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jurisdiction of magistrates, whom they detested "as usurpers*." In short, to adopt the language of prophecy, they that dwelt upon the Roman earth, the papists of the various tongues and nations into which the great city had been divided by the incursions of the Goths, rejoiced over the two prophets that tormented them by their troublesome admonitions, and made merry, and sent gifts one to another. But this joy was soon converted into consternation. The sure word of prophecy had declared that it should last only three years and a half.
Now, if we compute three years and a half from the 15th of May 1548, or rather from about the end of May or the beginning of June when the Interim was published, we shall be brought to December in the year 1551. Accordingly, at this time the affairs of the protestants took a complete turn; life entered into the witnesses, and they again stood upon their feet. On the 3d of November, the city of Magdeburg, which had the honour of submitting last to the Interim, was compelled to surrender and to receive it as a system of faith. But, on the preceding 5th of October, Maurice of Saxony had privately concluded a treaty with the King of France, preparatory to his openly declaring against the EmpeAll things being now arranged by this able prince, and the three prophetic years and a half
*Hist. of Charles V. vol. iii. p. 203.
having fully expired, he commenced his operations in the December following, by sending a solemn embassy to the Emperor, in his own name and in that of the Elector of Brandenburg, demanding the release of the Landgrave of Hesse. The Elector Palatine, the Duke of Wurtem
berg, the Dukes of Mecklenburg, the Duke of "Deuxponts, the Marquis of Brandenburg Ba"reith, and the Marquis of Baden, by their "ambassadors, concurred with them in their suit. "Letters were likewise delivered to the same "effect from the King of Denmark, the Duke of "Bavaria, and the Dukes of Lunenburg.*"
This demand was refused. Maurice continued to amuse the Emperor during a short time longer; till at length, his preparations being completed, he joined his army, which amounted to 20,000 foot and 5000 horse, and put it immediately in motion. "At the same time he published a "manifesto, containing his reasons for taking 66 arms. These were three in number: that he might secure the protestant religion, which 66 was threatened with immediate destruction "that he might maintain the constitution and "laws of the empire, and save Germany from being subjected to the dominion of an absolute "monarch; and that he might deliver the Landgrave of Hesse from the miseries of a long and unjust imprisonment †.
* Hist. of Charles V. vol. iii. p. 220.
+ Ibid. p. 225.
Maurice had now to act a part entirely new; "but his flexible genius was capable of accom❝modating itself to every situation. The moment " he took arms, he was as bold and enterprising “in the field, as he had been cautious and crafty "in the cabinet. He advanced by rapid marches "towards the upper Germany. All the towns "in his way opened their gates to him. He "reinstated the magistrates whom the Emperor ". had deposed, and gave possession of the "churches to the protestant ministers whom he "had ejected. He directed his march to Augs"burg; and, as the imperial garrison, which was "too inconsiderable to think of defending "it, retired immediately, he took possession of "that great city, and made the same changes "there as in the towns through which he had "passed *."
Thus, after three days and a half, did the spirit of life enter into the witnesses, and they stood upon their feet. Meanwhile great fear fell upon them that saw them. "No words can express "the Emperor's astonishment and consternation "at events so unexpected. He saw a great ❝ number of the German princes in arms against " him, and the rest either ready to join them, "or wishing success to their enterprize; while "he, through negligence and credulity, which "exposed him no less to scorn than to danger,
*Hist. of Charles V. vol. iii. p. 227.
"had neither made, nor was in a condition to
make, any effectual provision for crushing his "rebellious subjects. Part of his Spanish troops "had been ordered into Hungary against the Turks; the rest had marched back to Italy "upon occasion of the war in the dutchy of "Parma. The bands of veteran Germans had "been dismissed because he was not able to pay "them, or had entered into Maurice's service "after the siege of Magdeburg; and he remained "at Inspruck with a body of soldiers hardly "strong enough to guard his own person."
In this perilous situation he placed all his hopes in negociating. Maurice, conscious of his own talents, and designing merely to amuse the Emperor, readily agreed to an interview with his -brother Ferdinand the King of the Romans, in the town of Lintz in Austria. The conference produced no accommodation; but Ferdinand, encouraged by his apparently pacific disposition, proposed a second interview at Passau on the 26th of May, when a truce should commence and continue to the ioth of June, in order to give them leisure for adjusting all the points in dispute.
Maurice readily assented; and, having re-. joined his army on the 9th of May, since sixteen days yet remained for action before the commencement of the truce on the 26th, he put his
* Hist. of Charles V. vol. iii. p. 227.
troops in motion the next morning, and resolved to venture upon an enterprize, the success of which would be so decisive as to render the negociations at Passau extremely short, and entitle him to treat upon his own terms. Accordingly he marched directly at the head of his army towards Inspruck, and advanced with the most rapid motion that could be given to so great a body of men. Such indeed was his rapidity, that he entered that town only a few hours after the Emperor and his attendants had quitted it. Charles" was informed of the approaching danger late in the evening; and, knowing that nothing could save him but a speedy flight, he instantly left Inspruck without regarding the "darkness of the night or the violence of the "rain which happened to fall at that time, and, notwithstanding the debility occasioned by the gout, which rendered him unable to bear any "motion but that of a litter, he travelled by the
light of torches, taking his way over the Alps
by roads almost impassable. His courtiers and "attendants followed him with equal precipita❝tion, some of them on such horses as they "could hastily procure, many of them on foot, " and all in the utmost confusion. In this mise❝rable plight, very unlike the pomp with which "Charles had appeared during the five preceding years as the conqueror of Germany, he arrived "at length with his dejected train at Villach in "Carinthia, and scarcely thought himself secure