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rally lodged more or less in subjects well constituted ; it only appeared a little less solid, and with a tinge'somewhat yellower than in its natural condition. In the lower cavity this mass compressed the stomach, and hindered the action of the lungs; and in the posterior mediastinum it surrounded the oesophagus from the pharynx to its passage out of the breast, variously affecting deglutition. The bed of adeps under the upper part of the sternum was so considerable, that this alone would bave been sufficient to obstruct many of the functions of that cavity. The fifth volume of the work last cited, contains some interesting particulars respecting diseases that seem to arise out of an extraordinary obesity. Among these its tendency to produce angina pectoris deserves particular notice. In 1727, Dr. Thomas Short published a pamphlet on Corpulency; and about 1760, Dr. Malcolm Flemyng, a physician of some notoriety, and an author of repute, both as a theorist and a practical writer, published a Discourse on the Nature, Cause, and Cure of Corpulency, and against which he considers soap to be a sovereign remely.
The little pamphlet before us, which is written with a degree of neatness, though a mere compilation, details the opinion of various authors on the treatment of this state of the system. Cælius Aurelianus recommends abstinence and exercise, reading aloud, friction on the skin withi sand, and sweating in the sudatorium. Zacutus Lusitianus employed leeches and scarifications ; Fernelius diuretics. Borelli advises chewing tobacco, and Etmuller taking vinegar of squills. Dr. Darwin believes salt eaten in considerable qurutity, or salted meat, to be more efficacious than soap. Dr. Beddoes asserts the cure of obesity is effected by the abstraction of oxygen from the constitution. But the surest way is that which was pursued by Wood : abstinence and exercise re ". duced the Essex miller to a moderate size. It is a curious ? coincidence, that the fattest man before the time of Lambert, in this country of fat men, should have lived in Essex. Bright, of Walden, weighed thirty-two stone ; but Lambert is said to have exceeded this enormous weight by twenty stone.
What dict is most likely to produce corpulence, is a ques. tion of some importance. M. Lorry (Memoires de l'Academie de Medicine, where he gives an account of diseases supposed to be produced by corpulence) considers the abun. dant use of succulent vegetable aliment to certainly produce this state of the system ; and the following case, with which we shall conclude these observations, goes strongly to establish this point.
A man of about forty years of age hired himself as a labourer (No.147.)
duced was pursuere constitutsily
in one of the most considerable ale-breweries in the city : at this time he was a personable man ; stout, active, and not fatter than a moderate sized man in high health should be. His chief occupation was to superintend the working of the new beer, and occasionally to sit up at night to watch the wort, an employment not requiring either activity or labour ; of course at these times he had an opportunity of tasting the liquor, of which it appears, he always availed himself; besides this, he had constant access to the new beer. Thus leading a quiet inactive life, he began to increase in bulk, and continued to enlarge, until, in a very short time, he became of such an unwieldly size, as to be unable to move about, and was too big to pass up the brewhouse staircase : if by any accident he fell down, bie was unable to get up again without help. "The integuments of his face huug down to the shoulders and breast : the fat was not confined to any particular part, but diffused over the whole of his body, arms, legs, &c, making his appearance such as to at. tract the attention of all who saw him. He left this service to go into the country, being a burthen to himself, and totally useless to his employers. About two years afterwards he called upon his old masters in a very different shape to that above described, being re. duced in size nearly half, and weighing little more than ten stone. The account that he gave of himself was, that as soon as he had quicted the brewhouse he went into Bedfordshire, where having soon spent the money he had earned, and being unable to woik, he was brought into such a state of poverty, as to be scarcely able to obtain the sustenance of life, often being a whole day without food; he drank very little, and that was generally water. . By this mode of living he began to diminish in size, so as to be able to walk about with tolerable ease. He then 'engaged himself to a farmer, with whom he staid a' considerable time, and in the latter part of his service, was able to go through very hard labour, sometimes being in the field ploughing and following various agricultural concerns, for a whole day, with no other food than a small pittance of bread and cheese. This was the history he gave of the means by which this extraordinary change was brought about. He added his health had never been so good as it then was.”
MEDICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
RoyalSociety.–March 1st and 7th.--A paper by Mr. Knight was read, detailing experiments on the manner in which plants shoot forth their radicles. In a former paper Mr K. had proved that gravita. .tion was the chief cause of the descent of the roots of plants; in the present he meant to illustrate by his experiments, how certain plants extend their roots towards water, and others in a direction from ivater, without sensation or animal sensibility, as erroneously sup:
posed posed by some vegetable physiologists. His experiments established this position sufficiently on mechanical principles, in consequence of the natural inclination to, or aversion from, humidity, according to the particular nature of the plant. He also proved that carrots and parsnips sown in a poor gravelly soil, under which was placed a rich loam, passed through the former, and extended their radicles into the rich Yoam eighteen inches below the surface.
March 14.-A long and learned paper, by Mr. Baily, was' read on the eclipse of the sun predicted by Thales, as recorded by Hero. dotus. The author entered minutely into the historical and chro. nological data which support his opinion, and concluded that the eclipse alluded to was an annular one, which occurred in the year 610 before Christ.
- WERNERIAN NATURAL HISTORY. Society.-At the meeting of the Wernerian Natural History Society at Edinburgh, on the 12th of January last, Professor Jameson read the first part of a series of observations on the geognostic relations of the rocks of the island of Arran. In this memoir he described particularly the granite, gneiss, mica-slate, and clay-slate formations, and also the red sand. stone, and porphyry-slate, which occur so abundantly in that island. When describing the granite, he stated as a conjecture, that quartz might prove to be an older formation than granite, because the oldest granite contains much quartz, but little mica ; and less feld. spar than the newer varieties. He pointed out several observations to be made with the view of verifying or refuting this conjecture. In his description of gneiss he alluded to the veins of granitic gneiss which traverse it, and which, when the gneiss and granite are in contact, have been represented as veins of granite shooting from the subjacent into the superincumbent rocks. The red sandstone the professor appeared inclined to refer to the first or old red sandstone of Werner. When describing its stratification and structure he pointed out the appearances that ought to be attended to, in endeavouring to ascertain the dip and direction of the strata,, and cautioned observers against confounding the structure of individual beds with the direction and dip of the strata. The numerous fissures that traverse the sandstone of Arran, and which exhibit every variety of magnitude, direction and dip, afforded apt illustrations of Werner's theory of veins. The porphyry-slate the professor described as ap pearing in the form of overlying conical or irregular tabular-shaped masses, resting on the red sandstone ; also in veins traversing gra. nite, sandstone, greenstone, and other rocks. He gave a description of some tabular niasses of this rock, accompanied by pitchstone and claystone, contained between strata of sandstone, and which might be confounded with beds, but which he was inclined to consider merely as lateral branches of veins, or as slightly inclined veins.
At the meeting, on the 2d of February, Professor Jameson read the continuation of his mineralogical observations on Arran. He
first detailed the geognostic relations of the flætz greenstone of that island. From this account it appeared to occur in overlying masses resting on sandstone, in beds, in sandstone, and in veins that tra. verse sandstone and other rocks. He then described the various kinds of pitchstone that occur in Arran, and seemed to think that one of the varieties might constitute a distinct subspecies of the pitchstone species. The account of its geognostic relations afforded a detail of many curious geognostic appearances; in particular the structure of its veins, and the nature of the interposed tabular mases, having many of the characters of beds, yet appearing to be either nearly horizontal veins, or lateral branches of, common veins. The claystone of Arran, which was next described, appeared to occur in overlying masses, along with porphyry-slate, and also in veins along with pitchstone and porphyry-slate. It would seem that wacke and basalt are not very frequent or abundant rocks in Arran; but when they are observed, they present the usual appearances and geo. gnostic relations.
From the observations in these two memoirs it appears, that this island contains no transition rocks; but is principally composed of primitive and flatz rocks. The alluvial rocks that occur in the val, leys present the usual characters of the rocks of this class.
It affords us considerable pleasure to be able to announce the progressive improvement of Medical Science in France. The numerous Societies instituted in that extensive empire, seem to be emulous of the high reputation which has long distinguished many of the professors of medicine, surgery, and chemistry, in this country: the armies abroad, the great hospitals at home, the facility granted to the dissection of dead bodies, and the inspection of patients who die, in whatever rank of life, contribute to increase practical knowledge, in which the French prac, titioners- were formerly extremely deficient. From a recent arrival of various Journals, we find that the spirit of emulation is strongly excited by the proposal of prizes, some of which we subjoin, and as some of our learned readers may be inclined to contend for them, we insert the words of the questions in the original language. !
The class of mathematical and physical sciences of the Institute of France offers a gold medal, value 3000 francs, for the following subject " Donner la theorie mathematique des lois de la propagation de la chaleur, et comparer les resultats de cette theorie avec l'experience." The memoirs must be sent free of expence by the 1st of October, 18ll, addressed to the Secretary of the Institute, each bearing a motto or device, which must be repeated with the name of the author in a sealed note attached to the memoir. The result will be published the first Monday in January 1812.
La Société de Médecine de Lyon has proposed the following question for the subject of the prize (value 300 francs) to be decreed at the public sitting, 1812. « Quelle est l'influence que les maladies organiques des viscères du bas-ventre peuvent exercer sur les viscère, de la tête et de la poitrine, soit dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions, soit dans la production de leurs maladies ; et quels dangers peuvent résulter, dans la pratique de la médecine, de l'ignorance et de l'oubli de cette influ. ence?"
The candidates must observe the usual academic forms respecting concealing their names, &c.
The memoirs to be written in French or Latin, and addressed, (free of expence) before the 1st of January, 1812, to M. Franchet, Secrétaire général de la Société de Medécine de Lyon, place neuve des Carmes, No. 29.
La Société de Médécine-pratique de Montpellier, has proposed the fol. lowing prize questions to be adjudged at their public meeting in May 1911.
1. “ Quelles sont les maladies chroniques qui passent pour dépendre particulièrement de l'état du cerveau ? Peut-on tirer, des ouvertures des cadavres de ceux qui ont succombé à quelques unes de ces maladies, des inductions propres à en constater l'étiologie; et, dans tous les cas, quelles sont les règles générales ou particulières de traitement dont ces maladies peuvent être susceptibles ?” .
2. Quelles sont les maladies chroniques, dont les grands systèmes (le vasculaire-sanguin, le vasculaire et le glanduleux-lymphatique, le cellulaire et exhalant, le nerveux et l'osseux) de l'économie animale, sont le siège ? Quel est le degré de similitude ou de dissemblance que leurs phénomènes peuvent faire établir entre eux ; et quelles sont les règles générales de traitement qui doivent leur être appliquées d'après l'obser
The prizes will consist each of a gold medal, value 300 francs.
La Société d'Agriculture de Paris has proposed the following Prize subjects to be determined at the public sitting, July 15, 1811.
1. Pour la Culture du Pommier et du Poirier à Cidre, dans les can tons ou'elle n'est pas introduite : 1 prix, 1500 fr. 2 prix, 1000 fr.
2. bolit on des Jacheres Medailles d'or. .
3. Introduction d' Engrais dont l'usage est inconnu : Medailles d'or. * 4. Observations pratiques de Medecine-Veterinaire. Idem.
5. Traductions d'ouvrages sur l'agriculture, qui offrent des observations reuves et des pratiques utiles: Idem.
Prize subjects for 1812.
Eatraction d'une substance colorante bleue des zé, claux cultivés en France, 1 prix 2000 fr.; 2 prix 1000 fr. Multiplication des cibeilles : 1 prix 800 fr. 2 prix 400 fr.
Prize subjecț for 1813. Machines hydrauliques, appropriées aux usages de l'agriculture : 1 prix 3000 fr. ; 2 prix 2000 fr. ; 3 prix 1000 fr.
La Société d'Agriculture du Départment de la Seine, impressed with the great importance of veterinary science, has solicited communications from veterinarians, on practical subjects connected with their profession. It invites them to perfect the knowledge of the diseases of animals, by carefully dissecting the bodies of those which