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ple. Anybody with a large enough alternative to them but a revoluarmy can make a coup d'état, but it tion. needs a dash of genius to beard “Well,” laughs the Prince trithe lion in his den, and come umphantly to his discomfitted boyout all covered with diamonds. ards on his return, “I went to No sooner did the news of the Constantinople to put my head coup d'état reach Constantinople, into the Sultan's hands, and the than a conference met there, and Sultan has put your heads into my decided, in a protocol,
hands.'' “ Ist, That several stipulations of Payer d'audace is a motto which the protocol of the Paris Confer Prince Couza has found to answer ence of July 30, 1858, have not admirably; but, added to the imbeen carried into execution.
pudence of the chevalier d'indus“2d, That by a number of success- trie, he combines the plausibility ively-issued decrees, the Moldo-Wal- without which his character as a lachian Government has decided in member of the fraternity would be its own favour several of those mat- imperfect. Having heard much of ters, the solution of which was re the irresistible fascination of his served to the guaranteeing Powers, manner, I confess I was extremely and respecting which they have de- disappointed with it, and astoncided in an Act (the Paris Conven- ished that anybody could be taken tion) in binding the aforesaid Gov- in by an eye and a mouth which ernment.
betrayed to the most superficial "3d, That the Conference regards physiognomist the more prominent those decrees, which, in consequence features of his character. No one of their unauthorised character, can with the most slender experience of not have the slightest importance Leicester Square, or a slight knowin its eyes, as not binding, and con- ledge of the places of public amusesiders itself called upon most em ment in the Barrières of Paris, phatically to condemn the manner would be deceived for a moment in which the Moldo - Wallachian by his Highness. But the Sultan, Government has permitted itself to who has not probably seen a biloutstep the sphere of its operations, liard-marker in his life, and does and to interfere in affairs whose not know the difference between settlement it is not empowered to one description of gentleman and undertake."
another, has been completely In the teeth of this strong con- gulled by this crafty adventurer, demnation of his conduct, Prince who has not only obtained at ConCouza starts straight for Constanti- stantinople the condonation from nople to meet his accusers face to his suzerain of his recent flagrant face, and not merely to account for breaches of the constitution, but his conduct, but to win them over to was invested with the first class of his side. Nothing exasperated his the order of the Osmanleh in diasubjects more than this bold step, monds. Everybody whom he meets by which he conciliated the very he wins. The very priests whom Power they trusted to to redress he has despoiled become his friends their grievances. No sooner does and admirers, not because, like Mr the outraged boyard appeal to the Gladstone, he kisses their hands, Porte for protection, than he finds but because he has felt their pockhe has been forestalled by his High- ets; and, finally, he obtains the ness, who has taken the bull by the qualified sanction of the ambassahorns, and pleaded his own cause dors of all the protecting Powers with such effect, that he has cut to his infraction of that constituaway the last piece of standing- tion they themselves made him ground from under the feet of swear to respect. the opposition, and left no other It is true that the Conference at
Constantinople, from very shame, sion in the light of a great diplohave only ratified his proceedings matic success is evident from the upon the promise, on the part of fact, that he no sooner finds himthe Prince, to comply with certain self back upon his own dunghill, conditions which they have im- than he flaps his wings and gives posed, and which enable them to vent to a crow of triumph, in the say that the Convention of Paris form of the annexed proclamation has not been abrogated but merely to his subjects, from which it will modified; and they have found the be seen that, however much our Prince perfectly willing to agree to Foreign Minister may deny that anything, because he never has the the Convention of Paris has been slightest intention of adhering to abrogated by the coup d'état, Prince his engagements. Thus he has Couza announces that “the fundayielded at once to the following mental bases of the new institutions stipulation, dated 9th of last June, are neither endangered nor changed which has been imposed upon him by the alterations to which I have with reference to the monastic fund consented in agreement with the
the appropriation of which I Sublime Porte, and with the assent have already described :
of the collective guaranteeing Pow
ers.” When we find that the docu“Your Highness will understand that, with the view of preserving the
ment recognising these new instiexistence of those monastic establish
tutions accords to the united Prinments, their revenues are in future to cipalities their complete autonomy, be devoted to a special fund, which we must agree rather with Prince will be placed under the control of the Couza than with Mr Layard in guaranteeing Powers. The Conference maintaining that the Conference has unanimously expressed its opinion of Constantinople has practically that this control is not to be merely abolished the Convention of Paris. apparent or superficial, but real and valid. Your Highness will therefore The following proclamation is be good enough to come to an under. dated standing in this sense with the Sublime Porte, in order that the fund may be
“ BUCHAREST, July 14, 1864. devoted to the purpose marked out for “Roumains ! Between the 10th (220) it by the Conference.
and the 14th (26th) May the nation has "This object will be attained if the replied with 682,681 votes to the appeal trustee of the fund furnishes satis of your Prince, and has approved the factory security for such application to principles of the appendix to the consti; the Sublime Porte as well as to the tution and the electoral law submitted guaranteeing Powers; and if your to its consideration. Highness renders the fulfilment of “But these new institutions voted their task possible to the representa- by the nation altered several articles of tives of the Powers by informing them the European Convention, and abolishof the amounts received, and of the ed Appendix No. II. to this Convention periods at which the payments were - viz., the electoral law. made.
“So important a reform, therefore, “ It will be understood that this pre required the recognition of the Sovesent notification is the unanimous reso reign Porte and of the Powers guaranlution and expression of opinion of the teeing the political existence of RoulSublime Porte and of the guaranteeing mania who have signed the Convention. Powers. (Signed) FUAD.” “I have announced to you my jour
ney to Constantinople to strengthen the In the eyes of his Highness this autonomy of the country by a new inis quite a minor consideration; he ternational understanding. has fingered the money, and he “My hopes and your hopes are realtrusts to his good star and the cor
ised. His Majesty the Sultan, our ilruptibility of the trustee, or the ing Powers, have recognised the new
lustrious Sovereign, and the guaranteejealousy of each other of the pro- institutions of Roumania created by the tecting Powers, for the rest. That plebiscite of the 10th (22d) to the 14th he considers his self-imposed mis- (26th) May.
“ From the documents I now publish liberties, while regarding our ancient and bring to your knowledge you will
ties to the Sublime Porte, and preservgain the conviction that the existence ing the fundamental principles of the and the fundamental bases of the new Convention of the 7th (19th) August, institutions voted by the nation are 1858, so that the internal constitution neither endangered nor changed by the of Roumania may be further built up alterations to which I have consented upon solid foundations. Long live in agreement with the Sublime Porte, Roumania ! and with the assent of the collective (Signed) “ALEXANDER JOHN I. guaranteeing Powers.
(Countersigned) “COGALNITCHANO, “ These modifications, however, are
BALANESCO, Bolmerely provisional. They may be sup
INTINIANO, ORBESplemented and completed by the legis
co, and GENERAL lative bodies in their approaching ses
Mano.” sion. “For, Roumains, I declare to you,
Let us do Alexander John the and you will yourselves admit, that kind turn of putting this manifesto Roumania only enters upon its full au into those more expressive terms tonomy from this day, as contained in
which will convey to the reader our ancient agreements concluded with the Porte and guaranteed by the Treaty through his mind when he wrote
some notion of what was passing of Paris.
it : “This autonomy has been until now practically obstructed in many respects.
“I, Alexander John I., late SubA proof of this was afforded by Appen. Prefect of Galatz, out at elbows, dix No. II. to the Convention-viz., but devoted to billiards and the the electoral law-which could not be fairer portion of the population altered without foreign assent. “Now, upon the other hand, the high to assume the imperial purple—to
of that very untidy port, am about Powers, in consideration of our ancient rights and the Treaty of Paris — by exchange a cue for a sceptre, and, which Europe took our political exist surrounded by all that is lovely ence under her protection-have sanc and accomplished in Europe, to tioned our internal autonomy in its full become Alexander John I., Emextent. At the head of the document
peror of Roumania, bounded on by which the new institutions of Rouinania are recognised, the Sublime
the west by the Adriatic, on the Porte, in conjunction with the guaran
east by the Black Sea, on the south teeing Powers, has written these words: by the Balkan, and on the north • The United Principalities are in future by the Carpathians; 'with,' as they at liberty to change and modify the say in prospectuses, permission to laws affecting their internal adminis- add to my frontiers.” tration, with the legal participation of the collective authorities established by all this, that Alexander John is
Who is to deny, in the face of the State.' “From this day forth, therefore, and
not a great man already, and likely only from this day forth, the Roumain to become a greater? How far our nation takes possession of its autonomy. policy was a wise one in encouragFrom this time forth it may alter and ing these dreams remains to be improve its internal institutions with
The Porte was under the out foreign intervention. “Roumains! The future is our own.
impression that Prince Couza was May the confidence of the nation in its
a man to be conciliated, not defied; chosen head become still greater, that and that the best chance of_keepwe may recover the time lost, that our ing things smooth in the Princibeloved country may rapidly rejoice in palities was to make a friend of the fruits of its patience and sacrifices, him. Possibly, we took the same and the Roumain nation may in this view; but the boyards may prove manner recover the place to which it is entitled in the great European family Russian occupation is the thing
as dangerous as the Prince : if a of peoples.
* Let us, then, warmly greet the new we do not want to see, it is Legislative Chambers which are sum a question, whether, by backing moned to develop our laws and public the Prince against the people, we
shall avert the contingency; or ments towards Turkey. We shall whether, on the contrary, we have again have to choose between the not added to the existing dangers. alternative of humiliation before We have shown the Prince that Europe, or of a disastrous and unhe may defy the Porte and the profitable war; and we shall again Powers with impunity, and that part with our honour to save our although they may object ostensibly pockets. It is melancholy to look to his proceedings, their opposition forward to, particularly as an inevitor disapproval practically resolves able certainty. We are still strugitself into consent and approval; gling to reconcile the diplomacy of and we have shown the boyards cotton-spinners with the diplomacy that they need not depend upon us of gentlemen, and the two things to stand by the engagements in are incompatible. Better have no their behalf which we have con- diplomacy at all, than mob-diplotracted, and that they had better macy as represented by the Manmake friends wherever they can, chester school. If our code of and, having got the support of honour differs so egregiously from Russia or Austria, make a revolu- that of other civilised nations, that tion on their own account. Not the political morality of America content with becoming parties to is the only kind we
can apprethis Convention, which we have ciate, let us keep as much aloof since repudiated, with a fatality, from European affairs as the Ameor rather a fatuousness, which has ricans do. But if we insist upon characterised most of our foreign mixing in good society, let us policy lately, we deliberately guar- behave like gentlemen and men anteed the integrity of the Otto- of honour. Either let us keep man empire at the close of the out of the society of nations altoCrimean war; thereby laying up gether, or let us accept the duties for ourselves a most certain store and obligations which our position of dishonour, as we have no more imposes upon us.
We can no more idea of adhering to our solemnly- continue our present system of selfcontracted obligations in this re- ish, mercenary, low-minded policy, spect than Alexander John him- than we could, as individuals, be self. That we should leave the tolerated in clubs where we purweak to be bullied or annexed by loined the bread, and refused to the strong when our interests are pay our debts of honour. In the not concerned-or, which comes to mean time, nothing is so demoralisthe same thing, when we ignor- ing to our diplomatic agents abroad, antly think they are not-is com as the consciousness that the Govprehensible enough ; but why we ernment and the country will supshould bind ourselves in sacred port them in any successful patchofficial documents, signed by the ing-up or staving-off a difficulty, seal of the country, and pledging however discreditable to our nathe honour of the nation to do tional reputation, and will visit what it has no intention of ever with heavy condemnation any sodoing, can only be accounted for by lution which should involve the supposing that the Government that risk of war, however essential to made the treaty was as ignorant of the preservation of our honour. public opinion in England, as they We trust that the result may prove have invariably shown themselves of that the sanction obtained by Prince public opinion abroad. Meantime, Couza from the Powers at Conof this we may be sure, that the con- stantinople for the abrogation-or, tempt which our Danish policy bas as they would call it, the modificabrought upon our heads is nothing tion of the Paris Convention, may to that with which we shall be load- not have the effect which more ed when we repudiate our engage- than one Power that consented to
it desired, of precipitating the East- icy. The history of the transmisern question.
sion of Russian arms through BuchWe shall see, moreover, whether arest into Servia is still fresh in those profuse professions of his our memory; and I was amused, in Highness, that he only wanted a discussing the subject with a high little of his own way to develop the functionary who had been Minister resources of his country, will be car of War at the time, to hear the exried out. When I was there he persis- cuse made for the falsehood delibtently refused to make concessions erately told by the Prince to our to any railway company whatever; Government, when he was charged and, in one case, contractors only with this violation of the stipularequested to be allowed to make a tions. The arms were stowed away line from Bucharest to the Danube in a store at Bucharest; and upon without demanding a Government the Prince being taxed with this guarantee. A line thirty miles fact he indignantly denied it; “for," long, connecting a capital city con- said the ex-War-Minister, " he had taining 150,000 inhabitants and to gain time. How could he adthe largest navigable river in Eu- mit it? There was no harm in his rope, it was thought, would pay gaining time to send them out of on its own merits, more especially the town, and he could not have as at present the road from the done this had he not said they were city to its port is not even mac not in it.” Not very long before adamised, but is in winter an almost my visit, General Türr had paid a impassable slough; but the Prince visit of intrigue to his Highness, refused his sanction to the enter- which caused some anxiety to conprise, and the result is, that it is stituted governments at the time, cheaper to transport goods the first and to which great importance was five hundred miles to Giurgevo attached, as it was supposed to be than the last thirty to Bucharest. significant of a rising in the proThe best illustration which can be vinces. The real object of his visit, afforded of the deficiency of inter- however, was to persuade Prince nal communication in these pro- Couza to exercise his authority over vinces is to be found in the fact, the Roumanians of Transylvania, that when corn in Wallachia has who were at that moment voting been so abundant that it was ac for the Austrian Reichsrath, to withtually burnt by the peasantry for hold their votes, and follow the exfuel, its price has been higher in ample of Hungary in the matter. the capital of the province than in General Türr was recalled, however, London. It has been cheaper to by the Italian Government, re intransport corn from the banks of fectâ, and the Transylvanians enthe Danube to London than to tered the Reichsrath in spite of Bucharest. I used to bet, to the Couza. What the last new project great indignation of the “Rouman- of his Highness may be is at preians," that Prince Kung would sent a mystery; but he is always connect Pekin with his port by a coquetting with the party of action, railway before Prince Couza would in further imitation of another ilgrant the permission necessary for lustrious individual, and, when the connecting his capital with civilisa- European crisis comes, will not be tion by the same means, and I still found lagging. think that the odds are in favour When I was at Bucharest, the of the Chinaman.
army was being prepared to support What is much more in his High- the coup d'état, and a salutary presness's line than promoting works of sure was being exercised
the this nature, is intriguing with neigh- people by the presence of a camp bouring Sclavonic nations in the containing 15,000 men just outside prosecution of his Roumanian pol- the town. Such a force of native