who showed a bold front, and even army and beat them in detail, or made inroads on McClellan's rear. else force them to concentrate as far “The army,” says the Federal Gen- back as Gordonsville, and thus eral at this time, “is not now in place the army of Potomac in posicondition to undertake another tion either to adopt the Frederickscampaign, nor to bring on another burg line of advance upon Richbattle, unless great advantages are of- mond, or to be removed to the fered by some mistake of the enemy, Peninsula.” or pressing military exigencies ren- These movements, continued for der it necessary.” All this, of course, ten days, brought the Federal force afforded a handle to his enemies, to about Warrenton, and McClellan bebe worked in due season. Mean- lieves he was in a position to sepawhile he remained guarding the rate and defeat the enemy, when any Potomac, and devising plans for an such untoward exercise of zeal on advance. While the river was low, his part was effectually prevented and the enemy could cross easily, by Messieurs Stanton and Halleck. he was desirous of advancing from “I was confident of decisive vicits upper course along the Shenan- tory,” he says (he had often been doah valley, thus covering Mary- confident of that), “when, in the land by his front. But the Presi- midst of the movement, while my dent, who was always fully alive to advanced-guard was actually in conany danger threatening the capital tact with the enemy, I was removed wherein he resided, was anxious to from the command.” It would see McClellan's army interposed be- perhaps have fared better with him tween himself and Lee, and urged then, had he resented previous inthat it should occupy the eastern juries more indignantly. Could it side of the Blue Ridge, basing on have been supposed that he would Alexandria. Willing to gratify Mr use the influence he undoubtedly Lincoln, McClellan, as soon as the possessed for his own purposes, the rainy season rendered the passage risk of offending him, when so of the Potomac precarious to Lee, powerful, would have been too commenced the movement east of great. A spice of the Napoleon or the Blue Ridge, towards Warren- the Cromwell temper might have ton, seizing the gaps as he passed, caused him to conclude an armistice to prevent the enemy from issuing with Lee, march on Washington, on his communications with the hurl from their seats the clique Potomac; for he remained dependent that burlesqued a government—and on his depots at Harper's Ferry and that would have been the reproach Berlin till he should reach the Ma- even of nations whose pretensions nassas Railroad, when the line of were moderate, and who did not the upper Potomac would be no select their own rulers and seize longer important. Supposing that the loose reins of empire. But he Lee should be parallel to him on the was not of that fiery stamp. He other side of the Ridge, he meant received the mandate with submisto move south till he should find sion, and retired into private life, the enemy's main body between leaving his army to be shattered him and the Potomac—when, forc- against the Confederate lines at ing his way into the valley, he would Fredericksburg by Burnside, and get in their rear, and, if he could at Chancellorsville by Hooker. defeat, would destroy them. This Notwithstanding our entire besimple plan did not sound very lief that the popular opinion which feasible in practice against Lee; and ascribes to McClellan's generalship McClellan

says—“I hardly hoped to the grave defects of slowness and accomplish this, but did expect that over-caution is correct, we think by striking in between Culpepper he is by far the best 'leader that Court House and Little Washing- has yet conducted a Federal army. ton, I could either separate their Setting aside the numerous failures

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whom we have been regularly re- ville. Quitting Lee's front on the upquired to accept as great com- per stream, he concentrated at the manders, we see none among those fords below, and began to cross. whose incompetence has been less His idea was obvious. If he could obvious, or whose success has been collect his army on the south bank, more considerable, whom we would and move obliquely by the Wilderplace beside, far less above, McClel- ness towards Bowling Green, he lan. For instance, let us consider would be much nearer Richmond the campaign of Grant.

than Lee was, and he probably calThis commander was free last culated that his antagonist, thus spring to choose his own line of cut from the capital, would be forced operation in the campaign that had to regain it by the long circuit of been so boastfully announced, and the upper James; but that, in any so elaborately provided for. He case, his own superior numbers. had the experience of other Gener- would enable him at once to hold als, in many preceding campaigns, Lee at bay, and to invest the capito enlighten him on the special ob- tal. This plan was baffled at its stacles and special facilities which very outset. Lee followed the existed on each route to Richmond. movement to the fords so rapidly Fremont, Milroy, Banks, and other that his leading divisions formed hapless military pretenders, could across the heads of Grant's columns: tell him what pitfalls lurked for as they moved up from the riverincompetence in the Shenandoah and but for the unfortunate wound valley. If he wanted information which Longstreet received from his about the line of the Orange Rail- own men as he was advancing to way from Alexandria to the Rapi- complete the discomfiture of the dan, he could obtain plenty from invaders, the Wilderness would General Pope. M‘Dowell, Burn- probably have been the scene of side, and Hooker, could tell him the beginning and ending of this what sort of obstacle the Rappa- campaign. As it was, Lee easily hannock interposed to an advance regained the direct line to Richby the Fredericksburg road—and mond, and took up a position on the first of these had traversed a it which Grant in vain assailed. great part of that road in his move- Baffled in front, he moved off to his ment to join McClellan. Lastly, the left until his circuit brought his lines from the Pamunkey on the one rear towards the Peninsula, when, side, and from the James on the his line by Fredericksburg being other, to the Chickahominy, had quite uncovered, he began to draw been amply illustrated by the events his supplies from the Pamunkey. which we have been reviewing. Next he tried to break into RichDeliberating, then, on all these al- mond through its eastern defences, ternatives, the command of the and sustained what was probably rivers left him free to choose among the bloodiest of his many bloody them. If he wished to operate by defeats. Shifting to the James, he: either bank of the James, there was crossed it, and commenced that adnothing to prevent him from mak- vance on Petersburg which has lasting Bermuda Hundred (the start- ed until now, respecting which line ing-point of Butler) the base of the of operation against Richmond we whole army. But he deliberately will offer a few remarks. selected the Fredericksburg road- In commenting on McClellan's. not aiming at it through Fredericks- operations we pointed out that the burg, which would have involved President's fears of an attack on so long a movement to his left that Washington were unfounded, proLee might have discovered it, and vided a great Federal force were have had time to interpose, but se- east of Richmond, such as the Genlecting the fords by which Hooker eral wished and designed to achad crossed to fight at Chancellors- cumulate there.

For such an army

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must always menace the communi- struggles, and the enormous, un, cations of a Confederate force mov- heard-of expenditure of men and ing to the Potomac from Rich- means which has attended his mond; and we illustrated this by futile manoeuvres, the fact that, directly McClellan should be wronging McClellan if seized Hanover Court-House, the we set Grant beside him in generalSouthern troops fronting M‘Dowell ship. As to Sherman, he has never on the Rappahannock were obliged been sufficiently tested to have to fall back. And so long as given proof of his qualities, for Grant's army remained east of though he has made good his adRichmond it was difficult or im- vance on a long and difficult line, possible for Lee to direct any yet his superiority of numbers has counter stroke on the Federal capi- always been so considerable as to tal. But directly Grant crossed to compensate for all disadvantages of the south bank of the James, Lee, circumstances, as is sufficiently ali so long as he could hold the enemy manifest from the fact that, while at bay by his fortifications, was free always too strong to be attacked in to detach troops northward_and we front, he was able to detach largely have seen that Early has twice, to a flank, and so turn every posiwith a comparatively small force, tion; under such conditions, move invaded the Federal States, collect ments otherwise

difficult and haz- Lita ed there vast trains of supplies, and ardous become easy. created such alarm at Washington But there is one aspect in which as seriously crippled Grant. Such McClellan shines

with absolute then has been one result of the lustre when compared with other advance_on Richmond from the generals of the North. The spirit south. But it has another feature in which he makes war is humane of its own.

In selecting any other and honourable. The grisly fanaline, the Federal army always ticism of Sherman

- who lays covered by its front its own com

waste a broad belt of cultivated munications, whether with Alex- country along his line of march, as andria, Acquia, Urbana, or the if some poisonous wind had swept James. But directly the army

over it, and who de populates cities moved towards Petersburg, it was linked to its supplies on the river extinct Union, a belief in which he

and districts as a sacrifice to that by a line in the prolongation

of its has erected into a religious princiright flank. Thus if the line should ple not to be denied without blasbe broken anywhere between the phemy-finds no countenance from left and the river, all the troops McClellan. Of that Union he has thus separated would be lost, un- always professed himself a firm less they could cut their way adherent; but he has never pro through, because behind them was

claimed that it is to be maintained the Confederate territory. This

at the cost of the destruction of the accounts for the frequent large cap- Southern people

, and the devastatures of Federals, and disasters to tion of their territory. From his bodies of their cavalry acting in ex- point of view it is an end to be at tension of their line —and nothing tained by the superior but the immense superiority of the North, employed in an honourthroughout the campaign has pre- while he was smarting on the banks vented this blot from being fatally of the James from the blows inhit by his skilful and determined flicted on the Chicksahominy, an opponent. Seeing, then, what Grant has ac


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enemy in front still

him with destruction, -looking at the position he has following sentences :complished and failed to accomplish in an address to the President, the established himself in after so many " This rebellion has

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assumed the

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character of war; as such it should be ship in government, they are ready regarded; and it should be conducted

to sanction more cruelties in the z upon the highest principles known to South — more peculation, corrup2) Christian civilisation. It should not be da war looking to the subjugation of the tion, and tyranny, in the North

people of any state, in any event. It and to inspire civilised nations with should not be at all a war upon popula- more horror and disgust for the tion, but against armed forces and poli- frenzied acts in which they express

tical organisations. Neither confisca- devotion to their political Moloch. in chi tion of property, political executions of The interest of the South in the

persons, territorial organisation of states; election is chiefly contained in
or forcible abolition of slavery, should the question, “Will McClellan be
be contemplated for a moment. In pro-
secuting the war, all private property readier to make peace than Lin-
and unarmed persons should be strictly coln ?” He has answered this in

protected, subject only to the necessity the negative. “ The Union," he Ma of military operations. All private pro- says in his late manifesto, repeat

perty taken for military use should be ing it with a needless stolid reitera* paid or receipted for; pillage and waste should be treated as high crimes ;

tion, must be preserved at all all

hazards." This unnecessary trespass sternly prohibited,

announcement and offensive demeanour by the mili

took the world by surprise - for tary towards citizens promptly rebuked. though he had always proclaimed Military arrests should not be tolerated, his loyalty to the Union, yet there except in places where active hostilities

was nothing in his previous profesexist, and oaths not required by enact- sions which would have been inments constitutionally made should be

consistent with the declaration neither demanded nor received. Mili. tary government should be confined to

that all permissible means had the preservation of public order and the been tried in vain, that a prosecuprotection of political rights."

tion of the war threatened the ruin

not only of the South but of the In the approaching contest for the whole continent, and that his voice Presidency, the issue submitted to should now be raised for separathe people of the North is suffi- tion. And as these certainly were ciently clear. Both candidates

supposed to be the sentiments of have declared for the prosecution of the party which made him its canthe war. The election of McClellan

didate, it is to be presumed that, means humane and civilised war.

before nominating him, the DemoIt would be a confession that the cratic leaders had ascertained his savage nature of the contest has

opinions to be generally concurbeen repugnant to the spirit of the rent with their own. Perhaps they majority of the Northern people ; were — but incidents occurred to

it would be a vast step towards create a change in public feeling che retrieving the deep stigma which which neither McClellan nor any

now rests upon them. It would be, other public man in that country too, a recognition of the claims of can venture to oppose. The defenworth, sense, and respectability in ces of Mobile fell-Sherman capa contest for rule, and, so far, a re- tured Atlanta-Sheridan obtained turn to the principles on which the a success, the popular delight at Union was framed ; and it would which reveals how much the North be a guarantee for the restoration is compelled to respect the military throughout the North of that free- genius of the South, since the vicdom without which the word tory, whatever its real extent may Constitution is a mockery. The prove when it is divested of Mr re-election of Lincoln would mean Stanton's exaggerations, was obthat the sentiments of the Northern tained with a superiority in numpeople are fitly represented by him, bers of about three to one. The his Ministers, and Generals—that, advocates of peace were silenced, for the sake of producing a hideous and McClellan made that declaracaricature of their former partner- tion of war principles which, while

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it was so ill-timed as to deprive his it. It is easy to understand why course of all appearance of inde- the majority of the people of the pendence, was also so ill-judged North approve the conduct of the as to alienate from him the war, if we admit sorrowfully that strength of his party. The South, the base temptations of gain and then, seeing him thus committed of gratified rancour may be too to a war policy, would probably strong for ordinary consciences. rather submit to the fresh outrages But it is not so easy to understand and injuries that the re-election of what possible interest people in Lincoln will entail, confident, as England can have in joining the they must be, that these, after all, frenzied cry for Union. Strange must really strengthen their cause, to say,

it is Radical newspapers than see the still formidable re- which now proclaim that it is persources of the North in the hands missible for any people to choose of one so much more competent to their form of government except direct them.

the members of a democracy Meanwhile, the war must go on that the dissolution of a political with its exhibition of constancy on partnership, which does not fulfil the one side, and truculence on the the ends for which it was instituted, other. And the onlookers, while is a crime to be appropriately very calm and measured in their visited with extermination and admiration of the constancy, damn- to greet each new act of atrocity ing it with very faint praise, are with shouts of applause, which may extremely indulgent to the trucul- well be echoed in laughter by the ence, nay, in some cases, applaud devils.

Printed by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.

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