m m
26 21 17

m mm 12 6 0

m m m 6 12 17

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24 19 15

11

60

6 11 16

570 0

m m m
40 38 32
37 35 30
34 32 27
31 29 25
28 26 22

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m m m
6 10 14
6 9 13
5 8 12
5 8 11
4 7 10
4 6 9

560 30'

9 5

0

5 9 13

20 16 12
18 14 11

560 0

8

4 0

4 8 12

[blocks in formation]

3 5 8

m m m m mm
21 26 32 38 40 42
20 24 30 35 37 38
18 22 27 32 34 35
16 20 25 29 31 32
15 18 22 26 28 29
13 16 20 24 25 26
12 14 17 21 22 22
10 12 15 18 19 19
8 10 12 15 16 16
7 8 10 12 12 13
5 6 7 9 9 10
3 4 5 6 6 6
2 2 2 3 3 3
British Almanac.

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m m m m mm m m m m m m m m m
22 27 33 38 40 42 40 37 33 28 23 19 13 7 1
20 25 31 35 37 38 37 34 30 26 21 18 12 6 1
18 23 28 32 24 35 34 31 28 24 19 16 11 6 1
17 21 25 29 31 32 31 28 25 22 17 15 10 12 1
15 19 23 26 28 29 28 25 23 20 16 13 9 5 1
14 17 20 23 25 26 25 22 20 17 14 1 8 4 1
12 15 17 20 22 22 22 19 18 15 13 10 7 4 1
10 13 15 17 19 19 19 17 15 13 11 9 6 3 1
9 11 12 14 16 16 16 14 13 11 9 7 5 3 1
7 8 10 12 13 13 13 11 10 9 7 6 4 2 1
5 6 7 9 9 10 9 8 8 7 5 4 3 2 0
3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 0
2 2 2 3 3 3

3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 0
setting

parallel are those given daily
2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 0
3 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 0
4 5 6 7 8 8 8 7 6 5

2 1 0

4 2 0

2 4 6

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2 2 2

3 3 3
6 6 6

500 30

6

6 5

1 2 2

3 4 5

500 10

8

7 6

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 8

51° 30' to 500 10' subtract

from time of Sun-rising. Add to time of Sun-setting.

Add to time of Sun-rising.
Subtract from time of Sun-setting

Subtract from time of Sun

rising. Add to time of Sun-setting

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