This is perfectly true : and if there mendation must be intended to were no other means of securing apply to Harrow, where that practice this knowledge of a boy's habits is used in some pupil-rooms only. and general character, so far the But even of the Rugby plan, all that connection of tutor and pupil would they can bring themselves to say in its be very desirable in every public favour is comprised in very qualified school. But every boy is, from terms, when they speak of “the adhis entrance to his leaving school, vantage which is ascribed at Rugby, the inmate of a boarding-house, of as elsewhere, to this relation ;” and which some one of the assistant- they are only “not so convinced masters is the head, with whom in that the tutorial system, if allowed many cases at Harrow and Rugby, to exist in its present highly develas well as at Eton, he takes all his. oped form, could be more satisfacprincipal meals, and under whose torily arranged, as to propose any notice he must come continually specific changes with confidence.” more or less from day to day, and There is one peculiar feature of may come, if desired, upon a much Harrow which deserves notice, as more intimate and domestic footing combining to some extent, much than as master and scholar; so that, more really than the tutorial system when he is compelled by the rules can be said to do, the advantage of of the school to take this master private with public education. This for his “private tutor” also (of is the establishment of “small” course with an additional payment), boarding-houses (strictly limited to it is really very difficult to see seven boys in each) kept by some what advantages this second rela- of the junior assistant-masters with tionship gives which ought not to the head-master's sanction. It is have been already secured to him ; quite a modern arrangement, havand which are so secured, as the ing been in operation not more than evidence shows, in schools where ten or twelve years. The inmates no private tuition exists.* And it of these smaller houses enjoy alis plain from the cross-examination most of necessity considerably more of several witnesses, that in the few domestic and home-like supervision exceptional cases where a boy's than would be either possible or tutor is other than his house-master, desirable in large houses containing he is quite as likely to apply to the forty or fifty boys. It is usual for latter in any real difficulty as to the them to take all their meals with former, and that the periodical re- the master and his family, of which, ports of conduct sentin to the parents in fact, they may be said to form a (on which some stress is laid) fall part; our pupils live with us conquite as much within the house- stantly,” says one of these masters, master's province as the tutor's." Mr Westcott,—“we have no pri

The Commissioners have proba- vacy.” Not only does this exempt bly been not a little influenced by a boy from many of the hardships Dr Temple's favourable opinion as of public-school life, but his moral to the system of private tuition as character and general habits are modified at Rugby; yet they speak more under observation and control. everywhere in their Report in very In fact, as it seems very fairly put cautious language. They had al- by Mr Westcott, they "extend the ready distinctly recommended at advantages of a public-school eduEton that the boys should “cease to cation to many boys who from deliconstrue their lessons in the pupil- cacy of organisation, physical or room before taking them up to the intellectual, would not otherwise class-master;" and the same recom- have enjoyed them.”I Mr Butler

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* See Westminster Evidence, 169.
+ See Mr Marillier's Evidence, 1324-1334. Mr Butler, 474.
I See the whole of his Evidence on the subject, 1180-1236.

.1966 they

has even himself, “in more than life of any of our public schools, it one instance, recommended boys of is quite necessary to take, as the a peculiarly delicate temperament, Commission has done, the evidence who seemed to be suffering from of schoolboys as well as schoolthe rougher system of the large masters : if these latter (as may be houses, to remove to a small one; hoped) know a great deal more and that has, beyond all question, than the boys on most points, there been attended with the happiest are some few matters on which the results.” For these advantages, boys will always be able to teach parents who can afford it, and who the masters. And the late captain of think that their sons, for any reason, Harrow, who seems to speak very require such exceptional treatment, fairly and without any foolish prejuare not unwilling to pay; and the dice, gives it as his opinion that the average yearly expenses of a boy at small houses have their necessary one of these small houses are stated disadvantages, and that the boys at £210—some £50 above the aver- who are lodged there do not get the age of the larger houses. There is, benefits of a public school at all, of course, another side of the ques- ' except with regard to the intellection. There may be some loss to tual education.” He thinks “they set against the gain. Mr Butler are a good deal led to shirk the says—and few public-school men

games ;”

“they do not so easily will gainsay him

become known to the other boys;

he will“ hardly use so strong a “I have a strong conviction that if a boy is thoroughly qualified by tempera

term as to say they are looked down ment and by health to gain the full upon, but they are not considered amount of benefit which the public. as being equal to the others; school system is capable of affording, are upon a different system altohe will gain that benefit and that brac- gether—more like the system of a ing influence most thoroughly as private tutor; they have no fagging member of a large house."

to begin with” (i.e., house-fagging And he has occasionally found it at breakfast and tea). Lord Claradvantageous for a boy to be trans- endon suggests that probably“ they ferred from a small house to a large are rather treated as muffs ?” to

which Mr Ridley, who must have “It not unfrequently happens that

had the word in his mouth all the boys who have begun their course in a

time, but shows a reticence from small house, and may be supposed to slang which we have only the weakhave been there fairly habituated to the est hope may be a characteristic of public school system, are, by the advice Harrow, replies—“Yes—something of the small-house master, removed, of that kind.' during the latter part of their career, to the freer system of a large house."

We thoroughly agree both with

Mr Butler and Mr Ridley, that the Plainly there are disadvantages "roughing it" at a large house is a

* a in too much of the master's super- valuable element of public school vision, and the hardier and more education. The Commissioners are independent elements of a boy's also unquestionably right when they character may lose in development. say in their Report that,

were the Mr Butler, indeed, has observed number of these houses permitted

no material difference in the tone to increase beyond what is required of the boys in a small house and a for the particular class for whom large house ;' and Mr Westcott, as they are supposed to be adapted, it a master of one of the former, is would become a serious evil, by naturally and honestly loth to ad- increasing the expensiveness and mit that his boys lose anything in diminishing the usefulness of the social position amongst their school- school.” Still there seems to be, fellows. But to form anything like in this “small-house" system, somea trustworthy estimate of the inner thing which may be very well



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adapted for special cases. If not that he considers the small boardabused, it appears to provide, for ing-house a means for making it boys who are somewhat below the possible for a junior master to live mark in physical health or strength at Harrow-in fact, a payment for of character, a share, if not in all, his school services.” We think it yet in some of the benefits of edu- has advantages beyond this ; but cation in a public school, without there is one more question we the risk of breaking down in the should have liked to ask so plaintraining. And that old “loco par- spoken a witness, and which we entisformula, which seems to us

wonder that some one of his exso little applicable to the relation aminers did not ask him :-Did it between tutor and pupil, becomes ever occur to him to look upon the no longer a formula when applied private-tutor arrangement in that to the footing on which a master light? stands to the half-dozen inmates of The system of promotion at Harhis house, with whom he is con- row, unlike that at Eton, is almost tinually brought into intimate as- entirely a matter of competitive sociation. We must give Mr West- merit. The removes from form to cott's examination on this point:- form depend upon a regular system “1189. (Lord Clarendon.) You con

of marks, of which half are given

for the work done during the quarsider you stand to the boys in his house) entirely in loco parentis ?-Ab- ter, and half for the examination solutely. The idea of a small house is at the end. A certain proportion that of a family. 1190. You think of the removes are, it is true, asthen, that you would be able to put signed to boys who have remained yourself in the place of a parent more in the form below for three whole effectually than any of the masters of the large houses who are de facto pri

school quarters. The intention of vate tutors to their boarders ?-It could

these charity removes (as they hardly be otherwise. My boys would

are called) is to prevent boys of feel less scruple in consulting me, and dull abilities being continually outthey have free access to me at all times. stripped in the race of promotion

1208. Have you many private by boys younger than themselves; pupils beyond your own boarders ?Yes. 1209. You have as many as forty, few of boys who would be left in

but practically the cases are very have you not?— Yes, but the number is variable. 1210. Paying how much ?

the same form for above three £15. 1211. Do those include the boys quarters; and even then the proin your house !-- Yes.

1213. motion is refused if the boy has You do not consider, with reference to been notoriously and ostentayour large and onerous duties in the

tiously idle.” school, that these are more than you can stand to in loco parentis ?-I have,

At Rugby, not even this small as a rule, only seven boys in my house.

amount of “charity” is shown to My relation to the other boys is the

the dunces, and a boy may look in same as that of any large-house master vain for any kind of promotion on to his pupils. 1214. To them your re- the ground of mere seniority. The lation is merely official; it is their evil of his being “utterly and hopestudies you look to ?- That is all I feel lessly thrown out in the fair commyself bound to do, though personal petitions of the school” is met there influence variously exercised must be connected with this. 1215. It is the by a very different remedy. “Boys, schoolboy, not the individual boy?- on failure to reach the Middle Yes; not a member of my family. School at 16, or the Sixth Form at 1216. You draw a distinction between 18, are required to leave, unless the the boys in your own house, and the head-master, after inquiry made, boys to whom you are private tutor only?-I make a distinction by con

deems it right to suspend the rule sidering my obligations to the one much

on special grounds." The limits of greater than to the other.”

indulgence appear to be fixed with

a charitable allowance for incapaMr Westcott says, a little before city, and the rule, we are assured,


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is not strictly enforced, except when They are be sent, says Dr Temple, idleness or other faults are com- “where they can receive more indibined with slowness; but it is a vidual instruction;" but could not rule quite peculiar to Rugby, and the inevitable private tutor at Rughowever beneficial it may be to the by supply something of this ? school generally, we are by no means Another feature peculiar to Rugsure that in point of justice the by amongst the schools to which Harrow system is not more fairly the Commission extends, but adopt. defensible. The Commissioners ed also at Cheltenham and Marlhave not given us their opinion borough, is the "parallel forms," upon this question. When the first introduced at Rugby by the modern plan of competitive exami- present Bishop of London when nations was first introduced into head-master, and now revived by the public service, some journalist Dr Temple.' In a very large school, asked the very pertinent question, where the subdivision into anyWhat was to become of all the thing like manageable classes or stupid men ? And some such forms makes these very numerous, question may be asked in the in- it is apt to involve what cannot be terest of the stupid boys at Rug- described more clearly than in Dr by. If a public school education is Temple's words :considered to have other good ef- “I found, when we had so many fects besides the mere intellectual forms, one under another, two bad training-such as the formation of effects the clever boys went up a manly and independent character through the forms with our system of by a free intercourse with his equals, promotion so rapidly, that no one mas

ter saw a boy of that sort for more and the social advantages which

than a quarter of a year; he never got undoubtedly follow from such in- hold of him at all, and the result was tercourse in after life—it seems

to encourage a great deal of very superrather hard to cut a boy off prema- ficial working. On the other hand, the turely from these benefits, merely slower boys got disheartened by the because he cannot keep his place sight the terrific ladder which they in the race of mind. A public that they would never get to the top.

had to climb--they had a sort of feeling school has a duty to the public as well as to itself; and so long as a A boy at Eton, for instance, has boy conforms to the school discip- to gain ten steps of promotion to line, and is guilty of no moral de- reach the Sixth from the Lower linquencies which make his removal Fourth Form. About the same would a matter of justice to his compan- be necessary at Harrow; and at ions, it seems something like a Rugby, owing to the greater numbreach of contract to say it will ber of forms, the necessary steps have nothing more to do with him. would be more than this, but for No doubt such a regulation works the "parallel” system. Four of well for the general proficiency of the larger forms are subdivided, the school ; and in a popular school not into an upper and lower, but like Rugby, into which admission into two parallels, both doing the seems almost as difficult a matter same work, both holding the same as into a popular club (Dr Temple rank in the school, but each having says he has three times as many its separate master. For all purapplications as vacancies), it is easy poses of promotion they are still enough to enforce it; but may it one large form, an equal number not press very unjustly upon indi- from each parallel being moved up vidual boys ? Dr Temple says that at each remove into the form next “the system is not well adapted” above. There are some difficulties for such cases; but what system in the working, owing to the two of teaching (except those of quack parallel masters being not always advertisers) is adapted for dunces? supposed parallel in efficiency; and and where are the dunces to go to ? this may encourage (as Mr Barry

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fears it does in some degree at ter's time, if he is to examine every Cheltenham) "invidious compari- imposition brought up to him. sons on the part of the boys," not Learning lines by heart is open to always without some foundation in more objection still on the latter fact; but, on the whole, the system ground. Extra school-as imposed seems well adapted for a very large at Harrow—which consists in setschool.*

ting a boy to write out grammar The question of punishments for an hour or two on a half-holiday presents more difficulties to a con- “ in the presence of a master”. scientious schoolmaster than that gives the victims the compensatory of promotion. Flogging-once sup- satisfaction that the master is being posed to be the universal remedy punished too. Solitary confinefor all schoolboy disorders—is now ment-used in the Lower School at reserved at nearly every school for Rugby-seems to be the most obgrave or repeated offences. At jectionable of all. It was an idea Rugby, it now rarely occurs so of Dr Arnold's, apparently quite often as eight times in the year;' at variance with his general princiat Harrow, the cases may amount ple of treatment; and we imagine to as many as sixty-"about twenty that nothing but the acknowledged in each school term.”. But at Rugby difficulty of finding a substitute caning (on the hand) is used in some for the rod could have led so judiof the lower forms, though very cious a master as the present head sparingly. The Sixth Form in both of Rugby to adopt it. Dr Arnold schools are exempt from all corporal once went so far as to propose that punishment; at Rugby the Fifth a special place should be built for enjoy the same exemption," by the the infliction of this punishment; courtesy of the school;” and Mr but the trustees of the school, much Butler, at Harrow, “rarely decides to the credit of their good sense, to flog any boy in the Fifth.” declined to sanction it. It is equally But masters and Royal Commis- to their credit that this is quoted as sioners both admit the difficulty of an exceptional instance of interferselecting a good form of punish- ence on their part with the discrement for minor offences. Setting tion of their head-master." impositions—i.e., lines to write out, Dr Temple is very sound, how

is objected to, either as ever, in his views of punishment couraging that slovenly handwrit- generally. In opposition to the ing which is one of the disgraces soft-spoken modern theorists who of our progressive age, if the mas- will hear of nothing but ter never notices the style of the formatory

processes, he underperformance, but will take, as a stands that one great object of young witness says some Harrow punishment is to punish. One masters will, anything that is or two of the Commissioners, with black and white ; or entailing the most philanthropic intentions, additional demands upon the mas- are continually inquiring into the




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* The arrangement will perhaps be best understood by the tabular view given in the Report

Sixth Form.

The Twenty.
(Parallels.) Fifth. (Parallels.)
Lower Fifth

Lower Fifth.
1st Upper Middle

1st Upper Middle. 2d Upper Middle 2d Upper Middle.

3d Upper Middle.
Lower Middle

Lower Middle.

Fourth, &c. + Mr Hefford's Evidence, 137.

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