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appearances, or have some peculiar claim on our attention. Dr. Gourlay mentions an inveterate species of psora, termed by the natives, ouçao. It is well described by Dr. Adams in his work on morbid poisons.. This affection usually attacks children at an early age, and is evidently occasioned by small animalcules piercing the skin. They possess the power of leaping like feas; are somewhat larger than cheese mites, and belong to the genus acarus (siro exulcerans). Linn.
« The first appearance of the disease is in the form of a pellucid watery vesicle, attended with intolerable itching, and which, on being rubbed, breaks and discharges a thin watery fluia. A crust or scab is afterwards formed; from under which there is again emitted an acid ichorous matter. This matter corrodes the neighbouring parts, and tends to extend the disease, which is further assisted by the ova of the original infectious animalcules, and the locomotive power they are ascertained to possess.” - The cure is most frequently performed by means of extraction with a pin or needle; but the complaint is easily removed by the application of mercurial and sulphur ointments. ..."
“ From a similar cause of animalcular irritation is derived another cua taneous malady, known by the name of alfora, from the small winged inséct which occa ions it. This insect is about the size of the one described, as producing the itch, and the affection it entails is most troublesome during harvest, and immediately after it.” P. 85. · From cutaneous affections, our author proceeds to diseases of the chest, which in spite of its boasted salubrity are common in Madeira; the natives even are often affected with pulmonary consumption.
“ Persons of all ages, and of both sexės, fall victims to it; nay, whole families have at times been suddenly swept away by it.
“ The species of the disease that produces the ravages here, is that connected with scrofula, a disorder equally common here as in the colder regions of Europe : it uniformly at first assumes the appearance of a mild catarrh, but afterwards, when the real pulmonary symptoms commence, they prove more violent and rapid in their progress, than in the phthisis of northern climates.”'
An idea prevails in Madeira that this disease is of a contagious nature, and on that account the inhabitants of Funchal will hardly under any circumstances receive a phthisical patient into their houses.
The proper period for consumptive persons to leave England is the nionth of October, the fittest season in Madeira being from November to the beginning of June. In the treatment of phthisis, Dr. Gourlay experienced the most success from a cautious administration of digitalis. In the incipient stages, he generally effected a perfect cure ; in the more advanced stages
great relief, and in some instances even complete restoration to health, by the use of this remedy. ..
In the second Jivision, epidemics, the author. classes those diseases which arise from a specific contagion. Fever is frequent in the island, and it usually assumes the typhoid character. Da G. attributes the fatality of this complaint to bad practice, and especially to bleeding. This is often the case in the coun. try; but in towns, under regular practitioners, the termination is generally favourable.
In 1806, scarlatina was epidemic the first time in Madeiras and attended with a great fatality. . .
op « The characteristic symptoms which marked its attack, were in. flammation of the tonsils, and mucous membrane of the fauces, attended with extensive and repeated sloughing of these parts ; eruption of the skin, varied in its appearance, form and extent, in different cases, and great debility of the whole of the functions. The affection of the throat, however, was by no means a constant symptom, and the attack was as frequently without it as with it.' ;' ini. in .
" At its commencement, so contagious was the nature of this èpide. mic to appearance, as to be considered as the epidemic or contagious catarrh combined with quinsy, and in other cases, as measles ; and in. deed from the very variable mode of its attack, though its nature soon ceased to be in the least doubtful to an experienced practitioner, still.it could not fail, from its incipient appearance, to deceive one who looked only to the regular and usual form of scarlatina. In many cases, for three or four days, delirium was the only symptom of the disease, attended with anxiety of the precordia, dyspnoea, palpitation of the heart, cough, bilious vomitings, cedematops swellings of different parts of the body, and, in proportion to the violence of these symptoms, suspension also of sense and motion. In other instances, the malady was ushered in by violent' hæmorrhage from the nose and mouth, attended with a quick feeble pulsė, and occasionally frequent fits of syncope." P. 111. 112. o s
ú jis It chiefly affected children: we would willingly transcribe this author's very minute account of the symptoms, in the enumeration of which, he has evinced great accuracy of observation ; but we have already rendered this article long. The treatment pursued seems to have been judicious, and we were gratified to find that in the cases where cold affusion was freely administered, considerable relief was afforded. Doi
In the autumn, dysentery generally prevails, and is highly contagious. Small-pox was formerly very destructive in this island, but the practice of inoculation has now checked the mortality; and vaccination promises to be successful in further diminishing it. Dr. Gourlay states, that he has not failed in a single instance in producing the disease, and that none of his patients, though afterwards subjected to the contagion of small:pox, have been affected by it. Measles are frequent among the children in Madeira; the in
flammatory stage is very short, and soon'succeeded by'a degree of typhoid debility, from which the chief danger arises. The submaxillary glands often swell and prove troublesome. Hooping-cough is epidemic, and the paroxysmis are so violent as frequently to terminate in apoplexy. Emetics administered in the commencement of the complaint produce the most benefit. · An appendix contains a short account of the mineral waters in the Portuguese Island of St. Miguel. - Upon the whole we have been gratified by the perusal of this little volume ; should a second edition be called for, we hope the author will endeavour to make the department allotted to the natural history of the island more complete. We cannot avoid also remarking, that besides a full page of errata enumerated, various other errors, both of the press and of the editor, have escaped correction.
Remarks on the Nomenclature of the New London Pharma.
copæia. Read before the Liverpool Medical Society. By John Bostock, M. D. &c. Liverpool, 1810. 8vo. pp. 48.
No experiment, perhaps, was ever made more fatal to the high pretensions of corporate bodies in the republic of learning than the late attempts to reform the Pharmacopoeias of the three British Colleges of medicine, and justifies the observation with which the author of the pamphlet now under our consideration concludes his preface, that "A royal charter, or an act of parliament, may bestow honours and emoluments, but they are unable to confer knowledge and learning.” The failure of these attempts is the more to be regretted, as had they been conducted with liberality, and a real desire for the advancement of science, with which it might have been naturally expected, a priori, these dignified bodies would have regarded the subject, there can be little doubt that medical science, and consequently the community in general, would have drawn the most important benefits from the change. If we may be allowed to judge from the character of the production, we have little hesitation in saying, that a degrading jealousy of each other appears to have influenced all the Colleges; and instead of coalescing to form their Pharmacopæias on a uniforın plan, a circumstance the most desirable for the improvement of medical practice throughout the empire, the London College, in particular, appears to have studiously avoided every thing which might have assimilated its Pharmacopæia with those of the Edinburgh and Dublin Colleges, from a truly laudable apprehension, no doubt, of being regarded as copyists. *
The The plan of reforming pharmaceutical language, by employing that of natural history and chemistry, originated with the Edinburgh College. We cannot, certainly, say what would have been the effect, had a communication of the plan been made by that body to the two other colleges, prior to its final adoption ; but had it even been rejected by them, the projectors of the reform would have had the pleasing satisfaction of reflecting, that the evils which are now likely to result from the want of uniformity in the three British Pharmacopeias, were in no degree attributable to them. Of the three colleges, however, the London is certainly the most reprehensible, inasmuch as past experience when disregarded must magnify the errors of those who ought to have profited by it: for its production, were we now to go into a comparative criticism of its merits, is more objectionable in the structure of its language, and less scientific in every respect, than either the Edinburgh or the Dublin volumes. But as that is not our present object, we shall now confine ourselves to the examination of the production, the opening of which gave rise to these preliminary reflections.
Doctor Bostock commences by observing, that in his former “ Remarks on Pharmaceutical Nomenclature,"'* he “ attempted to shew, that the advantage to be gained by this assimilation of terms to the language of natural bistory and chemistry, was more imaginary than real, while the evils to be apprehended from the change, were numerous and consi. derable." An opinion, in which this second attempt at reform has only tended to confirm him. We must allow his conclusion, although we deny his premises ; for although we are clearly of opinion that the assimilation of the language of medical prescription with that of natural history and che. mistry is not only attainable to the extent required for practice, but would be highly beneficial; yet, we must admit that the production of the London College has in no degree tended to prove this point. It appears to us that our author has taken too confined a view of the subject, and after mi. nutely examining all the parts in detail, has not reviewed it as a whole by which he might have been led to allow the practicability of the attempt : for it can scarcely be denied, that it would be wrong to condemn the whole of an edifice'as bad, because some of the pillars are injudiciously arranged, and some false orders introduced. Even with all its errors we consider the language of the present London Pharmacopæia superior to that of its precursor, the Nomenclature of
* Published by Longman and Co. 1807.
which was yet undoubtedly more correct than that of the edi. tion wbich it followest. Indeed, it is probable that the same arguments now employed against any alteration of pharma... ceutical language, have been applied to all the changes that bave taken place since the publication of the first London: Pharniacopoeia ; and had they been successfully used, we should now be using such terms as argentum vivum; quila alba;roitriolum cæruleum, oleum antimonii corrosivum, mer.. curius ritce, sal ehalybis, terra foliatu tariari, arcanum duplacalum, napky hà vitrioli; and inany others equally burbarous, considering the present advanced stage of science... As an aid to memory, the adoption of the language of modern chemistry, to express the chemical preparations used as remedies, is of itself of much importance; and its want of permanency cannot now be fairly adduced as an ongument' against it; for the language of pharmacy has at certain dis. tances of time, not very far apart from each other, beem va-s ried, and approximating to that, assimilation with chemical nomenelature, whioh has, at length been endeavoured, -however unsuccessfully, to be accomplished.l.. Nor can we fairly presume to say, that it will produce little change in the great bulk of medioal preseriptions 9" as this observation can-apply only to old practitioners who are unáccaninted with the new language of chemistry ; the change, imperfect as it is being more congenial, tonthe habits of speech, and the mode of writing of the younger practitioners and consequently very likelyoto be reailily adopted by them. It is against the ignorance, illiberality, and carelessness of the reformers, not the propriety of the roform, that criticism can successfully aim her shafts, and in this we have every inclim nation to bear ample testimony to the discrimination and ina genuity with which Dr. Bostock has pointed them...'
One of the strongest objections against the introduction of scientific terms, we must admit, is its failure in:6 producing uniformity in the language of medicine;” and out author has brought forward ample proof of this in the following passage:
" The fact is, that out of between 220 and 230 articles of the Materia Medica, the greatest part of which are the same in both ;'s (the London and the Edinburgh Pharmacopæias) “ there are but 27 to which exactly the same denomination is applied by the two Colleges. Of these 20 retain the names which they had in the for. mer edition of the Pharmacopæia, and cne, carbo ligni, is now for the first time introduced into the Materia Medica : so that it is but to six articles that the supposed advantage of uniformity,' as a consequence of the introduction of scientific terms, can be at. tached.” (Page 4.) (No. 147.) 3 K