churchyard is now entered by a lych-gate, put up by the Rendall_brothers to their mother, not their father. He is commemorated by a clock with Latin inscription in the belfry. In a cottage near by a shepherd lived to be 101, and gave Cecil Sharp some folk-song at the age of 100. He was a simple man, but an excellent judge of the weather. The village, though apt to be pretty cold in winter, has a good record of health, and the Pest-House once known there indicates not plague, but facilities for inoculation. There are not So many old houses left as one might expect, but considerable traces of buildings remain, which may include a lost manor-house. There is a word for a narrow way between two walls which puzzled the learned Dr. Bradley, Mr. Jeffery makes it ture" or two-er," but the spelling tewer is nearer the local pronunciation. The dialect of the villagers used to retain some notable words, such as the Shakespearian "dout" for "put out." Hitherto the place-name has defied satisfactory solution. There is a natural tendency to connect it with the stones of Roland, but the latter word seems to be absent in Early English.

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It would have been possible, we think, to give more concerning tradition from people still living, but the main purpose of the book is to examine and elucidate records, and that has been fully and ingeniously done. Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan. Edited by G. H. Hardy, P. V. Seshu Aiyar and B. M. Wilson. (Cambridge University Press. £1 10s. net).

bulk of this book consists of thirty-seven THE papers contributed between the years 1911 and 1921 to various Mathematical and Philo

sophical Journals. These comprise nearly everything that Ramanujan had published; but do not at all adequately represent the amount of his achievement, for there exists a large amount of unpublished material, presenting to any editor a formidable task, and requiring for its production further monetary assistance, which we hope will be eventually available. The volume before us has been published by the aid of the University of Madras, the Royal Society and Trinity College, Cambridge.

Ramanujan, member of a Brahmin family, who was born at Erode in 1887 and died at Kumbakonam in 1920, was one of those singular mathematical geniuses in whom perception of mathematical truth has the vividness, immediacy and inclusiveness which ordinary people know only of sensible objects by sense perception. Most people will instantly be reminded of Pascal, and there is just a little more than the obvious-frail health and early death and the nature of their genius-to suggest comparison. In both, the intensity of mental life proper to the mathematician did not diminish but rather re-inforced awareness of reality of another order. In 'Pascal this awareness eventually mastered the mathematician: in Ramanujan it seems rather to have permeated all the process of his growth and thought, so that he would ascribe the formulae which presented

themselves to his mind as inspirations from the goddess Namagiri of Namakkal, to whom he had a great devotion. He felt, too, some pressure from beyond in the law of his religion. His caste prejudices were so strong that it was with the utmost difficulty he was prevailed upon to come to England: they were quelled at last only by a dream of his mother's in which the goddess forbad her to be an obstruction to to the destiny of her son. He may be said to have over Pascal one advantage, inconvenient, indeed, during a man's life-time, but lending grace and romance to his memory, in the fact of his poverty. Mr. Hardy tells of his education, of the recognition his the award of a wonderful powers were not long in winning; of research studentship which enabled him to throw up a small post he had taken under the Madras Post Trust in order to maintain his wife, and to devote himself professionally to mathematics; and of his stay at Cambridge. A delightful part of the story is that of the relations between Ramanujan and the Cambridge modern mathematicians, in face of the startling quality of his achievements and side, and, on the other, of his equally startling the profundity of his knowledge on the one ignorance of things essential to be known. He fell ill in 1917, and never, his biographer says, was out of bed for any length of time again, though in the autumn of 1918 there was decided improvement and he took up work again. In that year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and about this time discovered some of his most beautiful theorems. In 1919 he returned to Madras, where the University and his medical friends were alike anxious to do all that could be done, both to give his genius full scope and to steady his precarious health. But all that generous admiration could do was unavailing. and he was not an amenable patient. He worked on, even on his deathbed, till about four days before the end. Mr. P. V. Seshu Aiyar, who contributes one portion of Ramanujan's biography, tells us that he had settled convictions about the problem of life and the hereafter and that even the certain approach of death did not unsettle his faculties or spirits; and, of his personal appearance says that his sharp and bright dark eyes were his most remarkable feature. Mr. Hardy, discussing the quality of his genius. after expressing his belief that, at bottom, all mathematicians think alike, mentions his extraordinary memory, and particularly his almost uncanny retention of the idiosyncracies of numbers. The instance he gives is of his remarking to Ramanujan that 1729 (7.13.19) the number of a taxi-cab in which he had come out to Putney to see him, was rather a dull one, not, it was to be hoped, of unfavourable omen, to which Ramanujan replied," No, it is a very interesting number; it is the smallest number expressible as a sum of two cubes in two different ways.' Mr. Hardy esteems his insight into algebraical formulae, transformations of infinite series and the like as being what was most amazing in him, unrivalled as

he was among his contemporaries in his power of generalisation and feeling for form, combined with a memory and patience and power of calculation so uncommon. Constrained in view of the possibilities of yet more numerous and more important discoveries, half to wish that Ramanujan had been "caught and trained a little in his youth," Mr. Hardy yet admits that the loss might have been greater than the gain, if this genius, so strange and so profoundly original, had been thus brought nearer to the semblance of a European professor.

THE first Quarterly Review for 1928 is a number of interest chiefly topical. Perhaps the article of most permanent usefulness as it stands is Mr. Denis Gwynne's clear and able discussion of the Pope's proceedings in regard to the Action Française. Sir Lawrence Weaver writes on The Place of Advertising in Industry. Most people will look first, in this subject, for what may be said about the use of art. Sir Lawrence is among those who consider that "No present need is more urgent than that the artist shall be accepted by the manufacturer as an essential partner," and the best hope for this he would, apparently, see in the activity of artists in advertising, and the repercussions of that activity on manufacturers. He declares that one surprising by-product of co-operative advertising is increase of the efficiency of the industry. Mr. James H. Wellard treats pleasantly, and with some good examples, the already much-considered subject of translating. The Age of Transition in Music,' by Mr. R. W. S. Mendl; The Factories Bill,' by Dr. Arthur Shadwell; Major-Gen. Sir Aston's fine essay on the Staff College, tracing the influence of the education supplied there upon the British Army and military affairs to the close of the Great War; and Sir Charles Oman's account of the last volume of Sir Charles Mallet's History of Oxford': Modern Oxford,' are all both worth reading and readable. For amusement one may turn to Mr. Oliver B. Lloyd's Modes and Manners, as for a topic of tragic gravity to 'Mental Patients by the Hon. Mr. Justice Marshall. Perhaps, however, the first and the last of these papers will make the widest appeal, being Mr. Arthur W. Jose's The Spirit of Australia,' designed to bring us all to a better understanding of the Australian and his habitat, and Mr. John Bailey's Queen Victoria,' the best, and most penetrative and most charmingly written, we think, of his studies of the Queen as seen in her letters.

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Orléans about the appointment of the Comte de
Beaumont to the Duchy and city of Orleans,
signed by Louis XIII (1614: £3 15s.); and a letter
from the Committee of the Estates of Parlia-
ment of Scotland to Mazarin, asking that the
Scots Guards might be allowed to be in per-
sonal attendance on Louis XIV, signed John
Crawford Lindsay (1648: £2). Good eighteenth
century items are a document signed in Con-
greve's hand, for which, with four other con-
temporary documents, £8 as asked (1727); and a
collection of 21 papers, mostly connected with
Burke, in which is at least one autograph
letter by Burke himself (unsigned) (1779-1827:
£6). We noted a pretty item in four lines in
pencil by Edward VII, when Prince of Wales,
giving instructions for the making of a fan
(sketch accompanying) for the Princess.
Dickens is represented by a letter of 1857 to
D. George (6); and Thackeray by a note
signed "W. M. T." to "Lady O.," announcing
his coming at 7 o'clock (£5 10s.). There are
three Scott items of which the best is a letter,
undated, about the Coal Company in which he
was at one time interested. To conclude, we
may mention a collection from the corres-
pondence of Sir Richard Owen (1852-87: £5
10s.), and a letter of Gounod's (1890) inserted
in a copy of Mozart's Don Juan,' in the edi-
tion brought out by Ollendorf in 1890 (£5).

Catalogue No. 94 are a collection of 244 Tracts
Among good items in MR. BERNARD HALLIDAY'S

connected with the Civil War and the events
in England down to 1664 (£45); the Dio Cas-
sius printed at Venice by Zoppino in 1533
(1635 :
(£2 2s.); Wither's Emblems
Antiquities (1726-41: £52
copies of Buck's
10s.) and Camden's Britannica (1806: £12

MR. REGINALD ATKINSON begins his Catalogue No. 74 with a list of over 160 autographs. While there is none to startle the collector, there are many to interest, please and tempt him. Thus, among older autographs, there are a letter writen by de Loménie to the Justices of


an extra-illustrated Moore's Life of
Contemporaries, 4 vols. extended to 23 vols.
Byron,' with Leigh Hunt's Lord Byron and his
from the library of Sir Wm. Augustus Frazer
traits in water colours painted about 1830 by
(£175); a number of interesting miniature por-
Elizabeth Mure of Caldwell; and the 7 vols. of
the Biblia Sacra Graeca, with fascimile of the
Alexandrine Manuscript, on vellum, printed
1786-1816, at the public expense under the direc-
tion of the Trustees of the British Museum
(£157 10s).

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

WHEN sending a letter to be forwarded to another contributor, correspondents are requested to put in the top left-hand corner of the envelope the number of the page of 'N. & Q.' to which the latter refers.

The Publisher will be pleased to forward free specimen copies of N. and Q.' to any addresses of friends which readers may like to send to him,

Printed and Published by The Bucks Free Press. Ltd., at their Offices, High Street.
Wycombe, in the County of Bucks.

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QUERIES:-The Chiltern Hundreds The Roses of York and Lancaster-Hermitages near YorkRoyal Arms on the title-page of morning newspapers-Gentleman volunteer, R.N.-Utensils for bleeding-Underground passage, Shanes Castle -Cheshire words, eighteenth century, 117Drive : Chase' (chace)-Dardanelles campaign: bibliography-Book of Crests-St. James's Place passage-Arms for identification -Tewkesbury Abbey: supposed Harcourt tombRollo, Duke of Normandy-Sir John Collins, b. 1630, 118--Cholwich: Denham-Jobson FamilyAuthor wanted, 119.

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REPLIES: Letters of Warren Hastings: Mrs. Van's retentive memory and Mr. Cotton the Director, 119 Edward Baber, 120-Back boards, 121-Murray, Viscounts Stormont-" Dieu et mon Droit Rates of postage in 1807 "Cons money Gilbert Wakefield An Adagium of Erasmus, 122 The Omnibus: 'bus-River, water used for drinking-Edmund Spenser, his connection with Co. Northants-Survival of North Country customs-Songs about soldiers-Pillion riding-Parochial Libraries-Sobieski Stuarts, 123-Publication of First Folio-Ruffin of North Carolina- Uncle Tom's Cabin'-Jacklin, 124Concordances Source wanted, 125. THE LIBRARY: Latin Infancy Gospels Endymion, a poetical romance-Covent Garden Drollery' The Church of St. Mary Magdalene. Munster Square.'

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FIFTH SERIES.-General Index.
VOL. CL.-No. 19 (May 8, 1926).

VOL. CXLVIII.-No. 6 (Feb. 7, 1925).

No. 7 (Feb. 14, 1925).

No. 8 (Feb. 21, 1925).

No. 9 (Feb. 28, 1925).

THE following numbers and Volume Indices of the TWELFTH SERIES or the complete volumes in which they are included :


No. 2-Jan. 8, 1916 (Vol. i).
No. 53-Dec. 30, 1916 (Vol. ii).
No. 67-Apr. 14, 1917 (Vol. iii).
No. 86-November 1917 (Vol. iv).
No. 128-Sept. 25, 1920 (Vol. vii).
No. 148-Feb. 12, 1921 (Vol. viii).
No. 168-July 2, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 185-Oct. 29, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 194-Dec. 31, 1921 (Vol. ix).
No. 228-Aug. 26, 1922 (Vol. xi).
Indices to Vol. vi (Jan.-June, 1920) and

Vol. ix (July-Dec., 1921).

Please send offers to-" NOTES & QUERIES," 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks.


THE following complete Series, each of 12 volumes, are in stock, and may be obtained from the Manager, Notes and Queries," 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks :THIRD SERIES bound (1862-1867), leather, marbled boards, in new condition. £10 108.


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NOTES AND QUERIES is published every Friday, at 20, High Street, High Wycombe, Bucks (Telephone: Wycombe 306). Subscriptions (£2 2s. a year, U.S.A. $10.50, including postage, two half-yearly indexes and two cloth binding cases, or £1 158. 4d a year, U.S.A. $9, without binding cases) should be sent to the Manager. The London Office is at 22, Essex Street, W.C.2. (Telephone: Central 0396), where the current issue is on sale. Orders for back numbers, indexes and bound volumes should be sent either to London or to Wycombe; letters

for the Editor to the London Office.


THE following announcement was made in

the London Gazette on Feb. 14:

His Majesty the King has for some time been considering what steps can be taken to bring the British Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets into line with the other great Services of the Empire, by having at their titular head some member of the Royal Family.

With this end in view, and in recognition of the splendid service which the Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets have rendered to the Empire for many centuries, both in peace and in war, his Majesty, after taking Ministerial advice, has asked H.R.H, the Prince of Wales to assume the title of "Master of the Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets.'

The appointment is without precedent. By it the Prince becomes titular head of onethird or more of the shipping of the world. It is said that the King himself chose the title. No new organization is being formed, and the precise duties involved, with the manner of discharging them, will be for the Prince's own decision. When acting in his capacity as Master he will wear the standard

uniform of the merchant service. It is not

yet settled whether the office is to be one to

which the Heir to the Throne will automatically succeed. •

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are often complicated by "pre-entry and hold-over," whereby the new tenant is given access to the stubbles in autumn, while the out-goer remains in possession of the house, most of the buildings, and some of the grass fields until May 1. A Candlemas farm has certain advantages over a Lady Day farm in that time is not then so precious as it is at the end of March, and the incomer can make his plans for cropping and start requisite operations more satisfactorily. A pleasant article in the Journal is that on Salad Vegetables. Among the well-known constituents of a salad appear two which, in this country, are not enough appreciated. These are corn salad (valerianella) which might be grown in any rather light, well-worked soil, in a dry, open situation, for use in autumn and winter, and dandelion, used both in green leaves and in blanched heads, which should be sown in May, and the seedlings thined 9in. apart, and then treated on the same lines as chicory. So far as the green leaves are concerned, the sowing of dandelion will seem to some lovers of a garden rather superfluous. The directions for marketing celery tell us that the bundles of eight or a dozen sticks in which it is sold are called in the market

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IN the Sunday Times for Feb. 12, Mr. James Agate, discussing Macbeth' in modern dress at the Court Theatre, finds the best argument brought forward in favour of the modern dress to be one of Sir Barry Jackson's -to wit, "that clothing to which our minds and eyes are most accustomed frees us to concentrate on the story.' Upon which Mr. that five Agate takes occasion to remark minutes is the length of time which exhausts "in any normal production our preoccupation with Macbeth's costume and with the costumes of everybody else." With costume the staging is very nearly allied; and so there arises the really interesting question how long the external setting of a play has any direct effect; how soon it sinks into what is its true function, that of a screen to separate and concentrate the play? And again, how long is it desirable that direct effect should be continued?

IN the Quarterly Journal of the New York

State Historical Association (October, 1927), which we have just received, the most generally interesting article is the diary of a voyage from Stade in Hanover to Quebec, kept by an officer of the second division of the Ducal Brunswick Mercenaries going over

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