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reduced under the yoke by an English friar named Boniface, whom Gregory the third consecrated Archbishop of Mentz; constituting him at the same time his vicar, with full power to call councils, and to constitute bishops in those places, which were by his assistance converted to the Christian faith. In the first of these councils, Boniface presiding in quality of legate of the Roman chair, the clergy signed a certain confession, of faith, whereby they obliged themselves, not only to maintain the catholic faith, but also to remain in constant union with the Roman church, and to be obedient to the successors of St. Peter. "This Boniface," says Puffendorff, "was the first "who put it upon the bishops of Germany to "receive the episcopal pall from the Pope, who "sent it to the bishops of France without their "request, thereby to unite them with the Ronan
chair. And, when once these ornaments were « become customary amongst them, they were "put upon them afterwards as of absolute ne
cessity; and the episcopal function was for"bidden to be exercised by them before they had "received these ornaments*." The same author further observes, "Besides this, the Popes assumed "to themselves an authority of giving leave to "the bishops to remove from one episcopal see "to another, and obliged all the western bishops *to receive their confirmation from Rome, for
*Introduct. to Hist. of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 404.
which they were obliged to pay a certain sum "of money as an acknowledgment, which was ❝ since converted to annats. The Popes also, by "making void the decisions of the provincial "synods or assemblies, overthrew their autho
rity: wherefore, when every body plainly per"ceived that the decrees of these assemblies "could produce no other effects but to be conti"nually annulled by the Popes, without so much "as hearkening to any reasons, they were by
degrees quite abolished, Pope Gregory the "seventh also forced the bishops to swear an oath "of fealty to the Pope, and by a decree forbad*, "that none should dare to condemn any one that ❝ had appealed to the Pope. They were also not "forgetful in sending legates or nuncios to all "places; whose business was to exercise in the "name of the Pope the same authority, which had formerly belonged to the bishops, metro
politans, and provincial assembliest." In this passage mention is made of the oath of fealty exacted by Gregory the seventh from the bishops. A similar oath has been imposed, even since the Reformation, by Pius the fourth on all the beneficed clergy. He decreed, that they should all swear true obedience to the Roman pontiff, the successor of St. Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ ‡. In short, how completely the clergy under their
Introduct. to Hist. of Eur. cited by Whitaker, p. 406.
bishops became one of the two ecclesiastical kingdoms of the papal beast, will best appear from the following oath, set forth by order of Pope Clement the eighth to be taken by all bishops at their consecration, and by all metropolitans at their instalment.
"I N. elect of the church of N. from hence"forward will be faithful and obedient to St. "Peter the Apostle, and to the holy Roman church, and to our Lord, the lord N. Pope N. "and to his successors canonically coming in. "I will neither advise, consent, or do any thing, "that they may lose life or member, or that their persons may be seized, or hands any wise laid 66 upon them, or any injuries offered to them "under any pretence whatsoever. The counsel, "which they shall intrust me withal, by them
selves, their messengers, or letters, I will not knowingly reveal to any to their prejudice. I "will help them to defend and keep the Roman Papacy and the royalties of St. Peter, saving
my order, against all men. The legate of the "apostolic see, going and coming, I will honour"ably treat and help in his necessities. The
rights, honours, privileges, and authority, of "the holy Roman church, of our lord the Pope, "and his foresaid successors, I will endeavour "to preserve, defend, increase, and advance.
"I will not be in any counsel, action, or treaty, “in which shall be plotted against our said lord,
and the said Roman church, any thing to the
"hurt or prejudice of their persons, right, honour, "state, or power; and, if I shall know any such thing to be treated or agitated by any what
soever, I will hinder it to my power; and, as soon as I can, will signify it to our said lord, "or to some other by whom it may come to his knowledge. The rules of the holy fathers, the apostolic decrees, ordinances, or disposals, re"servations, provisions, and mandates, I will "observe with all my might, and cause to be "observed by others. Heretics, schismatics, and "rebels to our said lord, or his foresaid successors, I will to my power persecute, and oppose*."
As for the precise steps, by which this ecclesiastical kingdom was finally and perfectly organized, they are well pointed out by Lord Lyttelton in his History of Henry the second.
"It was now
an established notion," says he, "that all metropolitans were only the vicars or rather viceroys of the Pope in their several provinces; and "the pall was the ensign of their office. This "was too lightly given way to by kings, and proved in its consequences one of the deepest "arts, by which the policy of the Court of Rome
supported its power. For thus all the greatest prelates, who might have affected an indepen"dence on that see, had another object of am"bition set up, namely, an independence on "their own sovereigns, and an imparted share of "the papal dominion over all temporal powers." *Whitaker's Comment. p. 408,
And again: "Henry the first did not enough "consider, how much the design of detaching the
clergy from any dependence upon their own sovereign, and from all ties to their country, "was promoted by forcing them to a life of celibacy but concurred with the see of Rome, "and with Anselm its minister, in imposing that yoke upon the English church, which till then "had always refused it-He was also prevailed upon to suffer a legate a latere, the Cardinal
of Crema, to preside in a council held at Lon"don upon this and other matters, in derogation "to the metropolitan rights of the archbishop "of Canterbury; thereby confirming that dangerous and degrading subjection to the Bishop of Rome, which his father had brought upon "the church of England *." There was yet another step, by which the second ecclesiastical kingdom of the papal empire was both completed, and kept in subjection. Well knowing the truth of the maxim Divide and rule, the artful pontiffs dexterously contrived to play off the one kingdom against the other, to govern the secular clergy by the instrumentality of the regular, Whenever any bishop," says Puffendorff, "attempted any thing against the Pope's authority, "the mendicant friars with their clamour and "noise pursued him every where like so many "hounds, and rendered him odious to the com
Hist. of Henry II. cited by Whitaker, p. 410, 411.