in habits of green and gold, mounted upon sumptuous chargers, who came prancing into the centre of the military quadrangle. Other troops followed; and the whole corps saluting the balcony over the grand portals of St Peter's, from which his Holiness was to appear, arranged themselves in order.

"At this instant a bell tolled; and throughout the whole of that vast multitude, such a silence prevailed, as one would have thought it impossible to produce without a miracle. Every tongue was still, and every eye directed towards the balcony. Suddenly the majestic and venerable figure of the Pope, standing erect upon a lofty and self moving throne, appeared through clouds of incense burning around him. As he advanced, his form became more and more distinct. All behind was darkness and mystery. The most costly robes decorated his body; a gorgeous tiara glittered on his brow; while enormous plumes were seen waving on all sides of the throne. As he approached the light, with elevated front, and uplifted hands, he called aloud on the Almighty. Instantly the bare-headed multitude fell prostrate. Thousands and tens of thousands knelt before him. The military, with a crash, grounded their arms; and every soldier was seen with his face to the earth. A voice, which penetrated the remotest corner of the area, then pronounced the benediction. Extending his arms, and waving them over the people, he implored a blessing upon all the nations of the earth. Immediately the canons roared-trumpets screamed-music played-all the bells in Rome sounded-the guns from St Angelo poured forth their thunder; more distant artillery repeated the signal; and the intelligence became conveyed from fortress to fortress throughout the remotest provinces of the empire.

"In my life I never witnessed a ceremony more awfully sublime. The figure of a virtuous and venerable man, publicly appealing to Divine Providence for a blessing upon the whole human race, is surely an object of the highest reverence. Add to this, the spectacle afforded by assembled myriads silently and fervently assenting to the supplication; and I think few among mankind, whatever systems of religious persuasion may be acknowledged, would hesitate to join in the solemnity." pp. 204-208.

In the year 1796, a connexion was formed by Dr Clarke with the Paget family, which proved extremely gratifying as well as beneficial to him and his family ever since. He went to reside at Beau Desert, for the purpose of superintending the education of Lord Uxbridge's youngest son, whose health was too delicate to admit of his removal to school or college. Dr Clarke gave himself up to the care of this young man with his characteristic devotion; and when his services as tutor could no longer be of any use from the unhappy progress of his pupil's decline, he continued to watch over him for months, to tend and to nurse him like a parent, administering the medicines which could not

safely be intrusted to less skilful and more mercenary hands and remaining inseparable from his bedside until the fatal termination of the disorder. He afterwards took charge of another son of Lord Uxbridge, the Honourable Berkely Paget, with whom he made a very extensive tour in Scotland and the Western Islands; and whose generous attachment to him not only continued through life, but seemed to gather new strength from the event which is too often found to dissolve all such ties, being transferred, after his death, with the most beneficial effects to his orphan children. A considerable portion of this volume, above 100 pages, is occupied with extracts from the Journal of the Scotch Tour; but we shall not extract any part of these, the subject being extremely familiar to most readers, and late writers, particularly Dr M'Culloch, having handled the more important branches of it with far greater success.

In the spring of 1798, after spending some months most happily if not profitably, where he chiefly delighted to be, in the bosom of his family, he went to reside once more at Jesus College, where he had obtained a fellowship. His studies now assumed a more regular shape, and he associated more with his equals or superiors in knowledge than he had hitherto been used to do, the improvement which he derived was proportionably great. He was upon this occasion accompanied by Mr Cripps, a young gentleman of good fortune, whose education had been neglected, and who placed himself under his care, for the purpose of supplying this deficiency. Being a person of amiable temper and of an enterprising spirit, he soon felt the influence of Dr Clarke's kindred dispositions, and became attached to him for the rest of his life. After remaining above a year at College, they planned, in connexion with two friends, an excursion to the North of Europe, almost the only part of the Continent then open to Englishmen. Those friends were Mr Otter, and a gentleman at that time beginning to be known in the li terary world, but whose celebrity has since become great indeed, Mr Malthus. He had then published the first edition of his famous book; and being desirous of obtaining more accurate information with respect to the population of the Northern nations, he devoted to this laudable pursuit the summer vacation of 1799, with what signal success, is well known to the readers of that great work in its more improved form. After landing at Hamburgh the party proceeded to Copenhagen, and thence into Sweden, where they separated at the Wener Lake, Messrs Malthus and Otter not having time to undertake the Lapland journey, which Dr Clarke and Mr Cripps were bent upon performing. To this the intentions of the latter were at first limited, with an excur

sion to Petersburgh; and they reckoned upon being abroad. only six or seven months; but led on from place to place, and scheme succeeding scheme, they travelled for three years and a half, visiting the south of Russia, the bordering parts of Asia, Turkey, Egypt, and Palestine. The letters which he wrote on this long and varied expedition were numerous and most interesting; a selection from them forms the most valuable part, of the volume before us.

The journey along the Gulf of Bothnia to Tornea, and from thence into Lapland, appears to have been attended with great, suffering, from the insects and the changes of temperature, but with still greater from the fatigue to which Dr Clarke, somewhat unnecessarily, submitted, by travelling almost without stopping, day and night. For eighteen days they never were in bed more than four hours in eight and forty; and the consequence was, that although Mr Cripps's youth and greater strength of constitution carried him through safe, Dr Clarke hardly enjoyed a moment's health until his return to Narvez, was sometimes in considerable danger of losing his life, and probably gave a shock to his frame, which laid the foundation of the maladies he was ever after subject to. In all his sufferings, however, we find him retaining the same buoyancy of spirits, which, if it urged him into perils and discomforts, enabled him easily to live through them. The account which Linnæus gives of his tour over part of the same country (Lachesis Lapponica, edited by Sir J. E. Smith in 1811), is full of far greater hardships, because he travelled alone, very slenderly provided, and left the more beaten tracks much more frequently; he encountered, too, some dangers of a serious description. Yet, from the perils and distresses chiefly created by their own imprudence, our travellers suffered much more annoyance, and ran greater risks. The following letter is written to his mother from the extreme point of their northern progress, which his illness, with the lateness of the season, compelled him to terminate here.

"ENONTAKIS, in Lapland, on the frontiers of

Finmark, 68° 30′ 30" North Lat. In the most northern province of the Swedish Dominions. July 29, 1799.

"We have found the cottage of a priest, in this remote corner of the world, and have been snug with him a few days. Yesterday I launched a balloon, eighteen feet in height, which I had made to attract the natives. You may guess their astonishment, when they

saw it rise from the earth.

"Is it not famous to be here, within the frigid zone? More than two degrees within the arctic; and nearer to the pole, than the most northern shores of Iceland? For a long time darkness has been a

stranger to us. The sun, as yet, passes not below the horizon; but he dips his crimson visage behind a mountain to the north. This mountain we ascended, and had the satisfaction to see him make his curtsey, without setting. At midnight, the priest of this place lights his pipe, during three weeks in the year, by means of a burning glass, from the sun's rays.

"We have been driving rein-deer in sledges. Our intention is to penetrate, if possible, into Finmark, as far as the source of the Alten, which falls into the icy sea. We are now at the source of the Muonio, in Tornea Lapmark. I doubt whether any map you can procure will show you the spot. Perhaps you may find the name of the place, Enontakis. Well, what idea have you of it? Is it not a fine town?-sashed windows, and streets paved and lighted-French theatres-shops and public buildings?-I'll draw up the curtainnow see what it is!-A single hut, constructed of the trunks of firtrees, rudely hewn, with the bark half on, and placed horizontally, one above another; here and there a hole to admit light. And this inhabited by an old priest, and his young wife, and his wife's mother, and a dozen children, and half a dozen dogs, and four pigs, and John, and Cripps, and the two interpreters, and Lazarus, covered with sores, bit by mosquitoes, and as black as a negro. We sleep on rein-deer skins, which are the only beds we have had since Torneá.

"The wolves have made such dreadful havoc here, that the rich Laplanders are flying to Norway. One of them, out of a thousand rein-deer which he possessed a few years ago, has only forty remaining. Our progress from Torneâ has been entirely in canoes, or on foot, three hundred and thirty miles. There are no less than one hundred and seven cataracts between this place and Torneâ. We live on rein-deer flesh, and the arctic strawberry, which is the only vegetable that has comforted our parched lips and palates, for some time. It grows in such abundance, near all the rivers, that John gathers a pailful whenever we want them. I am making all possible exertion to preserve some for you. Wheat is almost unknown here. The food of the natives is raw fish, ditto rein-deer, and sour milk called pijma. Eggs, that great resource of travellers, we have not. Poultry are never seen. Had I but an English cabbage, I should feast like an alderman. pp. 356-358.

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There is nothing more amiable in Dr Clarke's character, as presented to us in these letters, than his warm affection for his family, and particularly his mother. This feeling appears with him to have been the most constant and predominating of all. He had left her in declining health; and the alarm which he felt on this account, rendered the separation doubly painful. Being sometimes for months without hearing from her, he seems to have been occasionally in extreme agitation. The following letter is written on his arrival at Christiana, after his Lapland expedition.

" What treasures I have found here! No less than four letters from Uckfield; three from you, and one from Anne. I received them with fear and trembling, and shook so much, I could hardly hold them, till I saw your hand-writing. Oh, blessed news; and all well! I tore open the seals, and your last date, which is August 29, tells me George is safe at home, and all well! So-I am at ease! thank God! thank God.-Do not let any body direct the letters but you; because that alarms me dreadfully. Never mind what you write, your hand-writing is all I want to see, though your letters continue, as they always were, interesting and precious. Your lace, table-cloths, &c. you may depend upon having; and I wish to buy for you a black silk cloak, lined with such fur, as you once had, on a white satin, that you may not perish in your long penance at church. It shall be handsome, and yet sober and decent; such as you like." p. 366.

The winter having hardly set in when they left Stockholm, they expected to cross the Gulf before the ice rendered it impassable. But they were unfortunate in this calculation; or rather, they were extremely imprudent in going just at the moment, between water and ice; a fortnight earlier or later would have made their journey comparatively easy and safe. They first encountered a very severe storm in an ill found boat, and were then separated by the Gulf freezing.

"When I professed my intention to finish this letter at Abo, I was not aware of my own presumption. There was so much delay in our getting a vessel, that it ended with our being detained five days at Grislehamn, by a tempest. On one of these, we were near lost in attempting to leave the place. On the morning of the sixth day, before it was light, the sailors, who belonged to Aland, and were impatient to return, called us, saying that we must go on board with all possible expedition, as the weather was more mild, and the wind somewhat favourable. After what we had experienced before, it was folly to venture again, without a certainty of tranquil seas ; but it was the height of insanity itself, to suffer them to take our heavy carriage in the same boat. Thinking it imprudent to dictate to mariners, I let them have their own way. Now, their boats are not accustomed to take large carriages; neither are they fit for it. You might as well put to sea in a saucer, and if the saucer is half filled with snow, and very shallow, you will have some idea of the Finland passage boats. The shore is so formed, you can have no knowledge of the weather, until you get clear of the land. The sky looked horribly red in the east, and as black in the west, in which quarter the wind was.

"The wind gathered additional force each instant as we left the land; but the wind was nothing compared with our arch-enemy the sea, which having been agitated many days, to the astonishment of the sailors, presented mountains of boiling water. I had once the

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