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asmuch as they arise from the sympathy of the whole constitution with a local disease, and the only difference is, that the former is for the most part more acute, and rarely returns more than once or twice, after which, if matter is formed, it is either absorbed, or it it comes forward to the surface, granulation succeeds, to restore the lost part. The hectic, on the contrary, is less violent, in proportion as the constitution is previously debilitated, but returns as long as strength enough remaios to attempt the curative process. To bring these more immediately to the present purpose --symptomatic fever, in swelled testicle, is the sympathy of the constitution with the violent inflammation excited. Hectic fever, in lues venerea, is the perpetual attempt of the constitution to cure a disease, or to excite such a new action as will supersede the disease: but we find, by experience, that the constitution is una equal to such an attempt. The attempt, therefore, not having succeeded, is renewed till it becomes habitual'; orin other words, “ hectic fever iş an habitual universal sympathy of the constitution, struggling with a disease which it is unable to overcome.”
The following passage we insert, not only on account of the credit it does our commentator, but inasmuch as it cou, tradicts an accusation too often retorted from one nation to another, without sufficient enquiries by either. Among the arguments to prove that the poison is the same in gonorrhæa and chancre,” Mr. Hunter has introduced one taken from the supposed introduction of the disease into the South Sea Islands. At the close of the commentaries on this section we have the following remarks.
• Having thus, says Dr. Adams, I hope sufficiently illustrated Mr. Hunter's explanation, how the same matter applied to different surfaces may produce different effects, the reader must indulge me with a few words on the South Sea disease. : “ About the year 1800, a lady of fashion who was recommended to. my care in Madeira, brought with her the French account of De la Peyrouse's voyage. Though I had leisure enough to peruse the whole, yet the letters of his surgeon attracted my particular notice. After ex. amining them with the greatest attention, I could not help remarking that he wrote of mal venerienne without the precision of a Hunter. In the end, I was convinced there was reason to doubt whether De la Peyrouse's surgeon had met with the venereal disease in any of the places in which he spoke of it with so much freedom. This induced me to examine the accounts of Captain Cook's voyages ; and the result, was, a chorough conviction, that, if the venereal disease existed at all in the South Sea islands, there was at least no satisfactory proof of it. Under this impression, I wrote to three physicians in London, explain. ing my doubts, and, perhaps with more Quixotism than prudence, was willing, if encouraged, to make a voyage in order to ascertain a point involving not only an important medical question, but in some measure the national reputation.
Fortunately, this question has been much better decided, by one who candidly dmits his arrival at thuse islands with a most, perfect convic. tive that the disease existed there in all its forms. His inquiry was
not, therefore, whether he should find it, but how general, and with what severity, it would appear, and also how he might preserve the health of his crew. From these circumstances, and still more from the character of the gentleman, no doubt can be entertained of the faithfulness of his conclusion, which is, that “the venereal disease is un known in Otaheite."** At first sight, it may seem strange that this opinion of mine has never been published before the fact was confirmed by Mr. Wilson. To this I can only answer, that to offer an opinion on a subject without the means of ascertaining it, must, at least, be premature. There are, however, fortunately, witnesses that such was my opinion. Dr. Garthshore is one of the gentlemen to whom I wrote from Madeira on the subject. The late. Dr. Pitcairn - was another, which is confirmed by his note now in my possession, and also by a communication he made to a most distinguished philosophical character now living. .
But perhaps it may be asked, “ Admitting the whole as I have stated it, why should the reader be troubled with the account?" In order, I answer, that he may learn there are certain characters by which the venereal disease may be distinguished with certainty, that these are so well marked as to-be understood by description; and that even the absence of them may be ascertained by those who take the trouble of cxamining with sufficient diligence. It may their be asked, how could the accurate Hunter have fallen so easily into the belief, that the vene. real disease was known in all its fo:ms in the South-Sea islands. Mr. Hunter, it may be answered, had not the prolixity of a French surgeon's account to make him doubtful on the subject. When I speak of prolixity in this case, it is not from disrespest. Though De la Pey. rouse's surgeon was not mistaken, still his descriptions are so minute as to enable the reader to comprehend what symptoms were present. It was from the description, not from the name, of the disease, that I suspected De la Peyrouse's cases were not venereal, and it was natural to transfer this scepticism to the South Sea disease. On examination, it was found, that the account, defective as it is, would authorize the same conclusion.
These extracts are enough to shew the nature of the performance, which is all we profess to do in a work, of which so large a portion is occupied by original communications.
*“ From the foregoing sttaement,” says Mr. Wilson, “ it may be concluded, without, I hope, presuming too much, that notwithstauding the me Janoholy accounts we read of che ravages of lues venerea at (taheite, and even disputations about its first importers, this disease was not introduced there antecedent to the Porpoise's voyages." See Edin Med. Journal, vol. II, p. 283, The l'orpoise is His Majesty's ship, of which Mr. Wilson was surgeon, and arrived at Port Jackson in June 1801,
An Account of Diseases in an Eastern District of London,
from Nov. 20 to Dec. 20, 1810.
ACUTE DISEAses. Diarrhæa . - 5 Perepneumonia Notha 2 Hæmorrhois Cynanche Tonsillaris 2 Dysuria Rubeola ·
5 Vertigo Variola
• 4 Rheumatismus Chronicus 16 Rheumatismus Acutus - 1 CHRONIC DISEASES.
Ephemera Tussis - . - 10
Menorrhagia Lochialis Dyspnea
Mastodynia - • 4 Tussis cum Dyspnea - 8
Rhagas Papillæ .
INFANTILE DISEASES. Phthisis Pulmonalis 3 Erysipelas Infantile Ophthalmia
2 Aphthæ Dyspepsia
3 Convulsio Gastrodynia
2 Herpes .
Having now made some advances in the winter quarter of the year, we may expect that those diseases which are peculiar to this season, will make their appearance. The weather has hitherto, indeed, been very mild, so that the diseases referred to have not appeared in their most alarming form. .
The įmmense quantity of rain which has lately fallen has been productive of an uncommon humidity of the atmosphere, which has rendered coughs and catarrhs very frequent ; but these have not been attended with those symptoms of inflammation which usually prevail under the influ." ence of the north and north-easterly winds. Rheumatism, of the chronic species, has very frequently occurred. In some constitutions this disease is particularly troublesome during a warm and moist state of the atmosphere. The heat has afforded relief to some patients, and cold has generally increased their pain ; in other cases just the reverse of this has been the consequence. This very common complaint is, in some cases, relieved by an addition of warm clothing, and by the increased temperature of a warm bed, but in others it is very much aggravated by tbese very circumstances. Instances are not unfrequent where persons subject to rheumatic affections, after sitting near a fire for some time, or even occupying any part of a heated room, feel a pain in their joints, particularly in the knees, accompanied with a restlessness which is more distressing than the pain itself, and which is most speedily relieved by a removal into a cool room,
MEDICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
ROYAL SOCIETY. On the 22d of November, Dr. Wollaston read a paper “ On some of the Combinations of oxymuriatic Gas and Oxygen, and on the Che-' mical Relations of these Principles to inflammable Bodies.” By H. Davy, Esq. Sec. R. S.
In this paper Mr. Davy details a great number of experiments which he has made on the combinations of oxymuriatic gas and oxygen with the metals of the fixed alkalies, the metals of the earths, and the common metals; with a view to illustrate the nature, properties, and combinations of oxymuriatic gas, and its relations to inflammable bodies, as compared with those of oxygen. He also offers some general views and conclusions concerning the chemical powers of different species of matter, and the proportions in which they combine. And lastly, he concludes his paper by some observations on the impropriety of the present nomenclature, in reference to the oxymuriatic gas and its combinations ; and proposes some concise modes of distinguishing these novel bodies.
Mr. Davy made some previous experiments on the combinations of potassium and sodium with oxygen ; and of potash and soda with water, from which he concludes that those metals when burnt with oxygen gas, are at their highest state of oxygenation-and at their lowest, when in the state of potash and soda. He also found that ignited potash contains about 16 per cent, of water, and ignited soda 22-9 per cent.
The spontaneous inflammation of the metals of the fixed alkalies in: oxymuriatic gas, affords a proof of the intensity of their attractions. In these operations, no water is separated, but mere binary combinations formed; the same as those produced by igniting muriate of potash and soda. Similar compounds are formed when dry potash and soda are heated in oxymuriatic gas, and oxygen is evclved.
Mr. Davy mentions a simple mode by which pure sodium may be obtained. It is by mixing common salt which has been ignited to redness, with potassinm, and exposing the whole to a red heat in a glass tube or retort: for every two parts of potassium employed, one part of sodium is obtained.
As the muriates of line, barytes and strontites remain unaltered by any simple attractions, even at a white heat, Mr. Davy conceived that these compounds consist merely of the metallic bases of the earths in union with oxymuriatic gas, and the experiments he has made confirm this conclusion. Thus when lime, barytes, &c. were heated in oxymuriatic gas, oxygen was expelled, and substances exactly similar to the dry muriates were formed.
In operating on metals, Mr. Dayy employed green glass retorts hold. ing from three to six cubical inches of gas, they were furnished with stop-cocks, The metal was first introduced into the retort, it was then exhausted and filled with oxymuriatic gas, the heat of a spirit lamp was employed in the processes. The products from arsenic, antimony, and bismuth ; and on the addition of water, the white oxides and muriatic acid. Tin produced Libavius's liquor, mercury, corrosive sublimate,
silver and lead, horn silver, and horn lead. Iron, a beautiful, volatile, crystallized substaoce which gave the red muriate of iron on the addi. tion of water.
Mr. Davy also found that oxymuriatic gas decomposes the metallic oxides at a heat below redness: those of the volatile metals more easily than those of the fixed metals, and protoxides more readily thap peroxides. Mr. Davy notices two beautiful experiments on the agency of oxy. muriatic gas on white oxide of arsenic, and black oxide of iron. In these cases, Do oxygen was evolved, the portion separated from one part of the oxides combined with the other part, and the products were butter of arsenic and arsenic acid, and ferruginous sublimate and red oxide of iron.
Mr. Davy notices an experiment in which he decomposed the gray ozide of tin by muriatic acid gas. In this case, water rapidly separated and Libavius's liquor was formed.
Mr. Davy conceives that these new inquiries confirm all the conclu. sions he has drawn in his recent paper on “Oxymuriatic Acid, &c."
With a liberality consonant to the high station in which they ara placed, the President and Fellows of the College of Physicians of Lon=" don, have determined on printing their Statutes ; and by that means, making distinctly known to the public the extent and nature of their powers.
A case of the ancient Elephantiasis, or Lepra Arabum, has occurred: at Bartholomew's Hospital, exactly answering Di.Adams's description of that dreadful disease. The countenance has a near resemblance to one of his plates. The subject is a Portuguese Brazilian, about thirty years old, has little hair on the chin, none on the pubes, and in all other respects, answers the history of the disease as given in the “ Observa tions on Morbid Poison
Medical Spring in Lancashire. About two miles from Flookborough, a small village in the parish of Cartmell, in Lancashire, near to a very ancient building, Wrorysholme Tower, there is a medicinal spring, called, according to common usage, Holywell. From the bottom of a rock adjoining to the Tower, the wa.. ter appears to issue, and is sold at a very cheap rate, by a person residing in a hut, who is little acquainted with the qualities it possesses, to those afflicted with scurvy, or any cutaneous disease. As this spring is stated to be little known, we shall be indebted to any gentleman of Cartmell, or the neighbourhood, who will give a more particular account. Is it of the nature of the Borrodale, and Rougħani, or New Cartmel Springs? Seurvy is used incorrectly, wo apprchend, for some of the species of Herpes, or other individual of the numerous tribe of cutaneous maladies,
The scarcity of oil at Venice, in 1807, occasioned by the destruction of the olive trees, during the war, led to the introduction into that state