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The question, then, still remains what were these wopes, or popes, or pops, or poups upon whose unhappy heads a price was set by our rude forefathers in vestry assembled ? If I might
familiâ de Pershor oriundo;" who died aged eighty-six. The tomb was erected by his only son Edward, and may possibly be now in the church. The arms-Argt. on a chief sable, three lions' heads erased of [the first], langued gules-hazard a conjecture, I should be inclined to sugare drawn on my MS. gest, though with some diffidence, that they might have been bullfinches, which birds, under the name of mopes, or mwoaps, are still but too justly regarded in the west with the fiercest animosity, on account of their bud-destroying propensities. The curious interchange of the letters M. and P. in the nicknames Molly and Polly, Matty and Patty, Meg and Peg, rather helps my supposition. C. W. BINGHAM.
The Richardson family have so long been extinct in the county of Worcester, that we have lost all trace of their descendants: but the stately Abbey of Pershore, whose property they once held a small part indeed of its ancient magnificence is under restoration by Mr. Gilbert Scott; who, I understand, thinks its great lantern tower was erected by the same architect, or by a close imitator of him, who built the steeple of Salisbury Cathedral. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
An account of the parentage and descendants of Sir Thomas Richardson will be found in the sixth volume of Foss's Judges of England, p. 359. He was created a Serjeant-at-Law in Michaelmas Term, 1614, and King's Serjeant in February, 1625; was chosen Speaker of the Parliament that met in January, 1620-1; appointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in November, 1626; and promoted to the Presidency of the Court of King's Bench in October, 1631.
The two representations of arms in Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales are of the same person. One p. 240, in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn, of which society he was a member, put up when he was Speaker in 1620-1; and the other, in p. 238, in Lincoln's Inn Hall, when he became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
There was no other serjeant of the name during the reigns of James I. or Charles I. E. A. O. THE LAPWING (3rd S. v. 10, 77.)- Notwithstanding the lexicographers, I cannot think it likely that the same word would have been used to designate two such very dissimilar birds as the lapwing or peewit, and the hoopoe; and there can be but little doubt, I should suppose, that πo, upupa, pupu, huppe, or, as given in the Petit Apparat Royal, hupe, are only various forms of the latter name.
That the common name for the lapwing in former days was peewit would appear from what MR. MACKENZIE WALCOT calls "the Bursar's Rebus," in one of the windows of the Bursary at New College, Oxford, viz. a lapwing with the motto "Redde quod debis;" i. e. pay it, or pay weight, which has long been its traditional rendering.
In the west country I cannot find that it bears any other name than peewit; and it certainly seems to me exceedingly improbable that its name should have been altogether changed, and its former designation utterly lost, during the comparatively short period of 150 years, in the neighbouring counties of Dorset and Somerset.
We need not, I think, go to Old French for the word pope, as applied to a bird. The bullfinch is so-named in some parts of England, and he has always had a bad repute as a mischief-maker in gardens and orchards. JAYDEE.
I think that I can elucidate the mystery which at present hangs over the parochial accounts referred to by your correspondent W. W. S. Pope, Nope, Alp, Red-Hoop, and Tony-Hoop, are all provincial appellations of that beautiful and interesting, but very destructive bird, the common Bullfinch. To its mischievous propensities ornithologists, from Willughby downwards, have unfortunately been compelled to testify.
"Libentissime vescuntur primis illis gemmis ex arboribus ante folia et flores erumpentibus, præcipue florum Mali, Pyri, Persicæ, aliarumque hortensium, adeoque non leve damnum hortulanis inferunt, quibus idcirco maximè invisæ sunt et odiosæ."
Thus writes Willughby. I could give quotations to the same effect from Montagu, Selby, Yarrell, and many others; but I have cited quite enough to show "why a price should have been put on popes' or woopes' or hoops' heads by churchwardens at the commencement of the eighteenth century. W. T.
NATTER (3rd S. v. 64.)- One query begets many. Your correspondent B. L. of Colchester, while searching for the origin of the simile "Mad as a hatter," has dug up some etymological remains, which lead my thoughts in another direction. When, at Cambridge, we used to make botanical excursions under the delightful guidance of the late Professor Henslow, we used to be shown at Gamlingay a species of toad found in that neighbourhood, and known to the villagers as the natter-jack. What is natter in this word? Is it the German word for adder, or is it merely a corruption of the English word adder - as thus, an adder-jack, a natter-jack, and so called from the fact that the animal in question crawls instead of hopping like common toads? Does the word occur in any other compounds among obsolete or merely local names of reptiles?
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"Maleficio tacito llaman los magos a aquel que se dà a las Brujas, para que no sientan los tormentos que les da la justicia: este se suele dar por comida o por bevido os les imprime el Demonio en las espaldas, o les pone y absconde entre la carne y el pellejo, para que no digan la verdad, aunque mas les atormenten: como lo dizen los Inquisidores de Germania, in Malleo, part. i. quæst. 14. Y con estos hechizos ellas se estan burlando, y riendo de los tormentos: y para que estas no sientan, suele el Demonio aplicar remedios frigidissimos. Y viendo esto la gente barbara se espantan mucho, pareciendoles que es cosa milagrosa, y es cierto que no lo es; porque esto lo haze el Demonio, el quel, como tengo provado en las disputas passadas, no puede hazer milagros. Pero haze el Demonio esto, poniendo ciertos medicamentos, que quie- Conception and the calamity at Santiago would provoke a controversy
ten o entorpezean el sentido, o detergan el influxo de la facultad animal a los organos en el tal persona, que causen humores crasos, y gruesos que impieden la via, paraque los espiritus vitales no passen a las partes exteriores y assi impieden el sentimiento y dolor. Otras veces el mesmo Demonio se apodera de los sentidos exteriores por si proprio para que no sientar; otras vezes de cosas naturales en quantitad haze medicamentos que turban los humores; otros vezes detiene el Demonio los tormentos, no lleguen al sentimiento, subllevando al paciente, y aliviandole del tormento, teniendo los cordeles floxos, y aunque mucho les aprieten, es de poca importancia, que como el Demonio tiene superioridad sobre las cosas corporales (si Dios le da licencia) haze lo que quiere dellas."-P. 56, b.
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SCHLESWICK: THE DANNE-WERKE.
The war now disturbing Denmark has recalled attention to the very ancient fortification which forms a defence for Jutland from attacks on the southern frontier. Torfæus says the name is not Dana-verk "Danorum opus," but Danu-virki, "Danorum vallum," or the "Danish entrenchment;" and the narratives of various assaults which it has withstood, and of its vicissitudes of destruction and restoration, are to be found in the collections of Langebek, Wormius, and Suhm, as well as in the Saga of Olaf Tryggveson and others of the Norse chronicles.
1000; and his Saga recounts the two expeditions conducted by the Emperor Otho, to compel the Danes by force of arms to conform to Christianity. In the second of these, when Otho, A.D. 998, led an army to the Daneverk, its condition is thus described in the Saga:
"De meridie Ottho Imperator veniens, Danavirkum accessit, munimentorum istius valli defensore cum suis Hakono Jarlo. Danevirki autem ea erat constitutio, ut ab utroque mari duo sinus longius in continentem penetrent, inter intimos quorum recessus relictum terræ spatium munierant Dani, ducto ex lapide, cespite, atque arboribus vallo, extra quod fossa lata atque profunda in altum erat depressa, sed ad portas disposita castella."- Snorri Sturleson, Heimskringla, vol. i. 217. P.
Another version of the same Saga, edited by Svienbjörn Egilsson, in the collection of the historians of Iceland, published by the Royal Society of Copenhagen, gives some minuter particulars, describing the nature of the country between the Eider and the Schlei:
"Duo sinus hinc illinc in terram insinuant; inter intima vero sinuum brachia Dani aggerem altum et firmum extruerant, etc.-Centeni quique passus portam habebant cui superstructum erat castellum ad defensionem munimenti; nam pro singulis portis pons fossæ erat impositus." -Scrip. Hist. Islandiæ, t. i. 144: see also ib., t. x. 228, etc.; xi. 23.
History it is said repeats itself; and the result of the assault of the Emperor Otho has a parallel in the present war between the Prussians and the Danes: when the former, instead of persevering in the attack on the Danne-verke, turned the flank of the defenders by a movement across the Schlei, by which they succeeded in landing their troops in the rear of the great embankment. Precisely the same strategy is stated, in the Saga, to have been resorted to by the German Emperor nearly a thousand years before. Earl Hakon, who commanded on the side of the Danes, so successfully repulsed every assault of the enemy, that Otho fell back towards the south; collected his ships of war at the mouth of the Schlei, landed them to the north of the Danne-verke, and eventually achieved a victory. The catastrophe is thus narrated in the Saga of Olaf Trygg
"Cecidere ibi ex Imperatoris acie plurimi, nullo ad vallum capiendi emolumento; quare Imperator (re non tum flexo mox sæpius tentata!) inde decessit Slesvicum versum itinere, cum totam illuc classem acciverat, exercitum inde in Jutlandiam transportavit." Heimskringla, tom. i. p. 218.
There is some confusion as to the time of its original construction. Mr. Laing, in his version of the Heimskringla, says in a note at p. 390, vol. i. that it was raised by Harald Blaatand to resist the incursions of Charlemagne; and the Archæological Society of Copenhagen, in their Index to the Scripta Historica Islandorum, vol. xii. p. 118, describe it as "vallum vel munimentum illustre, in finibus Daniæ meridionalibus positum; quod a Regina Thyria filioque Haraldo cog-Laing:nomine Blâtoön extructum esse fertur."
But whatever the date of its original formation, this remarkable work was in complete preservation and efficiency in the time of the King Olaf Tryggveson, who reigned in Norway between A.D. 995 and
This battle is celebrated, in the Vellekla, in a passage thus rendered into English by Mr.
"Earl Hakon drove, by daring deeds,
J. EMERSON Tennent.
A WITTY ARCHBISHOP.
An industrious student, a deep thinker, an acute reasoner, a learned mind, a correct, and at times, elegant writer these are titles of honour which the mere outside-world, travelling in its flying railway-carriage, will gladly award to the late Archbishop of Dublin. Not so familiar are certain minor and more curious gifts, which he kept by him for his own and his friends' entertainment, which broke out at times on more public occasions. He delighted in the oddities of thought, in queer quaint distinctions; and if an object had by any possibility some strange distorted side or corner, or even point, which was undermost, he would gladly stoop down his mind to get that precise view of it, nay, would draw it in that odd light for the amusement of the company.
Thus he struck Guizot, who described him as startling and ingenious, strangely absent, familiar, confused, eccentric, amiable, and engaging, no matter what unpoliteness he might commit, or what propriety he might forget." In short, a mind with a little of the Sydney Smith's leaven, whose brilliancy lay in precisely these odd analogies. It was his recreation to take up some intellectual hobby, and make a toy of it. Just as, years ago, he was said to have taken up that strange instrument the boomerang, and was to be seen on the sands casting it from him, and watching it return. It was said, too, that at the dull intervals of a visitation, when ecclesiastical business languished, he would cut out little miniature boomerangs of card, and amuse himself by illustrating the principle of the larger toy, by shooting them from his finger.
The even, and sometimes drowsy, current of Dublin society was almost always enlivened by some little witty boomerang of his, fluttering from mouth to mouth, and from club to club. The archbishop's last was eagerly looked for. Some were indifferent, some were trifling; but it was conceded that all had an odd extravagance, which marked them as original, quaint, queer. In this respect he was the Sydney Smith of the Irish capital, with this difference that Sydney Smith's king announced that he would never make the lively Canon of St. Paul's a Bishop.
Homœopathy was a medical paradox, and was therefore welcome. Yet in this he travelled out of the realms of mere fanciful speculation, and clung to it with a stern and consistent earnestness, faithfully adhered to through his last illness. Mesmerism, too, he delighted to play with. He had, in fact, innumerable dudas, as the French call them, or hobby-horses, upon which he was continually astride.
This led him into a pleasant affectation of being to discourse de omnibus rebus, &c., and the condite or less known the subject, the
more eager was he to speak. It has been supposed that the figure of the "Dean,” in Mr. Lever's pleasant novel of Roland Cashel, was sketched from him. Indeed there can be no question but that it is an unacknowledged portrait.
"What is the difference," he asked of a young clergyman he was examining, " between a form and a ceremony? The meaning seems nearly the same; yet there is a very nice distinction." Various answers were given. "Well," he said, "it lies in this: you sit upon a form, but you stand upon ceremony."
"Morrow's Library" is the Mudie of Dublin; and the Rev. Mr. Day, a popular preacher. "How inconsistent," said the archbishop, "is the piety of certain ladies here. They go to day for a sermon, and to morrow for a novel!