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hesitating, deflecting, as such minds them St Augustine was the highest invariably do, yet never once fall- of all authorities, not in regard to ing into the moral abyss of hypo- matters of fact alone, but on points crisy or false seeming. From his of dogma referring specially to the very childhood he is earnest, and question of God's foreknowledge earnest after religious truth. He and man's free-will. And then begins life a dreamer of dreams, came Newton on the Prophecies, but they all point in the same di- creating an assurance, not absolutely rection. As a schoolboy
set aside for many long years, that “I used to wish that the Arabian
the Pope was the Antichrist preNights’ were true; my imagination dicted by Daniel. Strange to say, ran on unknown influences, on magical however, it was at that very timepowers and talismans. I thought at the period when Milner and life might be a dream, or I an angel, Newton were studied and believed and all this world a deception ; my
—that a conviction took possession fellow-angels, by a playful device, concealing themselves from me, and de
of the young enthusiast that God ceiving me with the semblance of a had set him apart for a life of celimaterial world ; and I was very super- bacy. The idea never afterwards stitious, and for some time previous to departed from him. It became at my conversion (when I was fifteen) once the cause, as to a certai used constantly to cross myself on going extent it was the effect, of those into the dark."
ascetic habits to which from tender A youth who could name the age he was addicted, and which, year of his conversion, took natu- while they sharpened the imaginarally to the school of Low-Church tion, went a great way to weaken or Calvinistic divinity. Romaine, the power of controlling it. Thus and Thomas Scott of Acton Sand- Newman, as years grew upon him, ford, became his spiritual guides, lived daily more and more the life and the late Bishop Wilson of Cal- of a visionary, but of a visionary cutta his Coryphæus. It is charac- whose aims were always of the loftteristic of the man, however, that iest kind. He accepted it as a setall this while young Newman was tled truth, that his calling of God at once a reader of deistical publi- would require from him such a cations, and prone to ornament his sacrifice as celibacy involved; and copy and Latin verse-books with though it was long before he could pictures of crosses and rosaries. Al- determine what the calling really ready his mind was faltering amid was, he felt that already he had its excess of steadfastness. The become separated from the visible extremes of Evangelicalism fought world, and that the severance would against latent infidelity; indeed, grow continually more decided. the only settled principle which In due time Mr Newman entered seems to have rooted itself within Trinity College, Oxford, where, in him was a conviction that men 1821, he graduated with high are divided into two classes : the honours. He was soon afterwards elect, who, come what will, cannot elected a Fellow of Oriel, where be lost; the non-elect, on whose he formed the acquaintance of final destiny it is not for children Richard Whately, afterwards Archof time to pronounce a judgment. bishop of Dublin.
Mr Whately It was inevitable that a disciple appears to have exercised at first of Romaine and Thomas Scott a great and salutary influence over should read with interest Milner's the young enthusiast. He taught *Church History.' From Milner Mr him to take interest in things of Newman learned to become en- real life; and when nominated amoured of the Fathers, whom, how- himself, in 1825, to the headship ever, it is fair to add, both Milner in St Alban Hall, he carried Newand he studied through a medium man with him in the twofold capaof the most blinding prejudice. For city of vice-principal and tutor.
“He was the first,” so Mr Newman all at once, ceased to be, what he writes, “who taught me to weigh my had heretofore been, active in prowords, and to be cautious in my state: moting its operations in Oxford. ments. He led me to that mode of limiting and clearing my sense, in dis
His next step was to study and to cussion and in controversy, which to
embrace with all his heart the cogmy surprise has since been considered, nate doctrine of the apostolical suceven in quarters friendly to me, to cession. By-and-by Butler's ‘Analosavour of the polemics of Rome.
gy'attracted his attention, inculcatThen, as to doctrine, he was the means ing for him the doctrine that proof great additions to my belief. He
bability is the great guide of life ; gave me the Treatise on Apostolical
and introducing him to the quesPreaching,' by Sumner, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, from which tion of the logical cogency of faith I learned to give up my remaining a curious theory, on which he has Calvinism, and to receive the doctrine written much and with great eloof baptismal regeneration. In many quence. Already, however, he was other ways, too, he was of use to me
beginning to refine to such an on subjects semi - religious and semi
extent, that Whately became disscholastic.”
satisfied, almost angry, with him; Singularly plastic — open more and Blanco White told him plainly, than common men to receive im- though in perfect good-humour, pressions - Mr Newman falls in that his views were Platonic, not next with Blanco White, and learns Christian. In a word, that course of from him, as he had already in part speculation was fairly begun which learned from Dr Hawkins, the could hardly fail, with a temperaVicar of St Mary's, to anticipate ment so sensitive as his, to end erelong that attack upon the books in one of two results. Either, like and the canon of Scripture amid the Blanco White, he must find himdin of which we are now living. self eventually without faith, withHis faith in revelation is not out hope—a disbeliever whose unshaken thereby; but he listens, at belief revolted every natural feeling first somewhat against his will, to within him; or he must escape from the promulgation of the doctrine so terrible a doom by the absolute of tradition, and by-and-by accepts surrender of reason, imagination, it in the fullest sense in which will itself, to some authority which it has been received by he could accept as resistless, and leading men among the High An- because it was resistless to which glican party. It is not our prov- he could yield. ince-at all events we decline, on Mr Newman was in the very the present occasion, to act as if it depth of this bewilderment—hesiwere-to decide how much or how
tating as to the fitness of the Athanlittle of truth the teaching of that asian Creed-speaking, and even party sets forth. But the lesson writing, disdainfully of the Fathers, itself is this, as Whately equally and not altogether satisfied about with Hawkins accepted it, “ that the miracles of the early Churchthe sacred text was never intended when Hurrell Froude (the brother to teach doctrine, but only to prove of the historian) and John Keble it; and that if we would learn succeeded in establishing over him doctrine, we must have recourse to the moral ascendency which Whatethe formularies of the Church,– ly and Blanco White appear to have for instance, to the Catechisms and lost. Under the guidance of Keble, the Creeds.''
he who, in 1828, had voted against A man imbued with these senti
a petition unfavourable to the rements was little likely to feel at peal of Roman Catholic disabiliease as a member of the British ties, voted, in 1829, against the and Foreign Bible Society; and Mr re-election of Peel, because he had Newman, though restrained by sen- brought a Bill into Parliament timent from breaking off from it for the repeal of these disabilities.
Froude was Newman's junior, yet together. For it is a curious inci the sympathy between the men dent in the history which we are was very great; and Dr Pusey, and tracing, that, long after NewMr Robert Wilberforce, afterwards man's election to a fellowship of archdeacon, took likewise kindly Oriel, Keble held back from him, to him. No wonder. Apparently disliking, as Newman naïvely exshunning, certainly not seeking, presses it," the marks which I wore the intimacy of his contemporaries, about me of the Evangelical and Newman was still so gentle, so re- Liberal school.” But now, through fined, so modest, that generous the agency of Froude, this coldness spirits turned to him of their own was set aside, and schemes for the accord, and he acquired, without reawakening in England of a true apparently being aware of it, enor- Church spirit began to be consimous influence, especially with the dered. It was the beginning of young. This cannot be brought that movement which resulted byabout, however, in any man's case, and-by in what came to be called without sooner or later affecting, Tractarianism. How Newman refor good or ill, the individual who ceived the religious teaching of is the object of it. Newman felt 'The Christian Year,' we shall his own power—as tutor of his col- best show by letting him speak lege-as public examiner in the for himself :schools—as an essayist whose works
“It is not necessary, and scarcely were read, pondered, and discussed becoming, to praise a book which has -as a university preacher; and, by already become one of the classics of little and little, he assumed his the language. When the general tone proper place as the real leader of a of religious literature was so nerveless party within the Church of which
and impotent as it was at that time,
Keble struck an original note, and he was a minister.
woke up in the hearts of thousands a In 1826 there appeared a series new music—the music of a school long of 'Letters on the Church, by an unknown in England. Nor can I preEpiscopalian,' of which the author- tend to analyse, in my own instance, ship was attributed at the time to the effect of religious teaching so deep, Dr Whately, and which he never,
so pure, so beautiful. I have never, till as far as we know, subsequently now, tried to do so; yet I think i denied. It was a powerful protest intellectual truths which it brought
not wrong in saying, that the two main against the profanation of Christ's home to me, were the same two which kingdom by that double usurpation, I had learned from Butler, though recast the interference of the Church in in the creative mind of my new master. temporals, and of the State in The first of these was, what may be spirituals. The first muttering, called in a large sense of the word, the this, of that spirit of discontent trine that material phenomena are both
sacramental system ; that of the docwith the state of public opinion on
the types and the instruments of real Church questions, which events things unseen-a doctrine which emwere so speedily to swell into a per- braces not only what Anglicans as fect ferment. Newman read the well as Catholics believe about sacrabook eagerly—so did Dr Pusey-s0
ments properly so called, but also the
article of The Communion of Saints' did Keble, Froude, and Wilberforce. It seemed' to point to ground which teries of the faith. The connection of
in its fulness, and likewise the mysthey might occupy in common, and this philosophy of religion with what is to a great object, for the attain- sometimes called 'Berkeleyism'has ment of which they could, with- been mentioned above. I knew little out any sacrifice of individual of Berkeley at this time, except by name, opinion, labour in common. By
nor have I ever studied him. and-by, in the year following, came
“On the second intellectual prin. out “The Christian Year,' the pub- could say a great deal if this were the
ciple which I gained from Keble I lication of which seemed to knit place for it. It runs through very the hearts of this little group much that I have written, and has
all in one.
gained for me many hard names. But is a law of liberty. We are treated as ler teaches us that probability is the sons-not as servants ; not subjected to guide of life. The danger of this doc- a code of formal commandments, but trine, in the case of many minds, is its addressed as those who love God and tendency to destroy in them absolute wish to please Him.'' certainty, leading them to consider every The sort of mind which the preconclusion as doubtful, and resolving truth into an opinion which it is safe ceding extracts discover is one, we to obey or to profess, but not possible suspect, which Mr Kingsley is conto embrace with full internal assent. stitutionally unable to appreciate, If this were to be allowed, then the or even to understand. It is cast celebrated saying, "O God, if there be in a mould entirely different from a God, save my soul, if I have a soul,' his. Mr Kingsley's writings are would be the highest measure of devo
familiar to us, and among them tion ; but who can really pray to a Being about whose existence he is all we cannot discover å trace seriously in doubt ?
of that yearning, perhaps morbid “I considered that Mr Keble met yearning, after truth, which, in its this difficulty by ascribing the firmness very intensity, is not unapt to lead of assent which we give to religious the inquirer into error. Mr Kingsdoctrine. not to the probabilities which ley, though he be neither an Angliintroduced it, but to the living power of faith and love which accepted it. In
can nor a Low-Churchman, is as matters of religion, he seemed to say, it
content as either to abide by his own is not merely probability which makes crudities and to call them truths. us intellectually certain, but probability with him there is no misgivingas it is put to account by faith and
The whole Christian love. It is faith and love which give scheme resolves itself into a system to probability a force which it has not
of moral fitness, and humanitarianin itself. Faith and love are directed towards an object-in the vision of ism becomes faith, hope, and charity that object they live ; it is that object,
Hence he has no comreceived in faith and love, which ren- punctions in speaking harshly of ders it reasonable to take probability one who has thought more and as sufficient for internal conviction suffered more than all the school Thus the argument about probability to which Mr Kingsley belongs put in the matter of religion became an
and argument from personality, which, in
who, unless fact, is one form of the argument from
much mistake matters, has still authority.
greater suffering in store, when he “In illustration, Mr Keble used to shall awake from his present deluquote the words of the psalm-'I will sion, and discover that rest is not guide thee with mine eye. Be ye not to be found where he sought for like to horse and mule, which have no
and expected to find it. understanding; whose mouths must be
Mr Newman received Keble's held with bit and bridle lest they fall upon thee. This is the very difference, instructions and was grateful for he used to say, between slaves and them; but they did not fill up the friends or children. Friends do not void of which he was conscious. ask for literal commands; but, from The reasoning
which they their knowledge of the speaker, they 'hinged appeared to him forced understand his half-words, and from and illogical, and he endeavoured love of him they anticipate his wishes. Hence it is that, in his poem for St
to improve upon it by suggestions Bartholomew's Day, he speaks of the which he threw out in his ser'eye of God's word,' and in the note mons before the University, in his quotes Mr Miller of Worcester College, Essay on Ecclesiastical Miracles, who remarks, in his Bampton Lectures, and in his Essay on Developon the special power of Scripture as ment.. This latter, however, was having this eye, like that of a portrait, not put forth till the force of exuniformly fixed upon us, turn where we will. The view thus suggested by
ternal things had given accelerated Mr Keble is brought forward in one of energy to that change which was the earliest of the Tracts for the already begun in him. Times.' In No. 8, I say, “The Gospel peal of the Test and Corporation
VOL. XCVI.-NO. DLXXXVII,
Acts, followed as it was by the instruments with which to do His passing of the bill for Catholic
It followed, as emancipation, shook the faith of almost natural sequence, that NewNewman, and of many more, in man should be persuaded of his the political chiefs whom they own election for this work. He says had heretofore trusted. And the as much in the confessions now events which came after in rapid before us, and had clearly stated it succession—the expulsion of Charles long ere the tide swept him away, X. from the French throne - the when, first to Dr Wiseman, with death of George IV., and the whom he became acquainted at general election subsequent there. Rome, and by-and-by to others, he upon—the formation of Lord Grey's made use of this expression—“I Ministry, and the course into which have a work to do in England.” its policy ran—these things stirred
1 him, as they did many more, to the " When we took leave of Monsig, uttermost. Who could doubt that nore Wiseman,” he observes, "he had the hour was at hand, when, as far courteously expressed a wish that we as it was possible for statesmen to might make a second visit to Rome. I destroy the Church, the Church
said, with great gravity, We have a was doomed ? Had not the Prime
work to do in England. I went down
at once to Sicily, and the presentiment Minister, speaking in the House of
grew stronger. I struck into the midLords, warned the Bishops to put dle of the island. I fell ill of a fever at their house in order; and could the Leonforte. My servant thought that I expression be understood otherwise was dying, and begged for my last than the Jewish monarch under
directions. I gave them as he wished ; stood it when applied to him by
but I said, I shall not die. I repeated,
'I shall not die, for I have not sinned the prophet—“For thou shalt die,
against light-1 have not sinned against and not live” ?
light.' I never have been able to make From that hour the knot of think- out at all what I meant. ing men who had heretofore banded “I got to Castro-Giovanni, and was together for the elucidation of a laid up there for nearly three weeks.
Towards the end of purer theology considered it neces
ay I set off for sary to concentrate their powers
Palermo, taking three days for the
journey. Before starting for my home upon an object apparently more
on the morning of May 26 or 27, I sat practical, - viz., to teach their
down on my bed and began to sob bitcountrymen what the Church was terly. My servant, who had acted as —as a society distinct from a mere my nurse, asked what ailed me? I could establishment, and thus to insure only answer, 'I have a work to do in their adhesion to its discipline and England."" doctrine after it should have been separated from the State. Of that Who can doubt that one so fearknot Newman was one ; but his fully moved was under an influence ideas shot far beyond those of his which, call it what you will-genius, fellow-labourers. Retaining still enthusiasm, inspiration, madnesshis conviction-a conviction with never comes except upon minds of which the study of Milner first the highest order? That there was impressed him—that from time to something radically amiss in the
— time, and at various epochs, the constitution of the individual, no Holy Spirit has been largely poured faithful son of the Church of Engout upon the visible Church—he land can doubt; yet he must be could not doubt that, when the narrow-minded indeed who can reoccasion came again, similar out- fuse to admit that Newman's zeal pourings would take place; and was kindred at the time to that of that as it had been in former years, other and greater men who lived so it would be in his own time and died in God's cause. Would the Spirit would choose the fitting that there had been more of power