is rationalisation, and the centre of rationalisation is the Ruhr."

I am interested to know what exactly "rationalisation " means, and if it has any meaning as applied to British industries, and if not, why not? H. M. LowNDES.

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2, Camden Crescent, Bath. JAVAL RECORDS. NAY I wish to ascertain the parentage of an individual who in 1782, at the age of 29, obtained an appointment as a clerk in the Victualling Office of the Navy, in which he served for upwards of twenty years. Is there reason to suppose that he had seen previous service in some capacity afloat? If so, what Admiralty or other records should be consulted first for particulars about him?

Perhaps A. E. S. or some other reader can kindly help.

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a little addition to and an PERHAPS amplification of MR. J. ARDAGH's interesting note at the last reference, may be gives of works either written or illustrated by Supplementing the valuable list he Edwin Roffe and produced at his private The Rochester Press," 48, Ossulston Street, Somers Town, I have references to the following:


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'The Grand Master: being some extracts from the shorthand correspondence of Robert Cabbell Roffe with Thomas Molineux,' Edited by Alfred Roffe, small 4to., half calf, only 20 copies printed. 1860.

notes! selected from the original MS. of Mas 'Time's Tunefull Tabor; being divers diary ter Camden Crookedstaff by his trusty friend, copies printed. 1862. Edwin Roffe,' small 4to., boards, only 12

World-famous John George Wille, "Graveur Autobiography of the Early Years of the du Roi ", translated from the French of Alfred Roffe, Engraver, portrait engraved by Edwin Roffe, small 4to., boards, only 15 copies printed. 1872.

Some Bibliography unto "Venus and Adonis," with which is ye ballad on Shakespeare, hys house,' small 4to., boards. 1876.

The Private Printer: His Ballad Book,' small 4to., boards (no date of publication given, nor number of copies printed).

lications; the first describes those he wrote MR. ARDAGH gives two lists of Roffe's puband the second those he illustrated, but I think, perhaps, with the exception of the two by W. Stones, that the rest were set up and imprinted by him at "The Rochester Press "before mentioned. Your correspondent may, of course, know this, but it does not appear from his note, except in the case of the History of St. Pancras,' that this was so, and certainly in that of the one on Leeds. Kent, Edwin Roffe had a hand in writing it, for the title-page reads:-' Leeds, our Grandfather's Native Village, with divers remains gathered in memory of Robert Cabbell Roffe, Engraver.' By Alfred, Felix, and Edwin Roffe. Thirty copies. and Imprinted, in Leisure-time, by Edwin Roffe at his Birthplace, 48, Ossulston Street, Somers Town, 1859.


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Although the title page states it was published in 1859, yet the last page of my copy contains the following: This, the Last Leaf of Leeds: Our Grandfather's Native Village, was Imprinted by me Edwin Roffe [a facsimile of his autograph] upon Good Friday, April 18th, 1862. It has for a frontispiece a portrait after Thomas Uwins, R. A., 1802, engraved in stipple by Alfred Roffe, 1862, of Mr. Robert Cabbell Roffe, another, similarly engraved by Alfred Roffe, 1861, after William Evans, 1802, of Mrs. Elizabeth Roffe, and a view of "Leeds-in Kent, Sketched by Felix Roffe, June 16th, 1835, Edwin Roffe Sc. 1862, so it would appear that this little production was not finished until the latter year.

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Perhaps the most interesting topographical trifle of Edwin Roffe's is his "Perambulating Survey " of the Parish of St. Pancras, called, on the half title, Pancredge," and MR. ÁRDAGH is to be congratulated upon having such a pedigree copy as that which once belonged to W. H. Overall (a former Guildhall Librarian), the late Col. W. F. Prideaux, C.S.I., and the late Mr. Arthur Wallis; both of the latter I had the honour of knowing, and all were enthusiastic collectors of London topography. Book II ends very abruptly on p. 11, with a description of an etched view of the Old Assembly House, Kentish Town, with the enigmatical statement that "This valuable little etching is the production of. " and in case other collectors may not know who engraved this, may I say it was done by W. B. Rye, in 1853. He was an official at the British Museum, and a member of the Anastatic Drawing Society, in one of whose publications it was issued. My copy of "Pancredge" formerly belonged to John Warren, B.A., LL.B., whose bookplate it contains.

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Printer, His Ballad Book,' and comprises
22 pages and half title and blank, equalling
24pp. P. 22 ends with an engraved colophon
in Elizabethan style E 1874 R," headed
with the words,
"Vivat Regina," the
"E.R." if course signifying Edwin Roffe.
The second part has an elaborately printed
title-page, 'The Private Printer, hys Cat-
nach Garland,' and has a woodcut por-
trait of Queen Elizabeth in the centre.
imprint at the bottom reads: Saynte Pan-
credge, Set Vp and Ymprynted att Ye Roch-
ester Press, by Master Camden Crookedstaff,
himself. Fifteen Copies only. 1875." It
consists of xlv pp., title and half-title, blanks
at the back of each and last page also blank,
equalling 52 pp., and although the title is
dated 1875, the half title has the same device
as the first part, namely "E 1874 R."
The last part is entitled 'Addenda. The
Private Printer, his Ballad Book,' 14 pp.,
title (back blank) totalling 16 pp.

The complete volume is illustrated with a number of quaint woodcuts, a few of which are printed in brown, blue or red, with the same colours used for some of the initial letters and headings, after the manner of Catnach and his competitors. Many of these crude illustrations are signed Camden Crookedstaff his notion," or "Crookedstaff del. et sc.

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Excluding the two volumes by W. Stones, we have therefore record of seventeen_publications issued from "The Rochester Press," but it appears there is yet another one.

There were five examples in the Great Comerford Library, dispersed at Sotheby's in November, 1881, one of these, Lot 3267, being thus described:

"Roffe (R. C.), My Diary with Trips into Kent, with Notes by A., F. and E. Roffe, Woodcuts, half calf gilt. 1850. Only 50 copies printed by E. Roffe at his private press.

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All these realized good prices, British Monumental Inscriptions' bringing £217s. Od. and the Perambulating Survey' of St. Pancras, £1 16s. Od. Regarding this latter history, I contributed a letter to The Times Literary Supplement, 24 Jan., 1918.

Probably the most curious of items put forth from this Press is 'The Private Printer, his Ballad Book' (previously referred to), and although the catalogue entry from which I have quoted gives no date of publication, yet, from internal evidence, it Of his engraved plates, issued I presume was published partly in 1874. It consists of also privately, I have references to the folthree sections, each complete and each paged lowing: Sluice House, Highbury'; 'A separately, so may perhaps have once been Highgate Pond from Millfield Lane'; issued at different times. My copy is appar-Church Hill, St. Pancras'; Between Stratently in the original grey boards, half cream ford and Bow'; The Gem of the Thames coloured cartridge paper back, all three parts Embankment'; A Thames Riverside Bit '; bound together. Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields'; At

The first part is entitled "The Private Deptling, near Maidstone'; 'Wilts, Little

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Bedwin Church'; and 'St. Paul's in the Sun-set.' Some of these I have.

He must have been a keen antiquary, an ardent and artistic amateur printer, and a most industrious worker, and although he lived for many years in St. Pancras, yet he does not appear to be mentioned in any of the histories of this ancient parish, nor is there that any reference to him or his Press in interesting but short-lived repository of Pancratian lore, St. and Pancras Notes Queries,' 1897-1903.

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Hampstead, Upminster, Essex.

ROBERT AND THOMAS WRIGHT OF MADRAS (cliv. 354).-MR. MAWDSLEY will find the answer to his query in the two following entries in my brother, Mr. J. J. Cotton's List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in the Madras Presidency' (Madras, 1901):

(1) Here lyes interr'd Mr. Robert Wrighte, Merchant, third son of Sir Nathaniel Wrighte, some time Lord Keeper of the Great Seal to His late Majesty William the Third and to Her present Majesty Anne, Queen of Great Britain, etc., who departed this life the 16th of October, 1709.

(2) Here lyes interr'd the body of Frances Wrighte, wife of Thomas Wrighte, Merchant and some time Third of Council in this place, who departed this life the 7th of February, 1703/4. Also one of her infant daughters named Frances, who was born May 8th, 1700, and died the 22nd August in the same year.

The tombs are in the compound of St. Mary's Church in Fort Saint George at Madras. Mr. Cotton appends the following

note :

Thomas Wrighte married (1) Frances Lightfoot, March 6th, 1696, and (2) January 6, 1706, Mary Beard, the daughter of Edward Fowle and widow of John Beard [Agent and President in Bengal who died in Madras on 7th July, 1705.] He was a brother of Robert Wrighte who married Elizabeth Hart on February 1st, 1706, and their son Nathaniel was baptized in Governor December, 1707. Thomas Pitt's "Mr. letter books say in January, 1705: Wrighte is married to Mrs. Beard and the other Mr. Wrighte going to marry Mrs.


Both the Wrightes were factors in the Company's Service. Their father, Sir Nathaniel Wrighte, who died in 1721, had six sons and four daughters. Robert Wrighte's widow married William Jennings on June 27, 1711, and died in childbirth in 1719.

May I be permitted to point out to MR. MAWDSLEY that Madras is the senior "Presi" in India, and not a Province" "? dency EVAN COTTON.

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NTRODUCTION OF PAPER-LANTERNS AND FIREWORKS INTO EUROPE (cliv. 282, 322).-De Frezier, in his 'Traité des Feux d'Artifice pour le Spectacle' (Paris, 1747), page xxiiii, writes:

Quant aux Feux d'Artifice faits depuis l'invention de la poudre, ils font de beaucoup poltérieurs à cette compofition, qui n'eft connue en Europe que depuis l'an 1400. On voit dans l'Artillerie de Diego Ufano, qui vivoit il n'y a que cent trente ans, qu'on ne faifoit encore de fon tems en Efpagne & en Flandres, que des Feux de joye fort fimples, compofés de quelques girandoles & autres Artifices, accompagnés pour illuminations de quelques poteaux garnis de

unge gaudronnés, mais plus de cinquante ans auparavant ces fpectacles étoient déja magnifiques en Italie; car Vanochio, Italien, qui a écrit fur l'Artillerie en 1572, attribue aux Floraux Siennois l'honneur d'être les entins & premiers qui ayent fait des Feux d'Artifice en forme, fur des théâtres de bois, decorés de ftatues & de peintures

Ces Feux fe faifoient annuellement à la fete de la Saint Jean & à celle de l'Affomption de la Vierge.

The author goes on to say that the custom passed from Florence to Rome, where the feast of S. Peter and S. Paul, as well as the festivities upon papal installations, were so celebrated.

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Something more will be found in the article Fireworks' in the Encyclopedia Britanon nica,' and in A. St. H. Brock, 'Pyrotechnics,' London, 1922. PAUL MCPHARLIN.

Winnetka, Illinois.

CATER FAMILY (cliv. 299, 337).-Cator is

the place-name of a district in the parish of Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Devonshire, from which possibly the family name mentioned by MR. H. TAPLEY-SOPER is derived. It gives name to Cator Court and three farms, Cator, Great Cator and Low Cator. A Thomas Cater was collector for Tywardreath Priory in Cornwall in 1487. Is the name peculiarly West Country? Cator is far from picture-palaces and well within Dartmoor. A cognate placename Caton gives name to farms in Ashburton and Modbury, and occurs as family name in the Totnes Guild Roll of 1308.

Can any reader suggest the etymology of these names? HUGH R. WATKIN. ACRE" "CHURCH ACRE" GOD'S (cliv. 352).-The O. E. D.' throws its own light on its assertion (made s. v. acre) about the German origin, for it gives illustra God's tive quotations, s.v. earliest is from Fynes Moryson's 'Itinerary'

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The only quotation given for "church(defined as a churchyard and marked obsolete) is from some churchwarden's accounts of the year 1596: For earinge [i.e., ploughing] of the church acre. This certainly looks more like a strip of agricultural land belonging to the church than a churchyard. In Old English acer used only of arable land; the Old English for "churchyard was ciric-tun (at least this occurs earlier than ciric-geard). As the 'O. E. D.' points out, God's acre really "God's seed-field, in which the bodies of the departed are sown (I Cor. xv. 36-44) in hope of the resurrection." Fully authenticated words for churchyard are: Churchgarth (from 1570), church-hay (from the beginning of the thirteenth century), church-hawe (from about 1320), church-litten (from about 1420), kirkgarth (from about 1200), kirk-yard (from the end of the thirteenth century). Several of


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these have survived in modern dialects. I wonder if church-lenen," recorded in Wright's English Dialect Dictionary from the West Country, is a variant of churchlitten," a form found from Sussex to Somerset, derived from Old English līctūn, "corpse-enclosure."

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God's acre was discussed in N. & Q.' as long ago as 1851 (1 S. iii. 380). L. R. M. STRACHAN.

Birmingham University.

RACING IN 1728 (cliv. 353).-According to the Oxford English Dictionary,' sized in this context would mean "of a fair, proper, or standard size.' The quotations given in the Dictionary are from (a) Henry Bracken's Farriery' (1737) and (b) Richard Berenger's 'Horsemanship' (1771): (a) [He] writ to me to buy him a sized Gelding for Hunting "; (b) As the riders were cloathed in. armour

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PLACE-NAME: PERROW (cliv. 353). —

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Without the evidence of early spellings not much can be done towards explaining a place-name. But it may interest the inquirer to be reminded that the first element in perrow might be Old "English pirige pear(tree)," which is found, for instance, in "Perham" (Wiltshire), while the second element might be Old English rāw row (of trees, etc.) Milnrow as in " (Lancashire). See Professor Allen Mawer's book, 'The Chief Elements used in English PlaceNames,' Cambridge, 1924, pp. 48, 50 (vol. i. part ii. of the publications of the English Place-Name Society). L R. M. STRACHAN.

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CANNEL COAL (cliv. 325, s.v. Memorabilia '). Cannel (a corruption of candle) is a mineral bituminous coal capable of taking a high polish like jet, which it somewhat resembles, and is chiefly but

found in Scotland and Lancashire, pockets of it are not unknown in the Yorkshire district." It may be noted that a wine-cooler and some smaller ornaments were shown made of this mineral at the 1851 Exhibition.

In the Gentleman's Magazine (1764) the Rev. Edward Goodwin, writing about the town of Sheffield, says:

There is likewise reason to believe that here were first made snuff boxes, candlesticks, etc., of a sort of coal called kennel, or cannel_coal (formerly got near this place) by Joseph Hancock, who is the present Master Cutler.

There is an earlier reference to cannel

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THEM SAY!" (clii. 64, 107; cliii.

196; cliv. 357). The inscription


an upright line to the top and also a hori-
zontal diameter. In the lower half there are
ten irregular radial lines from centre to cir-
cumference, without a central upright, and
the spaces between the first and the tenth and
the diameter are greater than the other spaces.
This is cut upon a piece of brown stone in-
serted in the place of a quoin on the south
face of the south porch, above and to the east
of the door arch.
96, High Road, East Finchley, N.2.

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the Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1593, EWIN FAMILY (cliv. 354).-In Messrs. is given correctly in 'News out of Scot- Mullens and H. K. Swann's Biblioland,' by Eleanor M. Brougham (Heine-graphy of British Ornithology (1917), pp. mann, 1926). The original stone with the 349-50, there will be found some biographical inscription was preserved and let into details of William Lewin, the ornithologist, the new building (1841). Miss Brougham who died 1795. I do not know if he was any observes that the inscription was the motto connection of Robert Lewin, the Secretary of of the Keiths, who held the hereditary the Bank of England, and so little is known office of Great Marischal of Scotland, and about him that if additional information is was first uttered by George, fifth Earl, in defi- available it would be of interest if this could ance of certain comments on his plunder of be made known. the Church. He founded the Marischal ColH. S. G.

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The Guarded Flame,' by W. B. Max-
well, is a novel which would meet with your
enquirer's requirements.
H. S. G.

OWNER'S ESTATE (cliv. 345).-Some

events during the Government of the Forts
on the Gold Coast by the African Company
of Merchants, 1750 to 1820, will be found
in A History of the Gold Coast of West
Africa,' by Lieut.-Colonel A. B. Ellis, Lon-
don, Chapman and Hall, 1893), and Records
relating to the Gold Coast Settlements,' from
1750 to 1874, by Major J. J. Crooks, Dublin,

Browne and Nolan, 1923.

J. J. CROOKS, (Major, retired).

OUTRAM (cliv. 265, s.v. 'David
Anderson ').-I have to thank SIR EVAN
COTTON for his reply at the above reference,
but I would point out that Mrs. Outram

was the 2nd daughter of Dr. James Anderson,
LL.D., by his wife Margaret Seton, of
Mounie, Aberdeenshire, and not of William
Anderson of the Three Cranes Wharf,

I find that her brother Henry was a Lieutenant (not Captain) of the 14th Bengal Native Infantry and that he died at Fatehpur Sikri, 22 Sept., 1805. (See Major Hodson's book, vol. i. p. 30).


22, Alexander Place,

Oban, Argyllshire.

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